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  • Girma Kebede, Betlehem, et al. (författare)
  • Communicative challenges among physicians, patients, and family caregivers in cancer care: An exploratory qualitative study in Ethiopia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 15:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cancer is a growing concern in Ethiopia. Though communication is essential for the treatment process, few studies have looked at communication in Ethiopian cancer care. Due to the large number of patients and scarcity of resources, it is vital to understand how to manage consultations in order to effectively help as many patients as possible in this challenging work environment. Thus, research is needed to analyze and understand the communicative challenges experienced by physicians, patients, and family caregivers, in order to successfully handle patient care in practice. Objective We explore communication in Ethiopian cancer care and present the main challenges faced by physicians, patients, and family caregivers. Methods This explorative qualitative study was conducted at the Oncology Department of the Tikur Anbessa (Black Lion) Specialized Teaching Hospital (TASH) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A triangulation of data collection methods was used: 91 audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews and 21 video-recordings of authentic interactions during hospital rounds. The aim was to obtain as complete a picture as possible of communication from the perspectives of physicians, patients, and family caregivers. The interviews were analyzed using thematic content analysis and the identified themes were supported by excerpts from the transcribed recordings. Results Eight themes emerged from the data. Workload and time pressure, in combination with restricted space for privacy, limited the possibilities for physicians to deliver detailed information and provide emotional support. Furthermore, patient literacy levels, in combination with no or little cancer awareness, financial problems, reliance on traditional and religious treatments, the stigma of cancer, and a fatalistic attitude, resulted in delays in patients seeking care and participating in positive health behaviors, and, subsequently, often resulted in an unwillingness to openly discuss problems with physicians and adhere to treatment. The study also illustrates the paramount role of family in physician-patient communication in Ethiopia. Though family caregivers provide a valuable interpreting support when patients have limited language skills, they can also prevent patients from sharing information with physicians. Another important finding is that family caregivers were often responsible for making decisions about treatment and avoided telling patients about a poor prognosis, believing that conveying bad news may upset them. All of these themes have important implications for the role of ethically acceptable communication in patient-centered care. Conclusions This study has identified a number of serious challenges for successful and ethically acceptable health communication in Ethiopian cancer care. The study contributes to our understanding of the complexity around the role of family, combined with patients’ dependency on family members for communication, support, and access to care, which creates particular ethical dilemmas for the medical staff. The questions raised by this study concern how to organize consultations to achieve patient-centered health communication, while maintaining a constructive alliance with the family and not jeopardizing the patient’s continued access to care. The integration of communication training for medical students in Ethiopia, with a focus on ethical guidelines for family-centered patient consultation suitable for these circumstances, would be an essential step.
  • Olsson-Tall, Maivor, et al. (författare)
  • The Impact of Repeated Assessments by Patients and Professionals: A 4-Year Follow-Up of a Population With Schizophrenia
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association. - 1078-3903 .- 1532-5725. ; 25:3, s. 189-199
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The needs of people with schizophrenia are great, and having extensive knowledge of this patient group is crucial for providing the right support. The aim of this study was to investigate, over 4 years, the importance of repeated assessments by patients with schizophrenia and by professionals. Data were collected from evidence-based assessment scales, interviews, and visual self-assessment scales. The data processing used descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analyses. The results showed that the relationships between several of the patients’ self-rating assessments were stronger at the 4-year follow-up than at baseline. In parallel, the concordance rate between patient assessments and case manager assessments increased. The conclusions drawn are that through repeated assessments the patients’ ability to assess their own situation improved over time and that case managers became better at understanding their patients’ situation. This, in turn, provides a safer basis for assessments and further treatment interventions, which may lead to more patients achieving remission, which can lead to less risk for hospitalization and too early death.
