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Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP)

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1.
  • Berg, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Characterisation of Cancer Support and Rehabilitation Programmes: A Swedish Multiple Case Study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The open nursing journal. - 1874-4346. ; 8, s. 1-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cancer support and rehabilitation are suggested to be an integral part of cancer care strategies. This study focuses on comparativeness of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes. The aim of this study was to analyse available cancer support and rehabilitation programmes in Sweden presented as complementary to cancer rehabilitation at cancer clinics. A multiple case study design was chosen in order to inquire the small number of existing supportive and rehabilitative cancer programmes. Based on the structures, processes and outcomes of the nine included programmes, three types of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes were identified: multimodal rehabilitation, comprehensive cancer support and art therapy. Cancer support and rehabilitation programmes offer a variety of activities and therapies which are highly valuable and relevant for people with cancer. The typology of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes and comparability between programmes need further inquiry.
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3.
  • Eilertsen, Mary-Elizabeth Bradley, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of Social Support on Bereaved Siblings' Anxiety: A Nationwide Follow-Up
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing. - 1043-4542. ; 30:6, s. 301-310
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose:To assess adolescent and young adult siblings' perception of social support prior to and following the loss of their brother or sister to cancer, 2 to 9 years earlier, and their anxiety at follow-up. Method: In 2009, 174 (73%) bereaved siblings (12-25 years) participated in a nationwide, long-term follow-up study in Sweden using an anonymous study-specific questionnaire. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to measure self-assessed anxiety. Results: Siblings had a higher risk of anxiety if they perceived their need for social support was unsatisfied during their brother or sisters' last month before death, relative risk (RR) = 3.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-7.3); time after death, RR = 2.9 (95% CI = 1.5-5.6); and at follow-up, RR = 3.8 (95% CI = 2.0-7.2). Furthermore, a higher risk for anxiety was shown for siblings if they did not perceive that their parents and neighbors cared for them after their brother or sisters' death, RR = 2.7 (95% CI = 1.3-5.5), RR = 5.4 (95% CI = 1.3-21.9), respectively. Conclusion: Bereaved siblings had a greater probability to report self-assessed anxiety if they perceived that their need for social support was not satisfied prior to and following death. Information from both nurses and other health care professionals to families about the impact of social support may contribute to lessen the siblings' risk of anxiety.
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4.
  • El Malla, Hanan, et al. (författare)
  • Adherence to medication: A nation-wide study from the Children's Cancer Hospital, Egypt
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: World Journal of Psychiatry. - 2220-3206. ; 2:22, s. 25-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To investigate adherence to medical regimen and predictors for non-adherence among children with cancer in Egypt.METHODS: We administered two study specific questionnaires to 304 parents of children diagnosed with cancer at the Children's Cancer Hospital in Cairo, Egypt, one before the first chemotherapy treatment and the other before the third. The questionnaires were translated to colloquial Egyptian Arabic, and due, to the high illiteracy level in Egypt an interviewer read the questions in Arabic to each parent and registered the answers. Both questionnaires consisted of almost 90 questions each. In addition, a Case Report Form was filled in from the child's medical journal. The study period consisted of 7 mo (February until September 2008) and we had a participation rate of 97%. Descriptive statistics are presented and Fisher's exact test was used to check for possible differences between the adherent and non-adherent groups. A P-value below 0.05 was considered significant. Software used was SAS version 9.3 for Windows (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, United States).RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty-one (90%) parents answered the second questionnaire, regarding their child's adherence behaviour. Approximately two thirds of the children admitted to their third chemotherapy treatment had received medical recommendations upon discharge from the first or second chemotherapy treatment (181/281, 64%). Sixty-eight percent (123/181) of the parents who were given medical recommendations reported that their child did not follow the recommendations. Two main predictors were found for non-adherence: child resistance (111/123, 90%) and inadequate information (100/123, 81%). In the adherent group, 20% of the parents (n = 12/58) reported trust in their child's doctor while 14 percent 8/58 reported trust in the other health-care professionals. Corresponding numbers for the non-adherent group are 8/123 (7%) for both their child's doctor and other health-care professionals. Almost all of the parents expressed a lack of optimism towards the treatment (116/121, 96%), yet they reported an intention to continue with the treatment for two main reasons, for the sake of their child's life (70%) (P = 0.005) and worry that their child would die if they discontinued the treatment (81%) (P < 0.0001).CONCLUSION: Non-adherence to medical regimen is common among children diagnosed with cancer in Egypt, the main reasons being child resistance and inadequate information.
