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1.
  • Carballeira Suarez, Nivia, et al. (författare)
  • Regaining health and wellbeing after traumatic spinal cord injury
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. - : Foundation of Rehabilitation Information. - 1650-1977 .- 1651-2081. ; 45:10, s. 1023-1027
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Traumatic spinal cord injury is typically a devastating event, leading to permanent physical disability. Despite the severity of the condition, many persons with traumatic spinal cord injury manage to lead both active and independent lives. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience of health and wellbeing of persons living with a traumatic spinal cord injury for at least 20 years. Design and methods: A qualitative design was used. Data was analysed using a phenomenological-hermeneutical method. Rich narratives were obtained from 14 persons with paraplegia due to traumatic spinal cord injury sustained at least 20 years ago. RESULTS: The key finding was that health and wellbeing were attained when persons were able to perceive themselves as being “normal” in everyday relationships and circumstances. The normalization process involved learning to negotiate and/or prevent potentially embarrassing situations by acting in a “parallel world”, covertly “behind the scenes”. CONCLUSION: The subjective experience of wellbeing and health after traumatic spinal cord injury depends upon the ability to prevent or resolve potentially embarrassing situations without this being noticed by others. Performing this work “behind the scenes”, enables persons with traumatic spinal cord injury to interact smoothly with others and thereby be perceived as normal, despite substantial disability.
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2.
  • Manchaiah, Vinaya, et al. (författare)
  • Problems and Life Effects Experienced by Tinnitus Research Study Volunteers : An Exploratory Study Using the ICF Classification
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of american academy of audiology. - Reston, VA, United States : American Academy of Audiology. - 1050-0545 .- 2157-3107. ; 29:10, s. 936-947
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Tinnitus is one of the most distressing hearing-related symptoms. It is often associated with a range of physiological and psychological complications, such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Hence, approaching tinnitus from a biopsychological perspective may be more appropriate than from purely a biomedical model.Objective: The present studywas aimed at determining the relationship between tinnitus and the problems and life effects experienced by UK-based tinnitus research study volunteers. Open-ended questions were used. Responses were classified using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to understand the impact of tinnitus in a multidimensional manner using a biopsychosocial perspective.Research Design: A cross-sectional survey design was used.Study Sample: Study sample included a sample of 240 adults with tinnitus who were interested in undertaking an Internet-based intervention for tinnitus.Data Collection and Analysis: The data were collated using two open-ended questions. The first focused on problems related to having tinnitus and the second to life effects as a result of tinnitus. Responses were analyzed using a simplified content analysis approach to link concepts to ICF categories in accordance with established linking rules. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to compare the number of responses between the two questions. The most frequent responses related to body function involved ‘‘emotional functions’’ (b152), ‘‘sleep functions’’ (b134), ‘‘hearing functions’’ (b230), ‘‘sustaining attention’’ (b1400), and ‘‘energy level’’ (b1300). For activity limitations and participation restrictions they were ‘‘communicating with—receiving—spokenmessages’’ (d310), ‘‘socialization’’ (d9205), ‘‘handling stress and other psychological demands’’ (d240), and ‘‘recreation and leisure’’ (d920). The most frequently occurring responses related to environmental factors were ‘‘sound intensity’’ (e2500), ‘‘sound quality’’ (e2501), and ‘‘general products and technology for communication’’ (e1250). ‘‘Coping styles’’ was the most frequently occurring personal factor.Conclusions: The study highlights the use of open-ended questions in gathering useful information about the impact of tinnitus. The responses coded to ICF show that tinnitus impacts many domains, not only particularly body function, but also activity limitations and participation restrictions. The results demonstrate the heterogeneous nature of the impact of tinnitus on people affected.Results: There were 764 responses related to problems identified, 797 responses associated with life effects due to tinnitus, and 37 responses that did not fit into any ICF category. No significant differences were observed in the number of responses between the two questions. In addition, no significant association between the number of responses reported and demographic variables was found. Most of the problems and life effects experienced by tinnitus sufferers were related to body function, followed by activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Only a few responses were related to environmental and personal factors.
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4.
