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  • Handlin, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Associations between the Psychological Characteristics of the Human-Dog Relationship and Oxytocin and Cortisol Levels
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Anthrozoos. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0892-7936 .- 1753-0377. ; 25:2, s. 215-228
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present study was to explore possible correlations between dog owners' relationships with their dogs, as measured with the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS), and oxytocin and cortisol levels in both the owners and their dogs. Ten female owners of male Labrador Retrievers completed the MDORS. The scores obtained from the single items, subscales, and total score of the MDORS were calculated. Ten blood samples were collected from each dog owner and her dog during a 60-minute interaction. Blood samples were analyzed for oxytocin and cortisol by Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA) and mean values of oxytocin and cortisol were calculated in both owners and dogs. The MDORS scores obtained were correlated with basal and mean oxytocin and cortisol levels. The correlation analysis revealed some relationships between the scores of items in the MDORS that reflect the character of the dog-owner-relationship and the owners' hormone levels. For example, higher oxytocin levels in the owners were associated with greater frequency in kissing their dogs (rs = 0.864, p = 0.001). Lower cortisol levels in the owners were associated with their perception that it will be more traumatic when their dog dies (rs = -0.730, p = 0.025). The correlation analysis also revealed some relationships between the scores of items in the MDORS and the dogs' hormone levels. For example, greater frequency in owners kissing their dogs was associated with higher oxytocin levels in the dogs (rs = 0.753, p = 0.029). Six items in the subscale Perceived Costs, as well as the subscale itself, correlated significantly with the dogs' oxytocin levels (rs = 0.820, p = 0.007), that is, the lower the perceived cost, the higher the dogs' oxytocin levels. In addition, significant correlations between the oxytocin levels of the owners and the dogs were demonstrated. Possible mechanisms behind these correlations are discussed. In conclusion, the scores of some items and the subscales of the MDORS correlated with oxytocin, and to a lesser extent cortisol, levels in both the owners and dogs.
  • Handlin, Linda (författare)
  • Human-Human and Human-Animal Interaction : Some Common Physiological and Psychological Effects
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of the present thesis was to investigate hormonal and physiological effects in mothers during a breastfeeding session and in dogs and their owners in response to short-term interaction. In study one, sixty-six mothers receiving either exogenous oxytocin infusion and/or epidural analgesia (EDA) during labor or intramuscular oxytocin injection post partum were studied. Oxytocin, prolactin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels, as well as blood pressure were measured during a breastfeeding session two days after birth. In response to breastfeeding two days after birth, the mothers displayed a pulsatile release of oxytocin and increasing prolactin levels. In addition, the activity in the HPA-axis was reduced and maternal blood pressure decreased. The results also show that EDA administration in combination with oxytocin during labor resulted insignificantly lower oxytocin levels and higher cortisol levels, as well as higher bloodpressure in response to breastfeeding two days after birth, compared to EDA administration alone. In addition, oxytocin infusions dose-dependently lowered the mothers’ endogenous oxytocin levels two days after birth. In study two, ten female dog owners and their male Labrador dogs participated, together with ten controls. Their levels of oxytocin, cortisol and insulin, as well as their heart rate, were measured. The connection between the quality of the dogowner relationship and hormone levels was also explored. Short-term interaction between dogs and their owners resulted in oxytocin release in both species and their cortisol levels and heart rate were also affected. Oxytocin levels and positive attitudes regarding the dog-owner relationship were positively correlated. In conclusion, both human-human and human-animal interactions induce oxytocin release and promote oxytocin mediated effects, such as decreasing cortisol levels and blood pressure. In addition, social interaction and oxytocin levels arepositively related.