5.
  • El Malla, Hanan, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer disclosure-account from a pediatric oncology ward in Egypt.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Psycho-Oncology. - 1057-9249. ; 26:5, s. 679-685
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Informing the child about his/her diagnosis and treatment plan is essential; research has shown that it is related to the patient's quality of life and adherence to medication.METHODS: For 7 months during 2008 (February to September), 2 study-specific questionnaires were constructed and administered to 304 parents of children diagnosed with cancer at the Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt.RESULTS: Among the 313 eligible parents of children diagnosed with cancer, 304 (97%) answered the first questionnaire and 281 (92%) answered the second questionnaire. We found that nearly three-quarters (72%) of the parents had their child's cancer diagnosis communicated by the physician. Among the 72%, the rate of the children present with the parent or parents during the disease disclosure conversation was 39% (n = 85/219). The majority of the children were in the age group 5-18 years (55%).CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that cancer disclosure at the Children's Cancer Hospital is to a certain degree common; yet even when disclosure does take place, it is mainly in the absence of the child. Moreover, the information provided during the conversation may not be fully comprehended by the parent or the child because of the physician's misleading use of terms when disclosing the disease. Therefore, better practice should be developed for disease disclosure, and proper communication should be established between the patients and the provider; patient autonomy should also have an influence in the clinical practice.
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6.
  • Elden, Helen, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Demanding and challenging: Men's experiences of living with a pregnant woman with pelvic girdle pain: An interview study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Clinical Nursing Studies. - 2324-7940. ; 2:4, s. 17-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a universally disabling condition affecting approximately 50% of pregnant women. Qualitative research describes how PGP leads to struggle in women’s daily lives, makes them question and doubt their roles and identities as professionals and mothers, and test their (marital) relationships. The purpose of this study was to describe men’s experiences of living with a pregnant woman with PGP. Methods: Participants were men whose pregnant partners participated in a project containing both qualitative and quantitative studies in 2009 to 2011. Interviews were conducted in person (n=18) or by telephone (n=8), lasting approximately 20-50 minutes. Sixteen men were interviewed during their wive’s pregnancies (M age = 30 years), eight men were re-interviewed within 12 months postpartum and two men were interviewed only postpartum (26 interviews). Results: Three major categories emerged: having no knowledge of PGP, a period of emotional and physical strain, and merging. Pregnancy in a woman with PGP caused men to alter focus from themselves to their partners and family. They expressed worry, powerlessness, inadequacy, and a need for support. They had to adapt and cope, both demanding and challenging. However, they stressed that relationships with their older children improved, and that they and their partners had succeeded in becoming a team. Conclusions: The findings indicated a need for greater focus from midwives and other health care providers on the psychological impact of PGP on the man/partner. This is important, not only for men but for their respective women as well, whereby men influence their partner’s health.
7.
  • Elden, Helen, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Feeling old in a young body: Women’s experiences of living with severe consequences of an obstetric anal sphincter rupture: An interview study.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Clinical Nursing Studies. - 2324-7940 .- 2324-7959. ; 3:1, s. 20-28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The incidence of obstetric anal sphincter rupture (OASR) is increasing. It may cause anal incontinence and dyspareunia, leading to reduced quality of life and wellbeing. Qualitative studies are lacking. The aim was to describe experiences of living with ongoing severe consequences of an OASR 8 weeks after childbirth. Method: Twenty women with ongoing severe consequences of an OASR 8 weeks after delivery were interviewed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The experience of complications of an OASR is described in the overall theme ”Feeling old in a young body” and four categories: The body as injured; isolation; inability to function sexually, and anxiety for the future. Participants described how the consequences of OASR totally occupied their lives, making them feel old in a young body. They told of repercussions for their physical, psychological, sexual and social lives; how it affected their roles of mothers and partners, making them fear future childbirths. Diet, use of medicines, coal filters in incontinence pads, timing of toilet visits, use of the environment and mobile phones to conceal flatus and/or feces were strategies participants described. Conclusions: This study can contribute to increased understanding of how women can be affected by an OASR, and may enable healthcare personnel and authorities to meet their needs and organize care so that adequate support is available. It would also be beneficial if the women’s physical strategies were integrated into the information provided by health caregivers involved in follow-up. However, more research in this area is warranted.
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8.