  • Johansson Capusan, Andrea, et al. (författare)
  • Childhood maltreatment and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adults : a large twin study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. - 0033-2917 .- 1469-8978. ; 46:12, s. 2637-2646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundChildhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. It is, however, unclear whether this association is causal or due to familial confounding.MethodData from 18 168 adult twins, aged 20–46 years, were drawn from the population-based Swedish twin registry. Retrospective self-ratings of CM (emotional and physical neglect, physical and sexual abuse and witnessing family violence), and self-ratings for DSM-IV ADHD symptoms in adulthood were analysed. Possible familial confounding was investigated using a within twin-pair design based on monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins.esultsCM was significantly associated with increased levels of ADHD symptom scores in adults [regression coefficient: 0.40 standard deviations, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37–0.43]. Within twin-pair analyses showed attenuated but significant estimates within DZ (0.29, 95% CI 0.21–0.36) and MZ (0.18, 95% CI 0.10–0.25) twin pairs. Similar results emerged for hyperactive/impulsive and inattentive ADHD symptom scores separately in association with CM. We conducted sensitivity analyses for early maltreatment, before age 7, and for abuse and neglect separately, and found similarly reduced estimates in DZ and MZ pairs. Re-traumatization after age 7 did not significantly influence results.ConclusionsCM was significantly associated with increased ADHD symptoms in adults. Associations were partly due to familial confounding, but also consistent with a causal interpretation. Our findings support cognitive neuroscience studies investigating neural pathways through which exposure to CM may influence ADHD. Clinicians treating adults with ADHD should be aware of the association with maltreatment.
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5.
  • Virtanen, Marianna, et al. (författare)
  • Long working hours and alcohol use : systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMJ (Clinical research ed.). - 1756-1833 .- 0959-8138. ; 350, s. Art. no. g7772-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use.DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data.DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies.REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression.RESULTS: Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333 693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100 602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours and ≥55 hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate.CONCLUSIONS: Individuals whose working hours exceed standard recommendations are more likely to increase their alcohol use to levels that pose a health risk.
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6.
  • Gerdle, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Who benefits from multimodal rehabilitation - an exploration of pain, psychological distress, and life impacts in over 35,000 chronic pain patients identified in the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pain Research. - : DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD. - 1178-7090 .- 1178-7090. ; 12, s. 891-908
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Chronic pain patients frequently suffer from psychological symptoms. There is no consensus concerning the prevalence of severe anxiety and depressive symptoms and the strength of the associations between pain intensity and psychological distress. Although an important aspect of the clinical picture is understanding how the pain condition impacts life, little is known about the relative importance of pain and psychological symptoms for individual's life impact. The aims of this study were to identify subgroups of pain patients; to analyze if pain, psychological distress, and life impact variables influence subgrouping; and to investigate how patients in the subgroups benefit from treatments.Methods: Background variables, pain aspects (intensity/severity and spreading), psychological distress (depressive and anxiety symptoms), and two life impact variables (pain interference and perceived life control) were obtained from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation for chronic pain patients and analyzed mainly using advanced multivariate methods.Results: Based on >35,000 patients, 35%-40% had severe anxiety or depressive symptoms. Severe psychological distress was associated with being born outside Europe (21%-24% vs 6%-8% in the category without psychological distress) and low education level (20.7%-20.8% vs 26%-27% in the category without psychological distress). Dose relationships existed between the two psychological distress variables and pain aspects, but the explained variances were generally low. Pain intensity/severity and the two psychological distress variables were significantly associated (R2=0.40-0.48; P>0.001) with the two life impact variables (pain interference and life control). Two subgroups of patients were identified at baseline (subgroup 1: n=15,901-16,119; subgroup 2: n=20,690-20,981) and the subgroup with the worst situation regarding all variables participated less in an MMRP (51% vs 58%, P<0.001) but showed the largest improvements in outcomes.Conclusion: The results emphasize the need to assess both pain and psychological distress and not take for granted that pain involves high psychological stress in the individual case. Not all patients benefit from MMRP. A better matching between common clinical pictures and the content of MMRPs may help improve results. We only partly found support for treatment resistance in patients with psychological distress burden.
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7.
  • Söderström, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Weekday and weekend patterns of diurnal cortisol, activation and fatigue among people scoring high for burnout
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: SJWEH Supplements. - 1795-9926 .- 1795-9918. ; :2, s. 35-40:2, s. 35-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives The present pilot study attempted to investigate the diurnal pattern of cortisol, subjective activation, and mental fatigue among workers scoring high for burnout. The purpose was also to relate the cortisol data to objective sleep data.Methods One group with high (N=9) burnout scores and one with low (N=11) such scores were compared during a workday and a day off.Results The high-burnout group showed higher awakening cortisol during the workday than during the weekend. They also showed higher ratings for activation and mental fatigue during the weekend than the low-burnout group. A higher frequency of arousals during the prior sleep was associated with a higher diurnal amplitude and an earlier diurnal peak of cortisol during the workday.Conclusions The present results, which, due to the small sample size, should be interpreted with caution, may indicate that stress-induced frequency of arousal during sleep could contribute to the diurnal amplitude of cortisol. Furthermore, increased activation and mental fatigue during the weekend may reflect impaired recovery, which is of possible importance in the burnout process.
