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1.
  • Klompstra, Leonie, 1982- (författare)
  • Physical activity in patients with heart failure motivations, self-efficacy and the potential of exergaming
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Adherence to recommendations for physical activity is low in patients with heart failure (HF). It is essential to explore to what extent and why patients with HF are physically active. Self-efficacy and motivation for physical activity are important in becoming more physically active, but the role of self-efficacy in the relationship between motivation and physical activity in patients with HF is unknown. Alternative approaches to motivate and increase self-efficacy to exercise are needed. One of these alternatives might be using exergames (games to improve physical exercise). Therefore, it is important to obtain more knowledge on the potential of exergaming to increase physical activity.The overall aim was to describe the physical activity in patients with HF, with special focus on motivations and self-efficacy in physical activity, and to describe the potential of exergaming to improve exercise capacity.Methods: Study I (n = 154) and II (n = 101) in this thesis had a cross-sectional survey design. Study III (n = 32) was a 12-week pilot intervention study, including an exergame platform at home, with a pretest-posttest design. Study IV (n = 14) described the experiences of exergaming in patients who participated in the intervention group of a randomized controlled study in which they had access to an exergame platform at home.Results: In total, 34% of the patients with HF had a low level of physical activity, 46% had a moderate level, 23% reported a high level. Higher education, higher selfefficacy, and higher motivation were significantly associated with a higher amount of physical activity. Barriers to exercise were reported to be difficult to overcome and psychological motivations were the most important motivations to be physically active. Women had significantly higher total motivation to be physically active. Self-efficacy mediated the relationship between exercise motivation and physical activity; motivation leads to a higher self-efficacy towards physical activity.More than half of the patients significantly increased their exercise capacity after 12 weeks of using an exergame platform at home. Lower NYHA-class and shorter time since diagnosis were factors significantly related to the increase in exercise capacity. The mean time spent exergaming was 28 minutes per day. Having grandchildren and being male were related to more time spent exergaming.The analysis of the qualitative data resulted in three categories describing patients’ experience of exergaming: (i) making exergaming work, (ii) added value of exergaming, (iii) no appeal of exergaming.Conclusion: One-third of the patients with HF had a low level of physical activity in their daily life. Level of education, exercise self-efficacy, and motivation were important factors to take into account when advising patients with HF about physical activity. In addition to a high level of motivation to be physically active, it is important that patients with HF have a high degree of exercise self-efficacy.Exergaming has the potential to increase exercise capacity in patients with HF. The results also showed that this technology might be suitable for some patients while others may prefer other kinds of physical activity.
2.
  • Svanberg, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of emotional distress and pain-related fear on patients with chronic pain Subgroup analysis of patients referred to multimodal rehabilitation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. - Foundation for Rehabilitation Information. - 1650-1977. ; 49:4, s. 354-361
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Multimodal rehabilitation programmes (MMRP) for chronic pain could be improved by determining which patients do not benefit fully. General distress and pain-related fear may explain variations in the treatment effects of MMRP.Design: Cohort study with a cross-sectional, prospective part.Patients: Chronic musculoskeletal pain patients referred to 2 hospital-based pain rehabilitation clinics.Methods: The cross-sectional part of this study cluster analyses patients (n = 1,218) with regard to distress and pain-related fear at first consultation in clinical pain rehabilitation and describes differences in external variables between clusters. The prospective part follows the subsample of patients (n = 260) participating in MMRP and describes outcome post-treatment.Results: Four distinct subgroups were found: (i) those with low levels of distress and pain-related fear; (ii) those with high levels of pain-related fear; (iii) those with high levels of distress; and (iv) those with high levels of distress and pain-related fear. These subgroups showed differences in demographics, pain characteristics, quality of life, and acceptance, as well as the degree of MMRP participation and MMRP outcome.Conclusion: Among patients with chronic pain referred to MMRP there are subgroups with different profiles of distress and pain-related fear, which are relevant to understanding the adaptation to pain and MMRP outcome. This knowledge may help us to select patients and tailor treatment for better results.
