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Sökning: hsv:(LANTBRUKSVETENSKAPER) hsv:(Veterinärmedicin) hsv:(Patobiologi)

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  • Östensson, Karin (författare)
  • Från manligt till kvinnligt
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Veterinär - yrke i förvandling. - 978-91-633-7442-5
  • Bokkapitel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
  • Östensson, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Sveriges Veterinärförbund 150 år
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Veterinär - yrke i förvandling. - 978-91-633-7442-5
  • Bokkapitel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
  • Berg, Charlotte, et al. (författare)
  • Scientific Opinion on the assessment of studies on the use of carbon dioxide for stunning rabbits
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: EFSA Journal. - 1831-4732. ; 13:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW Panel) was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on two studies concerned with the use of carbon dioxide for stunning rabbits. The European Commission had received from the Spanish authorities a report of a study entitled ‘Carbon dioxide stunning of rabbits' and another study entitled ‘Stunning of rabbits with carbon dioxide', provided as a complement to the first study. The latter was undertaken in a commercial abattoir where a commercial carbon dioxide stunner was installed. The results of electrocardiography and animal-based measures (nasal discomfort and vocalisation) produced in the experimental slaughterhouse study clearly indicated that the rabbits were subjected to pain and suffering prior to the loss of consciousness. The data presented do not describe stable, controlled or repeatable experimental conditions. The statistical tests used to analyse the data were not appropriate. The study in the commercial abattoir was not based on sound scientific conclusions resulting from the experimental slaughterhouse study. For all of these reasons, the submitted studies did not meet the minimum criteria for eligibility in the EFSA guidance on the assessment criteria for studies evaluating the effectiveness of stunning interventions. Therefore, they were not further assessed.
  • Berg, Charlotte, et al. (författare)
  • Scientific Opinion on the scientific assessment of studies on electrical parameters for stunning of small ruminants (ovine and caprine species)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: EFSA Journal. - 1831-4732. ; 13:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW Panel) was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on three studies evaluating electrical parameters for the stunning of lambs and kid goats. The Commission received the studies from the Spanish authorities. One study was in the form of a manuscript entitled ‘Electrical stunning effectiveness with current levels lower than 1 A in lambs and kid goats'. The second study consisted of a summary in English entitled ‘Effect of the electrical stunning with inferior intensities of current to 1 Ampere on the carcass quality in Pascuales lambs', and the third study consisted of a summary in English entitled ‘Effect of electrical stunning with inferior intensities to 1 Ampere on the induction to the unconsciousness in lambs'. Reported outcomes for different animal categories were inconsistent and contradictory, indicating a need to validate if the stunning equipment delivered the intended current levels to the animals. The head-only stunning and slaughter intervention failed to achieve and/or maintain unconsciousness during bleeding and the head-to-body stunning and slaughter intervention failed to achieve cardiac ventricular fibrillation in all of the animals, as evidenced by the presence of corneal reflex and rhythmic breathing. No evidence of absence of pain and suffering is presented in the studies. The submitted studies are not considered adequate for a full welfare assessment of the alternative stunning method because they do not fulfil the eligibility criteria and the reporting quality criteria defined in the EFSA guidance on the assessment criteria for studies evaluating the effectiveness of stunning interventions or the EFSA opinion on monitoring welfare at slaughter of small ruminants.
  • Eifan, Saleh, et al. (författare)
  • Non-Structural Proteins of Arthropod-Borne Bunyaviruses: Roles and Functions
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Viruses. - 1999-4915. ; 5:10, s. 2447-2468
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Viruses within the Bunyaviridae family are tri-segmented, negative-stranded RNA viruses. The family includes several emerging and re-emerging viruses of humans, animals and plants, such as Rift Valley fever virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, La Crosse virus, Schmallenberg virus and tomato spotted wilt virus. Many bunyaviruses are arthropod-borne, so-called arboviruses. Depending on the genus, bunyaviruses encode, in addition to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the different structural proteins, one or several non-structural proteins. These non-structural proteins are not always essential for virus growth and replication but can play an important role in viral pathogenesis through their interaction with the host innate immune system. In this review, we will summarize current knowledge and understanding of insect-borne bunyavirus non-structural protein function(s) in vertebrate, plant and arthropod.