  • Handlin, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Short-Term Interaction between Dogs and Their Owners : Effects on Oxytocin, Cortisol, Insulin and Heart Rate-An Exploratory Study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Anthrozoos. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0892-7936 .- 1753-0377. ; 24:3, s. 301-315
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this exploratory study was to determine heart rate and the levels of oxytocin, cortisol, and insulin in dogs and their owners in response to a short-term interaction. In addition, the dogs' behavior was studied. The owners' responses were compared with those obtained from a control group. Ten female volunteers and their own male Labrador dogs participated in an experiment during which the owner stroked, petted, and talked with her dog during the first 3 minutes. Blood samples were collected from both dog and owner before (0) and at 1, 3, 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the start of the interaction. Blood samples were analyzed by EIA. Heart rate was monitored telemetrically. The data were analyzed using linear mixed models and paired t-tests. The dogs' oxytocin levels were significantly increased 3 minutes after the start of the interaction (p = 0.027). Cortisol levels were significantly increased after 15 and 30 minutes (p = 0.004 and p = 0.022, respectively), and heart rate was significantly decreased after 55 minutes (p = 0.008). The dogs displayed normal behaviors during the experiment. The owners' oxylocin levels peaked between 1 and 5 minutes after interaction (p = 0.026). No such effect was seen in the controls. Cortisol levels displayed a significant decrease at 15 or 30 minutes in both owners and controls, and insulin levels did so at 60 minutes (p = 0.030, p = 0.002 and p = 0.002, p < 0.0001, respectively). Heart rate decreased significantly in the owners at 55 and 60 minutes (p = 0.0008) but not in the controls. In conclusion, short-term sensory interaction between dogs and their owners influences hormonal levels and heart rate. However, further studies need to be performed in order to better understand the effects of interaction between dogs and their owners.
  • Löfgren, Magnus, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Chronic subordination stress augments combined progesterone and estradiol withdrawal behavior
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Exposure to stress is a risk factor for developing pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS) and pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), and stress enhances the anxiogenic effect of female sex steroids in animals. This study examines the interaction between chronic subordination stress and withdrawal from progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) (PEWD) in producing behaviors analogous to anxiety and irritability in rats. At the start of the experiment, male Wistar rats were housed in triads consisting of one younger rat (~35 days) and two older rats (~50 days). The housing condition was aimed at producing chronic subordination stress in the younger animals. Chronic subordination stress was assessed by the elevated plus maze (EPM) and by corticosterone (CORT) analysis. A triad of three 35-day-old rats was used as age control. Social rank within the triads was determined using a food competition test (FCT) and the tube test (TT). The younger rats (subordinate) and the dominant rats were assigned to 10 days of treatment with 5 mg/kg progesterone combined with 10 µg/kg 17β estradiol. Twenty-four hours after the last injection, the subordinate and dominant animals were tested in the open-field test (OFT) and in the intruder test (IT). The IT consists of a 10-minute exposure to 3 unfamiliar rats. Chronic subordination stress reduced EPM open-arm time and altered the CORT response. It also made the subordinate animals more vulnerable to PEWD. The effects were increased locomotion in the OFT, increased defensive burying, and increased social anxiety in the intruder test (IT). Dominant animals did not react to PEWD. Thus, chronic subordination stress augments PEWD.
  • Alonso, Silvia, et al. (författare)
  • Where literature is scarce : observations and lessons learnt from four systematic reviews of zoonoses in African countries.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Animal Health Research Reviews. - : Cambridge University Press (CUP): STM Journals. - 1466-2523 .- 1475-2654. ; 17:1, s. 28-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The success of a systematic review depends on the availability, accessibility and quality of literature related to the review question. This paper presents the literature found in four systematic reviews conducted for a selection of zoonotic hazards in four livestock value chains in Africa, as well as setting out the challenges in conducting the reviews. The protocol was designed following international standards, and addressed four questions around prevalence, risk factors, control options and impact of various hazards and populations. Searches were conducted in four online databases. Articles were screened for relevance, and quality was assessed before data extraction. Literature on zoonotic hazards was in general scarce and access to full articles was limited. Overall, 25-40% of papers were considered poor quality. The diversity of approaches and designs in the studies compromised the ability to generate summarized estimates. We found that the emphasis of veterinary research has been on livestock problems rather than public health issues, although this seems to be shifting in the last decade; we also found there are limited studies on impact and control. While increasing literature is being published around zoonoses in Africa, this is still inadequate to appropriately inform policy and guide research efforts.
  • Amundin, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017. - 9782956202905 ; , s. 31-32
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.
