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  • Björk Skuladottir, Edda, et al. (författare)
  • Translation and validation of Assessment of Work Performance (AWP) into the Icelandic language and culture
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Work. - : IOS Press. - 1875-9270 .- 1051-9815. ; 69:4, s. 1305-1316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Evidence-based services in vocational rehabilitation call for valid and reliable assessments of work performance for intervention planning and safe return to work for individuals with illness or injuries. Assessments that are easy to use, culturally adapted, and in a language professionals and clients understand is important for their utility. Translation and adaption of assessments to new languages and cultures are of importance to maintain high standards of assessments and the quality of services in the vocational rehabilitation setting. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the Assessment of Work Performance (AWP), into the Icelandic language and culture. Furthermore, to investigate the content validity and utility of the evaluation instrument. METHODS:The study was conducted in two phases. The first phase, based on the Dual-Panel translation method, included two expert panels performing translation and cultural adaption of the original Swedish AWP. In the second phase field testing of the translated instrument was followed by an online survey among vocational rehabilitation professionals for content validation and utility. RESULTS:The results of the study showed satisfactory opinions from experienced professionals toward the content validity, translation, cultural adaption, and utility of the Icelandic version of the AWP. CONCLUSIONS:The study indicates that the Dual-Panel translation method is a valid method when translating instruments from one language and culture to another. Furthermore, the results of the study imply that the AWP can be regarded as content valid up to an acceptable degree for implementation in vocational rehabilitation services in Iceland.
  • Borg, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • The Friction Model - a dynamic model of functioning, disability and contextual factors and its conceptual and practical applicability.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Disability and Rehabilitation. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0963-8288 .- 1464-5165. ; 32, s. 1790-1797
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose. To develop a model of the dynamics of functioning, disability and contextual factors which harmonises with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Method. Model parts based on ICF were identified and a model drawing from engineering concepts was developed. The conceptual and practical applicability of the model was discussed. Results. The so called Friction Model was created, which incorporates the ICF entities capacity, performance, environmental factors, health condition, body functions and structures, and personal factors. Friction describes the interaction between a person and his or her environment. The coefficient of friction is defined as the ratio between capacity and performance. Conclusion. Carrying conceptual strengths and limitations, the Friction Model appears to offer opportunities for practical applications, including ICF-based alternatives to health-economic analyses. Harmonising with the ICF model and terminology, the model uses friction to describe the interaction between a person and the environment. The coefficient of friction can be used as a simple measure of how facilitating an environment is. The applicability is not limited to functioning of people with impairments.
  • Borg, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Users' perspectives on the provision of assistive technologies in Bangladesh: awareness, providers, costs and barriers.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Disability and rehabilitation. Assistive technology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1748-3115 .- 1748-3107. ; :Oct 27, s. 1-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstracts Purpose: The purpose of this work was to contribute to a better understanding of challenges and solutions to equitable provision of assistive technologies in resource limited environments by (i) describing sources of awareness, types of providers and costs of assistive technologies; (ii) describing common reasons for not possessing assistive technologies; and (iii) comparing these sources, providers, costs and reasons among younger and older men and women living in urban and rural settings. Methods: Descriptive and analytic statistics were used to analyze cross-sectional data from a total sample of 581 hearing aid users, wheelchair users, individuals with hearing impairments not using hearing aids and individuals with ambulatory impairments not using wheelchairs living in eight districts of Bangladesh. Results: Major sources of awareness, types of providers and costs paid varied between users of different types of assistive technology. Lack of affordability was the main reason for not possessing assistive technology. Outcome differences were found between younger and older groups, men and women, and literate and illiterate respondents, while no differences related to place of living were identified. Conclusions: Age, gender, type of impairment and socioeconomic status need to be considered when planning and implementing equitable provision of assistive technologies. Implications for Rehabilitation Provision of assistive technologies needs to be made affordable as lack of affordability was the major reason for not possessing such technologies. To ensure equitable provision of assistive technology, services ought to consider age, gender, impairment and socioeconomic status of their target groups. This includes offering a range of products of different sizes provided by culturally appropriate personnel at affordable cost, which to many may be at no or reduced cost. To cater to the assistive technology needs among the most vulnerable groups, assistive technology providers may learn from CBR strategies, such as, awareness raising and service delivery at community level, the use of local resources, collaboration and coordination, and the consideration of cultural factors.