3.
  • Brogårdh, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Shortened constraint-induced movement therapy in subacute stroke - no effect of using a restraint : a randomized controlled study with independent observers
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. - Stiftelsen Rehabiliteringsinformation. - 1650-1977. ; 41:4, s. 231-236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To examine the effect of using a mitt during shortened constraint-induced movement therapy for patients in the subacute phase after stroke.Subjects: Twenty-four patients with stroke (mean age 57.6 (standard deviation 8.5) years; average 7 weeks post-stroke) with mild to moderate impaired hand function.Methods: The patients were randomized to mitt use or no mitt use on the less affected hand for 90% of waking hours for 12 days. All patients received 3 h of arm and hand training per day for 2 weeks. Assessments were made by blinded observers using the modified Motor Assessment Scale, the Sollerman hand function test, the 2-Point Discrimination test and Motor Activity Log test.Results: Patients in both groups showed significant improvements in arm and hand motor performance and on self-reported motor ability after 2 weeks of therapy and at 3 months follow-up. However, no statistically significant differences between the groups were found in any measures at any point in time.Conclusion: In this study, no effect of using a restraint in patients with subacute stroke was found. Thus, this component in the constraint-induced therapy concept seems to be of minor importance for the outcome.
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4.
  • Fältström, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Functional Performance Among Active Female Soccer Players After Unilateral Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Compared With Knee-Healthy Controls
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Sports Medicine. - Sage Publications. - 0363-5465. ; 45:2, s. 377-385
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Good functional performance with limb symmetry is believed to be important to minimize the risk of injury after a return to pivoting and contact sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR).Purpose: This study aimed to investigate any side-to-side limb differences in functional performance and movement asymmetries in female soccer players with a primary unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)–reconstructed knee and to compare these players with knee-healthy controls from the same soccer teams.Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.Methods: This study included 77 active female soccer players at a median of 18 months after ACLR (interquartile range [IQR], 14.5 months; range, 7-39 months) and 77 knee-healthy female soccer players. The mean age was 20.1 ± 2.3 years for players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and 19.5 ± 2.2 years for controls. We used a battery of tests to assess postural control (Star Excursion Balance Test) and hop performance (1-legged hop for distance, 5-jump test, and side hop). Movement asymmetries in the lower limbs and trunk were assessed with the drop vertical jump and the tuck jump using 2-dimensional analyses.Results: The reconstructed and uninvolved limbs did not differ in any of the tests. In the 5-jump test, players with an ACL-reconstructed knee performed worse than controls (mean 8.75 ± 1.05 m vs 9.09 ± 0.89 m; P = .034). On the drop vertical jump test, the ACL-reconstructed limb had significantly less knee valgus motion in the frontal plane (median 0.028 m [IQR, 0.049 m] vs 0.045 m [IQR, 0.043 m]; P = .004) and a lower probability of a high knee abduction moment (pKAM) (median 69.2% [IQR, 44.4%] vs 79.8% [IQR, 44.8%]; P = .043) compared with the control players’ matched limb (for leg dominance). Results showed that 9% to 49% of players in both groups performed outside recommended guidelines on the different tests. Only 14 players with an ACL-reconstructed knee (18%) and 15 controls (19%) had results that met the recommended guidelines for all 5 tests (P = .837).Conclusion: The reconstructed and uninvolved limbs did not differ, and players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and controls differed only minimally on the functional performance tests, indicating similar function. It is worth noting that many players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and controls had movement asymmetries and a high pKAM pattern, which have previously been associated with an increased risk for both primary and secondary ACL injury in female athletes.
5.
