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  • Östensson, Karin (författare)
  • Från manligt till kvinnligt
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Veterinär - yrke i förvandling. - 978-91-633-7442-5
  • Bokkapitel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
  • Östensson, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Sveriges Veterinärförbund 150 år
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Veterinär - yrke i förvandling. - 978-91-633-7442-5
  • Bokkapitel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
  • Ley, Charles J., et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of osteochondral sample collection guided by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for early detection of osteoarthritis in centrodistal joints of young Icelandic horses
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Veterinary Research. - American Veterinary Medical Association. - 0002-9645. ; 74:6, s. 874-887
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective-To evaluate the use of CT and MRI for guidance of osteochondral sample collection for histologic detection of early osteoarthritic lesions in centrodistal (distal intertarsal) joints of horses. Sample-Right tarsal joints from the cadavers of 24 Icelandic horses aged 29 to 31 months. Procedures-CT and MRI were used to evaluate the extent of suspected osteoarthritic changes in centrodistal joints, which were graded with a semiquantitative system. The anatomic regions with the highest grade of change were identified, and osteochondral samples were obtained from these regions. Samples were also obtained from the same centrodistal joints at predetermined sites. Histologic examination of all samples was performed, with samples classified as negative or positive for osteoarthritis, and results were compared between sample collection methods. Results-Histologic examination revealed osteoarthritic lesions in 29% (7/24) of centrodistal joints with the predetermined method and in 63% (15/24) with the image-guided method. Significant associations were identified between histologic osteoarthritis detection and the summed image-guided sample collection site image grades, central osteophytes, articular cartilage thickness abnormalities, grade 2 articular mineralization front defects, and grade 2 marginal osteophytes. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-CT and MRI aided the detection of focal changes suggestive of early-stage osteoarthritis in the centrodistal joints of equine cadavers and may be useful for detection of similar disease in live horses. The first morphological changes of centrodistal joint osteoarthritis were suspected to be in the articular cartilage and the articular mineralization front regions. (Am J Vet Res 2013;74:874-887)
  • Berg, Charlotte, et al. (författare)
  • Scientific Opinion on the assessment of studies on the use of carbon dioxide for stunning rabbits
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: EFSA Journal. - 1831-4732. ; 13:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW Panel) was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on two studies concerned with the use of carbon dioxide for stunning rabbits. The European Commission had received from the Spanish authorities a report of a study entitled ‘Carbon dioxide stunning of rabbits' and another study entitled ‘Stunning of rabbits with carbon dioxide', provided as a complement to the first study. The latter was undertaken in a commercial abattoir where a commercial carbon dioxide stunner was installed. The results of electrocardiography and animal-based measures (nasal discomfort and vocalisation) produced in the experimental slaughterhouse study clearly indicated that the rabbits were subjected to pain and suffering prior to the loss of consciousness. The data presented do not describe stable, controlled or repeatable experimental conditions. The statistical tests used to analyse the data were not appropriate. The study in the commercial abattoir was not based on sound scientific conclusions resulting from the experimental slaughterhouse study. For all of these reasons, the submitted studies did not meet the minimum criteria for eligibility in the EFSA guidance on the assessment criteria for studies evaluating the effectiveness of stunning interventions. Therefore, they were not further assessed.