  • Brogårdh, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Mode of hand training determines cortical reorganisation: A randomized controlled study in healthy adults
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1651-2081 .- 1650-1977. ; 42:8, s. 789-794
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To evaluate two commonly used forms of hand training with respect to influence on dexterity and cortical reorganization. Subjects: Thirty healthy volunteers (mean age 24.2 years). Methods: The subjects were randomized to 25 min of shaping exercises or general activity training of the non-dominant hand. The dexterity and the cortical motor maps (number of excitable positions) of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle were evaluated pre- and post-training by the Purdue Peg Board test and transcranial magnetic stimulation, respectively. Results: After shaping exercises the dexterity increased significantly (p <= 0.005) for both hands, mostly so in the non-dominant hand. The cortical motor map of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle shifted forwardly into the pre-motor area without expanding. After general activity training, no significant improvements in dexterity were found for the non-dominant hand. The cortical motor map of the non-dominant abductor pollicis brevis muscle expanded significantly (p = 0.03) in the posterior (sensory) direction. Conclusion: These results indicate that shaping exercises, but not general activity training, increase dexterity of the trained non-dominant hand in parallel with a shift of location of active transcranial magnetic stimulation positions. Shifts of active cortical areas might be important for the interpretation of brain plasticity in common behavioural tasks.
  • Brunnberg, Elinor, et al. (författare)
  • Tinnitus and hearing loss in 15-16-year-old students : mental health symptoms, substance use, and exposure in school
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Audiology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1499-2027 .- 1708-8186. ; 47:11, s. 688-694
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The current study assessed the responses from a survey titled ”Life and Health – Young People 2005”, completed by 2.878 15-16 year-old adolescents in mainstream schools in the county of Örebro, Sweden. Thirty-nine percent of students with hearing loss (slight, mild, or moderate) and 6% of students with normal hearing reported tinnitus often or always during the past three months. Almost no gender difference was observed among students with normal hearing reporting tinnitus (boys 6.3%, girls 5.6%); however, a gender difference was noticed among hard-of-hearing (HH) students (boys 50%, girls 28%). Adolescents with both hearing loss and tinnitus reported considerably higher scores for mental symptoms, substance use, and school problems than other students. Anxiety in the past three months, male gender, and alcohol consumption in the past year were associated with tinnitus in HH students; irritation and anxiety in the past three months, disability, use of illicit drugs, and truancy predicted tinnitus in the normal hearing group. Consequently, students with a hearing loss and tinnitus are at high risk and should be monitored for subsequent problems.
  • Carballeira Suarez, Nivia, et al. (författare)
  • Regaining health and wellbeing after traumatic spinal cord injury
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. - : Foundation of Rehabilitation Information. - 1650-1977 .- 1651-2081. ; 45:10, s. 1023-1027
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Traumatic spinal cord injury is typically a devastating event, leading to permanent physical disability. Despite the severity of the condition, many persons with traumatic spinal cord injury manage to lead both active and independent lives. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience of health and wellbeing of persons living with a traumatic spinal cord injury for at least 20 years. Design and methods: A qualitative design was used. Data was analysed using a phenomenological-hermeneutical method. Rich narratives were obtained from 14 persons with paraplegia due to traumatic spinal cord injury sustained at least 20 years ago. RESULTS: The key finding was that health and wellbeing were attained when persons were able to perceive themselves as being “normal” in everyday relationships and circumstances. The normalization process involved learning to negotiate and/or prevent potentially embarrassing situations by acting in a “parallel world”, covertly “behind the scenes”. CONCLUSION: The subjective experience of wellbeing and health after traumatic spinal cord injury depends upon the ability to prevent or resolve potentially embarrassing situations without this being noticed by others. Performing this work “behind the scenes”, enables persons with traumatic spinal cord injury to interact smoothly with others and thereby be perceived as normal, despite substantial disability.
  • de Alwis, Manudul Pahansen, et al. (författare)
  • Exposure aboard high-performance Marine craft increases musculoskeletal pain and lowers contemporary work capacity of the occupants
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment (Part M). - : Sage Publications. - 1475-0902 .- 2041-3084. ; 235:3, s. 750-762
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-Performance Marine Craft (HPMC) occupants are currently being investigated for various psychophysical impairments degrading work performance postulating that these deteriorations are related to their occupational exposures. However, scientific evidence for this is lacking and the association of exposure conditions aboard HPMC with adverse health and performance effects is unknown. Therefore, the study estimates the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) among HPMC occupants and the association of their work exposure with MSP and performance degradation. It also presents a criterion for evaluating the self-reported exposure severity aboard three different types of mono-hull HPMC; displacement, semi-displacement and planing, on a par with the available standard criteria for objectively measurable exposures. Furthermore, another criterion is proposed to assess the performance-degradation of HPMC occupants based on self-reported fatigue symptoms and MSP. Swedish Coast Guard HPMC occupants were surveyed for MSP, fatigue symptoms as well as for work-related and individual risk indicators using a validated web-based questionnaire. Prevalence of MSP and performance-degradation during the past 12 months were assessed and presented as a percentage of the sample. Associations of exposure conditions aboard HPMC with MSP and performance-capacity were systematically evaluated using multiple logistic regression models and expressed as odds ratio (OR). Prevalence of MSP was 72% among which lower back pain was the most prevalent (46%) followed by neck pain (29%) and shoulder pain (23%) while 29% with degraded performance. Exposure to severe conditions aboard semi-displacement craft was associated with lower back (OR = 2.3) and shoulder (OR = 2.6) pain while severe conditions aboard planing craft with neck pain (OR = 2.3) and performance-degradation (OR = 2.6). MSP is common among Swedish coast guards. Severe exposure conditions aboard HPMC are significantly associated with both MSP and performance-degradation. The spine and shoulders are the most susceptible to work-related MSP among HPMC occupants which should be targeted in work-related preventive and corrective measures.