  • Esteves, Alexandra, et al. (författare)
  • Freemartinism in cattle
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Ruminants: Anatomy, behavior and diseases. - 978-1-62081-064-4
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Freemartinism is one of the most commonly found intersex conditions in cattle, although it may also occur in small ruminants. The freemartin phenotype appears in a dizygotic twin pregnancy where one twin is a male and the other is a female. Due to precocious anastomoses between the placental vascular systems of the two fetuses, masculinising molecules reach the female twin and disrupt the normal sexual differentiation, whilst in the male the effects of this association are usually minimal. In cattle, this condition is observed in 90 to 97% of twin pregnancies. A freemartin is, by definition, a genetically female fetus masculinised in the presence of a male co-twin, giving rise to a sterile heifer. Genital tract defects with varying severity can be observed in freemartin animals, which often present suppression and disorganization of the ovary, originating a rudimentary or a testis-like gonad depleted of germ cells. The uterine horns may be hypoplastic or instead may be reduced to a cord-like structure suspended in the broad ligament. Anatomic continuity between the uterus and the vagina is frequently absent, and the existence of rudimentary vesicular glands is typical. The external genitalia commonly presents enlarged clitoris, small vulva and a prominent, male-like tuft of hair. As a rule, heifers born twin to a bull have to be considered sterile and should be identified as early as possible to cull them from replacement stock. Despite its limitations, freemartinism is currently diagnosed by physical examination, as karyotyping or blood typing is often considered an unnecessary expense. In cattle, twinning trend has a genetic background that has been associated to hormonal regulation in favor of double ovulations. However, the genetic determinant on the basis of twinning seems to have small importance when compared to environmental or management-associated factors, particularly in dairy cows. In fact, in dairy animals, in particular in high milk producing cows, it has long been proven that the increase of twin calvings occurs due to the hormonal and metabolic disturbances in the energy balance early in the post-partum period. With increased incidence of twin births in cow it is reasonably expectable a small increase in the occurrence of freemartins at the farm levels. In this paper it is the intent to describe the gross and histopathological findings of freemartinism in cattle, using data gathered from a study at an abattoir (17 cases) and from 3 cases diagnosed in living animals, supported by a review of the pathophysiology of the process, and to discuss the available methods for identification of freemartin animals at farm level.
  • Jitpean, Supranee, et al. (författare)
  • Increased concentrations of Serum amyloid A in dogs with sepsis caused by pyometra
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Veterinary research. - 1746-6148. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Sepsis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is crucial for survival. Pyometra is one of the most common diseases in intact female dogs. The disease often leads to sepsis (systemic inflammatory response syndrome, SIRS, caused by infection). Diagnostic markers for detecting sepsis are gaining increasing interest in veterinary medicine. Acute phase proteins (APPs) such as C-reactive protein (CRP) are useful for detecting systemic inflammation in dogs. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is another major APP in dogs that is not yet as widely used. Albumin is regarded as a negative APP and has earlier been evaluated for prediction of prognosis in septic dogs. The aim of the present study was to determine SAA, CRP and albumin concentrations in dogs with sepsis and pyometra and to evaluate whether these inflammatory markers are associated with length of postoperative hospitalization.Results: Thirty-one surgically treated bitches with pyometra were included, whereof 23 septic (SIRS-positive) and eight non-septic (SIRS-negative). Albumin concentrations were analyzed by routine automated methods. SAA and CRP analyses were performed with previously validated commercially available assays (ELISA and immunoturbidimetric). Mean (+/- SE) serum concentrations of SAA were significantly higher in septic (130.8 +/- 8.0 mg/L) compared to non-septic bitches (88.5 +/- 12.5 mg/L). Using a cut-off value for SAA of 109.07 mg/L (n = 31 bitches), the sensitivity and specificity for detecting sepsis was 74% and 50%, respectively. Serum albumin concentrations were not significantly different in septic compared to non-septic bitches (mean +/- SE, 25 +/- 1 g/L and 26 +/- 1 g/L, respectively). CRP concentrations were also not significantly different in septic (mean +/- SE 225.6 +/- 16.0 mg/L) compared to non-septic bitches (mean +/- SE, 176.0 +/- 27.1 mg/L). None of these inflammatory markers were associated with the outcome as measured by length of hospitalization.Conclusions: SAA concentrations were increased in dogs with sepsis induced by pyometra and may be useful as an adjunctive diagnostic marker for sepsis. To evaluate the full potential of SAA as a marker for sepsis also in other diseases, further studies are warranted.
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