  • Berg, Charlotte, et al. (författare)
  • Scientific Opinion on the scientific assessment of studies on electrical parameters for stunning of small ruminants (ovine and caprine species)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: EFSA Journal. - 1831-4732. ; 13:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW Panel) was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on three studies evaluating electrical parameters for the stunning of lambs and kid goats. The Commission received the studies from the Spanish authorities. One study was in the form of a manuscript entitled ‘Electrical stunning effectiveness with current levels lower than 1 A in lambs and kid goats'. The second study consisted of a summary in English entitled ‘Effect of the electrical stunning with inferior intensities of current to 1 Ampere on the carcass quality in Pascuales lambs', and the third study consisted of a summary in English entitled ‘Effect of electrical stunning with inferior intensities to 1 Ampere on the induction to the unconsciousness in lambs'. Reported outcomes for different animal categories were inconsistent and contradictory, indicating a need to validate if the stunning equipment delivered the intended current levels to the animals. The head-only stunning and slaughter intervention failed to achieve and/or maintain unconsciousness during bleeding and the head-to-body stunning and slaughter intervention failed to achieve cardiac ventricular fibrillation in all of the animals, as evidenced by the presence of corneal reflex and rhythmic breathing. No evidence of absence of pain and suffering is presented in the studies. The submitted studies are not considered adequate for a full welfare assessment of the alternative stunning method because they do not fulfil the eligibility criteria and the reporting quality criteria defined in the EFSA guidance on the assessment criteria for studies evaluating the effectiveness of stunning interventions or the EFSA opinion on monitoring welfare at slaughter of small ruminants.
  • Eifan, Saleh, et al. (författare)
  • Non-Structural Proteins of Arthropod-Borne Bunyaviruses: Roles and Functions
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Viruses. - 1999-4915. ; 5:10, s. 2447-2468
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Viruses within the Bunyaviridae family are tri-segmented, negative-stranded RNA viruses. The family includes several emerging and re-emerging viruses of humans, animals and plants, such as Rift Valley fever virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, La Crosse virus, Schmallenberg virus and tomato spotted wilt virus. Many bunyaviruses are arthropod-borne, so-called arboviruses. Depending on the genus, bunyaviruses encode, in addition to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the different structural proteins, one or several non-structural proteins. These non-structural proteins are not always essential for virus growth and replication but can play an important role in viral pathogenesis through their interaction with the host innate immune system. In this review, we will summarize current knowledge and understanding of insect-borne bunyavirus non-structural protein function(s) in vertebrate, plant and arthropod.
  • Esteves, Alexandra, et al. (författare)
  • Freemartinism in cattle
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Ruminants: Anatomy, behavior and diseases. - 978-1-62081-064-4
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Freemartinism is one of the most commonly found intersex conditions in cattle, although it may also occur in small ruminants. The freemartin phenotype appears in a dizygotic twin pregnancy where one twin is a male and the other is a female. Due to precocious anastomoses between the placental vascular systems of the two fetuses, masculinising molecules reach the female twin and disrupt the normal sexual differentiation, whilst in the male the effects of this association are usually minimal. In cattle, this condition is observed in 90 to 97% of twin pregnancies. A freemartin is, by definition, a genetically female fetus masculinised in the presence of a male co-twin, giving rise to a sterile heifer. Genital tract defects with varying severity can be observed in freemartin animals, which often present suppression and disorganization of the ovary, originating a rudimentary or a testis-like gonad depleted of germ cells. The uterine horns may be hypoplastic or instead may be reduced to a cord-like structure suspended in the broad ligament. Anatomic continuity between the uterus and the vagina is frequently absent, and the existence of rudimentary vesicular glands is typical. The external genitalia commonly presents enlarged clitoris, small vulva and a prominent, male-like tuft of hair. As a rule, heifers born twin to a bull have to be considered sterile and should be identified as early as possible to cull them from replacement stock. Despite its limitations, freemartinism is currently diagnosed by physical examination, as karyotyping or blood typing is often considered an unnecessary expense. In cattle, twinning trend has a genetic background that has been associated to hormonal regulation in favor of double ovulations. However, the genetic determinant on the basis of twinning seems to have small importance when compared to environmental or management-associated factors, particularly in dairy cows. In fact, in dairy animals, in particular in high milk producing cows, it has long been proven that the increase of twin calvings occurs due to the hormonal and metabolic disturbances in the energy balance early in the post-partum period. With increased incidence of twin births in cow it is reasonably expectable a small increase in the occurrence of freemartins at the farm levels. In this paper it is the intent to describe the gross and histopathological findings of freemartinism in cattle, using data gathered from a study at an abattoir (17 cases) and from 3 cases diagnosed in living animals, supported by a review of the pathophysiology of the process, and to discuss the available methods for identification of freemartin animals at farm level.
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