  • Anyango, Gladys, et al. (författare)
  • A survey of aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw milk produced in urban and peri-urban areas of Kisumu County, Kenya
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 2000-8686 .- 2000-8686. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACTBackground: Food safety is of increasing global concern, and a OneHealth issue requiring attention of many disciplines. Aflatoxins are toxins produced by fungi and found in foods and feeds, and exposure causes negative health effects in humans and animals. When lactating animals consume aflatoxin B1, the metabolite (AFM1) is transferred to milk.Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to determine characteristics of smallholder dairy farming in urban and peri-urban areas of Kisumu and quantify AFM1 in milk. Data was collected from 97 randomly selected dairy farms on farming practices, milk production, and awareness about aflatoxins. Collected milk samples were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for AFM1.Results: Average milk produced was 13 liters per day per household and mainly used for household consumption and sold to neighbours. Farmers mainly fed cows on forage and concentrates (62.9%). Levels of AFM1 ranged from below the detection limit to 151 ppt, with a mean of 29.67 p...
  • Bett, Bernard, et al. (författare)
  • Climate Change and Infectious Livestock Diseases : The Case of Rift Valley Fever and Tick-Borne Diseases
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Climate-Smart Agriculture Papers. - Cham : Springer. - 9783319927978 - 9783319927985 ; , s. 29-37
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate change influences the occurrence and transmission of a wide range of livestock diseases through multiple pathways. Diseases caused by pathogens that spent part of their life cycle outside the host (e.g. in vectors or the environment) are more sensitive in this regard, compared to those caused by obligate pathogens. In this chapter, we use two well-studied vector-borne diseases—Rift Valley fever (RVF) and tick-borne diseases (TBDs)—as case studies to describe direct pathways through which climate change influences infectious disease-risk in East and southern Africa. The first case study demonstrates that changes in the distribution and frequency of above-normal precipitation increases the frequency of RVF epidemics. The second case study suggests that an increase in temperature would cause shifts in the spatial distribution of TBDs, with cooler and wetter areas expected to experience heightened risk with climate change. These diseases already cause severe losses in agricultural productivity, food security and socio-economic development wherever they occur, and an increase in their incidence or geographical coverage would intensify these losses. We further illustrate some of the control measures that can be used to manage these diseases and recommend that more research should be done to better understand the impacts of climate change on livestock diseases as well as on the effectiveness of the available intervention measures.
  • Björkman, Ingeborg, et al. (författare)
  • Animal Production With Restrictive Use of Antibiotics to Contain Antimicrobial Resistance in Sweden : A Qualitative Study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Veterinary Science. - : Frontiers Media. - 2297-1769. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Antibacterial resistance (ABR), is a growing global threat to human and animal health. Efforts to contain ABR are urgently needed. This qualitative interview study explored perceptions of work to contain ABR among stakeholders in food animal production in Sweden, with focus on broiler production. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with a strategic sample of 13 stakeholders in different parts of production, from professionals at policy level, veterinary authorities, to poultry farmers and poultry veterinarians. Conventional inductive content analysis was used for data analysis. A latent theme, "Working in unison," emerged, based on the consistency expressed by the informants when they discussed ABR, use of antibiotics, and animal health management. This theme was built on four domains representing the content of the interviews: Knowledge and engagement; Cooperation; Animal health concept; and Development in balance with economic prerequisites. According to the informants, ABR has not been an isolated issue in Sweden but has been included in a tradition of animal health and welfare, and actions have been driven by the industry or by government regulations. Veterinarians described how they worked closely with farmers. Farmers felt involved in the development of animal health management methods. The One Health concept was well-known among stakeholders at national level but not at farm level. Close cooperation between stakeholders seems to facilitate development of animal production with low use of antibiotics.
  • Björnström, Agnes, et al. (författare)
  • Sindbis virus neutralising antibodies detected in Swedish horses
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: One Health. - 2352-7714. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A number of viruses transmitted by mosquitoes are well known to cause disease in both humans and horses, ranging from mild fevers to mortal neurological disease. A recently discovered connection between the alphavirus Sindbis virus (SINV) and neurological disease in horses in South Africa initiated this serological study in northern Europe, where the same genotype of SINV (SINV-I) is also highly endemic. We tested 171 serum samples, originally obtained from horses for other reasons from April to October 2019, for presence of SINV neutralising antibodies using a plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT). The serum from six horses reduced the plaque count more than 80%, and two out of these reduced the plaque count more than 90%. These horses were sampled in six different regions of Sweden, and included individuals sampled from April to August. This study shows that horses in Sweden have become infected with SINV and developed neutralising antibodies. Potential connections between infection and development of disease are important questions for future studies.
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