  • Dunberger, Gail, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer survivors' perception of participation in a long-term follow-up study.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of medical ethics. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 1473-4257 .- 0306-6800. ; 39:1, s. 41-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Every year medical researchers make contact with a large number of cancer survivors with the aim of evaluating cancer treatment. For this reason we decided to investigate how Swedish cancer survivors perceived their participation in research studies focusing on the long-term consequences of being a survivor of gynaecological or urinary bladder cancer. Data were collected by means of two study-specific postal questionnaires, both consisting of questions covering physical symptoms, well-being and the experience of being a cancer survivor. Both questionnaires also included questions evaluating the participants' experience of being research subjects. The questionnaires were developed in close co-operation with cancer survivors. The study population consisted of 1068 cancer survivors. Of these, 95% (n=1003) reported that they thought the study was valuable and 54% (n=559) that they had been positively affected by participating. Four per cent (n=39) expressed that they had been negatively affected by their participation in the study. The vast majority of the cancer survivors thought that participating in their particular study was valuable.
  • Gerdle, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Who benefits from multimodal rehabilitation - an exploration of pain, psychological distress, and life impacts in over 35,000 chronic pain patients identified in the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pain Research. - : DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD. - 1178-7090 .- 1178-7090. ; 12, s. 891-908
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Chronic pain patients frequently suffer from psychological symptoms. There is no consensus concerning the prevalence of severe anxiety and depressive symptoms and the strength of the associations between pain intensity and psychological distress. Although an important aspect of the clinical picture is understanding how the pain condition impacts life, little is known about the relative importance of pain and psychological symptoms for individual's life impact. The aims of this study were to identify subgroups of pain patients; to analyze if pain, psychological distress, and life impact variables influence subgrouping; and to investigate how patients in the subgroups benefit from treatments.Methods: Background variables, pain aspects (intensity/severity and spreading), psychological distress (depressive and anxiety symptoms), and two life impact variables (pain interference and perceived life control) were obtained from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation for chronic pain patients and analyzed mainly using advanced multivariate methods.Results: Based on >35,000 patients, 35%-40% had severe anxiety or depressive symptoms. Severe psychological distress was associated with being born outside Europe (21%-24% vs 6%-8% in the category without psychological distress) and low education level (20.7%-20.8% vs 26%-27% in the category without psychological distress). Dose relationships existed between the two psychological distress variables and pain aspects, but the explained variances were generally low. Pain intensity/severity and the two psychological distress variables were significantly associated (R2=0.40-0.48; P>0.001) with the two life impact variables (pain interference and life control). Two subgroups of patients were identified at baseline (subgroup 1: n=15,901-16,119; subgroup 2: n=20,690-20,981) and the subgroup with the worst situation regarding all variables participated less in an MMRP (51% vs 58%, P<0.001) but showed the largest improvements in outcomes.Conclusion: The results emphasize the need to assess both pain and psychological distress and not take for granted that pain involves high psychological stress in the individual case. Not all patients benefit from MMRP. A better matching between common clinical pictures and the content of MMRPs may help improve results. We only partly found support for treatment resistance in patients with psychological distress burden.
  • Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar, 1948-, et al. (författare)
  • Epidemiologiskt undersökta samband mellan Alzheimers sjukdom och faktorer i arbetsmiljön
  • 2015
  • Rapport (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epidemiological evidence on associations between work environment and Alzheimers disease Lars-Gunnar Gunnarsson, assistant professor at School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden andLennart Bodin, professor emeritus, Department of Statistics, Örebro University, Sweden and senior researcher at Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.In this systematic literature review we identified 50 original publications on associations between work and Alzheimer’s disease. GRADE guidelines were used to secure high scientific quality and reliable guidelines were applied to classify the papers. Thirty-one papers fulfilled high quality standards while 19 were methodologically deficient and thus were excluded from our meta-analyses.Twenty-seven studies concerned exposure to electromagnetic fields and two published meta-analyses indicated a weighted relative risk (RR) reaching 2.0. Our meta-analysis was only based on twelve high quality publications and the weighted relative risk included statistically over chemicals was evaluated in seven studies and the weighted RR was 1.55 (95% confidence interval 1.19-2.02). Only some few publications concerned pesticides and other chemicals and the weighted RR indicated increased risk.Higher education and work complexity were evaluated in eleven publications and our meta-analysis show a reduced the risk for Alzheimer’s disease. The weighted RR was 0.47 (95% confidence interval 0.35-0.63). Both factors were independently and additively protective.There are indications of an association between ALS and exposure to heavy muscle work especially in combination with muscle trauma, i.e. professional football players are reported to have an elevated risk. More studies are needed with more precise measures on these exposures.
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