  • Peterson, Gunnel, 1959- (författare)
  • Neck muscle function in individuals with persistent pain and disability after whiplash injury
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Neck pain and disability are common after whiplash injury. One year after the accident up to 50 % still have symptoms called whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Despite decades of research the cause of persistent pain and disability are largely unknown and effective treatment and diagnostic tools are lacking. Altered neck muscle function may cause pain and disability, and real-time non-invasive methods that investigate both superficial and deep neck muscle function need to be evaluated.Aim: The general aim of the work presented in this thesis was to investigate mechanical neck muscle function and evaluate effects of three different exercise interventions related to neck muscle function in individuals with persistent pain and disability after whiplash injury.Method: The thesis comprised two studies, reported in four papers. Study A was a prospective randomized controlled trail with 216 participants. The effects of three exercise interventions; neck-specific exercises, neck-specific exercises with behavioral approach and prescription of physical activity were evaluated. Neck muscle endurance, perceived pain following testing, kinesiophobia and satisfaction with treatment were compared between the three groups (paper I). Study B was an experimental case-control study with participants consecutively recruited from the randomized controlled trial. Deformation and deformation rates in the neck muscles were investigated with real-time ultrasound imaging during ten repetitive arm elevations (paper II-IV). To investigate ventral neck muscles, 26 individuals with WAD were compared with 26 healthy controls (paper II). The dorsal neck muscles were investigated in paper III, including 40 individuals with WAD and 40 controls. In total 46 individuals, 23 with WAD and 23 healthy controls were included in paper IV to develop ventral neck muscle interaction models.Results: Paper I: Participants in the two neck-specific exercise groups (with and without behavioral approach) showed increased dorsal neck muscle endurance (p = 0.003), decreased pain intensity following testing (p = 0.04) and were more satisfied with treatment (p < 0.001) than participants in the prescribed physical activity group. Kinesiophobia did not significantly differ between groups (p > 0.12).Paper II: Deformation and deformation rate showed linear positive relationship between ventral muscle pairs in healthy controls, especially between superficial and deep neck muscles. This relationship was weaker or absent in the WAD group.Paper III: The WAD group had higher deformation rates in the deepest dorsal neck muscles during the first and tenth (only women) arm elevations compared to the control group (p < 0.04). Women in the WAD group showed a weaker linear relationship between the two deepest dorsal neck muscles compared to women in the control group.Paper IV: The results revealed two different ventral neck muscle models in individuals with WAD and healthy controls (R2Y = 0.72, Q2Y = 0.59). The models were capable to detect different neck muscle interplay in people with WAD.Conclusion: Neck-specific exercise intervention with or without a behavioral approach appears to improve neck muscle endurance in individuals with persistent WAD. Decreased pain after the neck muscle endurance test also suggests improved tolerance of load in these two groups. Altered mechanical neck muscle function was revealed in individuals with WAD indicating decreased muscular support for maintain a stable cervical spine during repetitive arm elevations. The results show great promise for improved diagnosis of neck muscle function in WAD.
6.
  • Strömbäck, Edit, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and consequences of injuries in powerlifting a cross-sectional study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine. - Thousand Oaks, California : Sage Publications. - 2325-9671. ; 6:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Powerlifting consists of the squat, bench press, and dead lift, and extreme loads are lifted during training and competitions. Previous studies, which have defined an injury as an event that causes an interruption in training or competitions, have reported a relatively low frequency of powerlifting injuries (1.0-4.4 injuries/1000 hours of training). No previous study has investigated the prevalence of injuries, defined as a condition of pain or impairment of bodily function that affects powerlifters’ training, in a balanced sample of men and women, and no studies have established possible risk factors for an injury.Purpose: To investigate the prevalence, localization, and characterization of injuries among Swedish subelite classic powerlifters, with an emphasis on differences between men and women, and to investigate whether training and lifestyle factors are associated with an injury.Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.Methods: A total of 53 female and 51 male Swedish subelite powerlifters answered an online questionnaire including questions about background characteristics, training habits, and lifestyle factors. The main part of the questionnaire included questions about injuries and their consequences. An injury was defined as a condition of pain or impairment of bodily function that affects powerlifters’ training.Results: Seventy percent (73/104) of participants were currently injured, and 87% (83/95) had experienced an injury within the past 12 months. The lumbopelvic region, shoulder, and hip were the most commonly injured areas for both sexes. Women experienced a significantly greater frequency of injuries in the neck and thoracic region than men. Injuries seemed to occur during training, although only 16% (11/70) of those currently injured had to completely refrain from training. Training frequency, greater personal best in the dead lift, injury onset during bench-press and dead-lift training, use of straps, alcohol consumption, and dietary issues were associated with current injuries.Conclusion: Injuries are very common in subelite powerlifters. Men and women report similar injury frequencies but different anatomic locations. These injuries do not prevent powerlifters from training and competing, but they may change the content of training sessions. Why powerlifters develop injuries is still unclear; however, it is likely that the management of training loads and optimization of the lifting technique during the squat, bench press, and dead lift are of importance.