  • Rizzi, Maria C, et al. (författare)
  • The potential of different countermeasures to prevent injuries with high risk of health loss among bicyclists in Sweden
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Traffic Injury Prevention. - 1538-9588. ; 21:3, s. 215-221
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: As bicyclists account for the largest share of serious injuries in Sweden, focus to improve safety for bicyclists is needed. While knowledge about fatal bicycle crashes is rather extensive, the number of studies that have investigated non-fatal injuries is still rather limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential of different countermeasures to reduce crashes resulting in injuries with high risk of health-loss among cyclists in Sweden. A further aim was to describe the residual—that is, crashes that were not considered to be addressed by the analyzed countermeasures. Methods: A sample of individuals with specific injury diagnoses was drawn from the Swedish national crash database Strada. A survey form was used to collect additional information about the crash and the health-related outcomes. The potential of countermeasures currently included in the Swedish Safety Performance Indicators, as well as of countermeasures that could be described as “existing but not fully implemented” was assessed. The overall potential of all countermeasures assessed was calculated, giving a grand total without double counting. Cases that were considered not to be addressed by any of the countermeasures included (i.e., the residual crashes) were described in more detail. Results: The current Swedish Safety Performance Indicators that relate to safe cycling addressed 22% of crashes. Improved maintenance by deicing and removal of snow from bicycle infrastructure was found to have the highest potential (8%), followed by improved crashworthiness of passenger cars (5%) and safer bicycle crossings (4%). The potential for existing but not fully implemented safety improvements was 56%. The greatest potential was found for Autonomous Emergency Braking with cyclist detection for passenger cars (12%), followed by studded winter tyres for bicycles (12%), and improved maintenance on non-bicycle infrastructure (11%). In total, taking double counting into consideration, all safety improvements could address 64% of all crashes. Among the residual crashes, the majority (69%) were single bicycle crashes of which most were related to wheel locking during braking and losing balance at low speed or stationary. Conclusions: Compared with fatal crashes that involve a majority of bicycle-car crashes, the crashes leading to health-loss are mostly single bicycle crashes. Therefore, innovation and development of additional countermeasures to improve safety for bicyclists should focus on single bicycle crashes.
  • Munthe, Christian, 1962- (författare)
  • A New Ethical Landscape of Prenatal Testing: Individualizing Choice to Serve Autonomy and Promote Public Health: A Radical Proposal
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Bioethics. - 0269-9702 .- 1467-8519. ; 29:1, s. 36-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A new landscape of prenatal testing (PNT) is presently developing, including new techniques for risk-reducing, non-invasive sampling of foetal DNA and drastically enhanced possibilities of what may be rapidly and precisely analysed, surrounded by a growing commercial genetic testing industry and a general trend of individualization in healthcare policies. This article applies a set of established ethical notions from past debates on PNT for analysing PNT screening-programmes in this new situation. While some basic challenges of PNT stay untouched, the new development supports a radical individualization of how PNT screening is organized. This reformation is, at the same time, difficult to reconcile with responsible spending of resources in a publicly funded healthcare context. Thus, while the ethical imperative of individualization holds and applies to PNT, the new landscape of PNT provides reasons to start rolling back the type of mass-screening programmes currently established in many countries. Instead, more limited offers are suggested, based on considerations of severity of conditions and optimized to simultaneously serve reproductive autonomy and public health within an acceptable frame of priorities. The new landscape of PNT furthermore underscores the ethical importance of supporting and including people with disabilities. For the very same reason, no ban on what may be analysed using PNT in the new landscape should be applied, although private offers must, of course, conform to strict requirements of respecting reproductive autonomy and what that means in terms of counselling.
  • Munthe, Christian, 1962- (författare)
  • Will IVF ever be the norm?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Future of IVF - A Brave New World? ESHRE symposium, September 26-27, Stockholm.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Holm, Maja, et al. (författare)
  • Psychometric evaluation of the anticipatory grief scale in a sample of family caregivers in the context of palliative care.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. - 1477-7525. ; 17:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: In palliative care, family caregivers are often faced with experiences of grief in anticipation of the loss of a close person. An instrument designed to measure this form of grief is the Anticipatory Grief Scale, which includes 27 items and has been used in several studies in various contexts. However, the instrument has not been validated. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the psychometric properties, focusing on the factor structure, of the Anticipatory Grief Scale in a sample of family caregivers in palliative care. Methods: The study had a cross-sectional design. Data were collected from an intervention study in palliative home care that took place between 2013 and 2014. In total, 270 family caregivers in palliative care completed a baseline questionnaire, including the Anticipatory Grief Scale. The factor structure of the scale was evaluated using exploratory factor analysis. Results: The initial factor analysis suggested a four-factor solution, but, due to weak communalities, extensive crossloadings, and item inconsistencies, the model was problematic. Further analysis supported that the scale should be reduced to 13 items and two factors. The two subscales captured the behavioral and emotional reactions of grief in family caregivers in palliative care and were named Behavioral reactions and Emotional reactions. This modified version will hereafter be named AGS-13. Conclusions: This validation study of the Anticipatory Grief Scale resulted in a revised two-factor model, AGS-13, that appears to be promising for use in palliative care but needs to be tested further.