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8.
  • Borg, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • The Friction Model - a dynamic model of functioning, disability and contextual factors and its conceptual and practical applicability.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Disability and Rehabilitation. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0963-8288 .- 1464-5165. ; 32, s. 1790-1797
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose. To develop a model of the dynamics of functioning, disability and contextual factors which harmonises with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Method. Model parts based on ICF were identified and a model drawing from engineering concepts was developed. The conceptual and practical applicability of the model was discussed. Results. The so called Friction Model was created, which incorporates the ICF entities capacity, performance, environmental factors, health condition, body functions and structures, and personal factors. Friction describes the interaction between a person and his or her environment. The coefficient of friction is defined as the ratio between capacity and performance. Conclusion. Carrying conceptual strengths and limitations, the Friction Model appears to offer opportunities for practical applications, including ICF-based alternatives to health-economic analyses. Harmonising with the ICF model and terminology, the model uses friction to describe the interaction between a person and the environment. The coefficient of friction can be used as a simple measure of how facilitating an environment is. The applicability is not limited to functioning of people with impairments.
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9.
  • Borg, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Users' perspectives on the provision of assistive technologies in Bangladesh: awareness, providers, costs and barriers.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Disability and rehabilitation. Assistive technology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1748-3115 .- 1748-3107. ; :Oct 27, s. 1-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstracts Purpose: The purpose of this work was to contribute to a better understanding of challenges and solutions to equitable provision of assistive technologies in resource limited environments by (i) describing sources of awareness, types of providers and costs of assistive technologies; (ii) describing common reasons for not possessing assistive technologies; and (iii) comparing these sources, providers, costs and reasons among younger and older men and women living in urban and rural settings. Methods: Descriptive and analytic statistics were used to analyze cross-sectional data from a total sample of 581 hearing aid users, wheelchair users, individuals with hearing impairments not using hearing aids and individuals with ambulatory impairments not using wheelchairs living in eight districts of Bangladesh. Results: Major sources of awareness, types of providers and costs paid varied between users of different types of assistive technology. Lack of affordability was the main reason for not possessing assistive technology. Outcome differences were found between younger and older groups, men and women, and literate and illiterate respondents, while no differences related to place of living were identified. Conclusions: Age, gender, type of impairment and socioeconomic status need to be considered when planning and implementing equitable provision of assistive technologies. Implications for Rehabilitation Provision of assistive technologies needs to be made affordable as lack of affordability was the major reason for not possessing such technologies. To ensure equitable provision of assistive technology, services ought to consider age, gender, impairment and socioeconomic status of their target groups. This includes offering a range of products of different sizes provided by culturally appropriate personnel at affordable cost, which to many may be at no or reduced cost. To cater to the assistive technology needs among the most vulnerable groups, assistive technology providers may learn from CBR strategies, such as, awareness raising and service delivery at community level, the use of local resources, collaboration and coordination, and the consideration of cultural factors.
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10.
  • Brogårdh, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Mode of hand training determines cortical reorganisation: A randomized controlled study in healthy adults
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1651-2081 .- 1650-1977. ; 42:8, s. 789-794
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To evaluate two commonly used forms of hand training with respect to influence on dexterity and cortical reorganization. Subjects: Thirty healthy volunteers (mean age 24.2 years). Methods: The subjects were randomized to 25 min of shaping exercises or general activity training of the non-dominant hand. The dexterity and the cortical motor maps (number of excitable positions) of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle were evaluated pre- and post-training by the Purdue Peg Board test and transcranial magnetic stimulation, respectively. Results: After shaping exercises the dexterity increased significantly (p <= 0.005) for both hands, mostly so in the non-dominant hand. The cortical motor map of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle shifted forwardly into the pre-motor area without expanding. After general activity training, no significant improvements in dexterity were found for the non-dominant hand. The cortical motor map of the non-dominant abductor pollicis brevis muscle expanded significantly (p = 0.03) in the posterior (sensory) direction. Conclusion: These results indicate that shaping exercises, but not general activity training, increase dexterity of the trained non-dominant hand in parallel with a shift of location of active transcranial magnetic stimulation positions. Shifts of active cortical areas might be important for the interpretation of brain plasticity in common behavioural tasks.
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