  • Gröndal, Hedvig, 1983- (författare)
  • Signs of bacteria: Enacting Sore Throat
  • 2015
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper I analyse the diagnostic process in relation to bacterial sore throat and how this disease comes into being, or how it is enacted, at two Swedish health centres. The empirical data analysed consist of interviews with nurses and general practioners as well as observations at the health centres. The concept of enactment implies that disease is relationally constituted in and through relations between human and non-human actors. In the paper the relations between health care personnel, bodies, symptoms, instruments, bacteria and other actors are investigated, and I discuss how different enactments of bacterial sore throat come to being depending on how these relations are organized. When doing this the clinical gaze - the diagnosing gaze that interpret signs of an underlying pathology on the patients body – is explored and in relation to the empirical material this gaze is investigated, that is, how it is employed and how it is established in relation to a number of human and non-human actors. 
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9.
  • Hallvig, David, et al. (författare)
  • Sleepy driving on the real road and in the simulator - A comparison
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention. - 0001-4575. ; 50, s. 44-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study compared real driving with driving in a high fidelity, moving base, driving simulator with respect to driving performance, sleep related physiology (using electroencephalography and electrooculography) and subjective sleepiness during night and day driving for 10 participants.Sleepiness has been identified as one of the most important factors contributing to road crashes. However, almost all work on the detailed changes in behavior and physiology leading up to sleep related crashes has been carried out in driving simulators. It is not clear, however, to what extent simulator results can be generalized to real driving.The real road was emulated in the simulator. The results show that the simulator was associated with higher levels of subjective and physiological sleepiness than real driving. However, both for real and simulated driving, the response to night driving appears to be rather similar for subjective sleepiness and sleep physiology. Lateral variability was more responsive to night driving in the simulator, while real driving at night involved a movement to the left in the lane and a reduction of speed, both of which effects were absent in the simulator. It was concluded that the relative validity of simulators is acceptable for many variables, but that in absolute terms simulators cause higher sleepiness levels than real driving. Thus, generalizations from simulators to real driving must be made with great caution.
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10.
  • Hua, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • The impact of different background noises : effects on cognitive performance and perceived disturbance in employees with aided hearing impairment and normal hearing
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology. - American Academy of Audiology. - 1050-0545. ; 25:9, s. 859-868
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Health care professionals frequently meet employees with hearing impairment (HI) who experience difficulties at work. There are indications that the majority of these difficulties might be related to the presence of background noise. Moreover, research has also shown that high-level noise has a more detrimental effect on cognitive performance and self-rated disturbance in individuals with HI than low-level noise.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of different types of background noise on cognitive performance and perceived disturbance (PD) in employees with aided HI and normal hearing.Research Design: A mixed factorial design was conducted to examine the effect of noise in four experimental conditions.Study Sample: A total of 40 participants (21 men and 19 women) were recruited to take part in the study. The study sample consisted of employees with HI (n = 20) and normal hearing (n = 20). The group with HI had a mild-moderate sensorineural HI, and they were all frequent hearing-aid users.Intervention: The current study was conducted by using four general work-related tasks (mental arithmetic, orthographic decoding, phonological decoding, and serial recall) in four different background conditions: (1) quiet, (2) office noise at 56 dBA, (3) daycare noise at 73.5 dBA, and (4) traffic noise at 72.5 dBA. Reaction time and the proportion of correct answers in the working tasks were used as outcome measures of cognitive performance. The Borg CR-10 scale was used to assess PD.Data Collection and Analysis: Data collection occurred on two separate sessions, completed within 4 wk of each other. All tasks and experimental conditions were used in a counterbalanced order. Two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was performed to analyze the results. To examine interaction effects, pairwise t-tests were used. Pearson correlation coefficients between reaction time and proportion of correct answers, and cognitive performance and PD were also calculated to examine the possible correlation between the different variables.Results: No significant between-group or within-group differences in cognitive performance were observed across the four background conditions. Ratings of PD showed that both groups rated PD according to noise level, where higher noise level generated a higher PD. The present findings also demonstrated that the group with HI was more disturbed by higher than lower levels of noise (i.e., traffic and daycare setting compared with office setting). This pattern was observed consistently throughout four working tasks where the group with HI reported a significantly greater PD in the daycare and traffic settings compared with office noise.Conclusions: The present results demonstrate that background noise does not impair cognitive performance in nonauditory tasks in employees with HI and normal hearing, but that PD is affected to a greater extent in employees with HI during higher levels of background noise exposure. In addition, this study also supports previous studies regarding the detrimental effects that high-level noise has on employees with HI. Therefore, we emphasize the need of both self-rated and cognitive measurements in hearing care and occupational health services for both employees with normal hearing and HI.
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