  • Johansson Capusan, Andrea, et al. (författare)
  • Childhood maltreatment and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adults : a large twin study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. - 0033-2917 .- 1469-8978. ; 46:12, s. 2637-2646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background</strong></p><p>Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. It is, however, unclear whether this association is causal or due to familial confounding.</p><p><strong>Method</strong></p><p>Data from 18 168 adult twins, aged 20–46 years, were drawn from the population-based Swedish twin registry. Retrospective self-ratings of CM (emotional and physical neglect, physical and sexual abuse and witnessing family violence), and self-ratings for DSM-IV ADHD symptoms in adulthood were analysed. Possible familial confounding was investigated using a within twin-pair design based on monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins.</p><p><strong>esults</strong></p><p>CM was significantly associated with increased levels of ADHD symptom scores in adults [regression coefficient: 0.40 standard deviations, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37–0.43]. Within twin-pair analyses showed attenuated but significant estimates within DZ (0.29, 95% CI 0.21–0.36) and MZ (0.18, 95% CI 0.10–0.25) twin pairs. Similar results emerged for hyperactive/impulsive and inattentive ADHD symptom scores separately in association with CM. We conducted sensitivity analyses for early maltreatment, before age 7, and for abuse and neglect separately, and found similarly reduced estimates in DZ and MZ pairs. Re-traumatization after age 7 did not significantly influence results.</p><p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p><p>CM was significantly associated with increased ADHD symptoms in adults. Associations were partly due to familial confounding, but also consistent with a causal interpretation. Our findings support cognitive neuroscience studies investigating neural pathways through which exposure to CM may influence ADHD. Clinicians treating adults with ADHD should be aware of the association with maltreatment.</p>
  • Lydell, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Thoughts and feelings of future working life as a predictor of return to work: a combined qualitative and quantitative study of sick-listed persons with musculoskeletal disorders
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION. - 0963-8288. ; 33:13-14, s. 1262-1271
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose. The main aim of this study was to describe the thoughts and feelings of future working life related to return to work (RTW) in sick-listed persons due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Further aim was to compare these descriptions with the person's actual working situation 1, 5 and 10 years after a rehabilitation period. Methods. This study consisted of two parts. The first part had an explorative design, and qualitative content analysis was chosen in order to analyse the response to an open question regarding future working life answered before, persons sick-listed due to MSD (n = 320), took part in a rehabilitation programme 10 years ago. The second part had a prospective design and quantitative analysis was used to compare the results of the qualitative analysis with RTW and the working situation 1, 5 and 10 years after baseline. Results. Three categories emerged from the data with a total of nine subcategories. In the categories Motivation and optimism and Limitations to overcome, there were significantly more persons who had RTW 1 year after baseline when compared with the category Hindrance and hesitation. There were also some significant differences between the subcategories. Conclusions. The question, regarding thoughts and feelings of future working life, may be a simple screening method to predict RTW in persons sick-listed with MSD. This will guide the rehabilitation team to adjust the rehabilitation to each person's needs and facilitating RTW.
  • Rhen, IM, et al. (författare)
  • Inter- and intra-rater reliability of the OCRA checklist method in video-recorded manual work tasks
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics. - 0003-6870. ; 84
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Observation-based risk assessments are often used for evaluation of biomechanical workload and the condition of the workplace ergonomics. However, the inter- and intra-rater reliability of the methods used for the assessments are insufficiently studied. The OCRA checklist method, included as a reference method in the ISO and CEN standards regarding upper limb repetitive risk assessment, was in this study investigated regarding its reliability. Eleven ergonomists were educated within the method. Each ergonomist risk-assessed ten video-recorded manual work tasks, on two occasions. The average inter-rater agreement of the five overall risk levels was 39% and the linearly weighted kappa was 0.43, the intra-rater dittos were 45% and 0.52. Both indicating a moderate reliability, but lower than what could be expected. The levels might be sufficient for coarse surveys. However, for risk assessments before and after an intervention, complementing technical methods should be considered.
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