7.
  • Fröberg, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Awareness of current recommendations and guidlines regarding strength training for youth
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health. - 0334-0139. ; 26:4, s. 517-523
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: Physical conditioning of youth has always been a controversial topic as it raises ethical, physiological, and medical issues. Current recommendations and guidelines suggest that strength training is a relatively safe and worthwhile method in conditioning youth. This, however, requires well-informed coaches who follow age-appropriate strength training recommendations and guidelines, compiles well-designed strength training programs, and provides qualified supervision and instructions. The purpose of this study was to investigate coaches’ awareness of current recommendations and guidelines regarding strength training for youth.Method: A total of 39 football (US: soccer) coaches (34 males and 5 females) training boys in age groups 8–12 years were included in this study. Data were collected using an attitude statement questionnaire, and the assertions were based upon current recommendations and guidelines.Results: The results revealed significant differences among coaches in terms of knowledge of important aspects of strength training for youth.Conclusions: The results suggested that coaches in the present study were not aware of the latest recommendations and guidelines regarding strength training for youth.
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8.
  • Fröberg, Andreas, 1985-, et al. (författare)
  • Combinations of Epoch Durations and Cut-Points to Estimate Sedentary Time and Physical Activity Among Adolescents
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science. - Taylor & Francis. - 1091-367X. ; 21:3, s. 154-160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of the current study was to investigate how combinations of different epoch durations and cut-points affect the estimations of sedentary time and physical activity in adolescents. Accelerometer data from 101 adolescents were derived and 30 combinations were used to estimate sedentary time, light, moderate, vigorous, and combined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Data were analyzed with repeated measurement analyses of variance. Large differences of sedentary time and times of different physical activity intensities were observed between 1 s and longer epoch durations using virtually all cut-points. Generally, sedentary time, moderate physical activity, vigorous physical activity, and combined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity progressively decreased, whereas light physical activity increased with longer epoch durations. The extreme differences between cut-points were large and increased with longer epoch durations for sedentary time and for all physical activity intensities except for vigorous physical activity per epoch duration. Caution is required when cross-comparing studies using different epoch durations and cut-points. To accurately register adolescents’ spontaneous intermittent physical activity behavior, short epoch durations are recommended.
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9.
  • Fröberg, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Ledare tveksamma tillstyrketräningsråd för barn
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning : Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning. - Stockholm : Centrum för idrottsforskning (CIF). - 1103-4629. ; :4, s. 47-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I Sverige har vi haft en försiktig hållning till styrketräning för barn.År 2009 kom Riksidrottsförbundet med rekommendationer som imotsats till tidigare tydligt förespråkar styrketräning. I en pilotstudievisar vi bland annat att fotbollsledare från olika divisioner trots detär oeniga om vad som egentligen är det rätta.
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10.
  • Kahlin, Y., et al. (författare)
  • Physical self-esteem and personality traits in Swedish physically inactive female high school students : an intervention study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health. - 0334-0139. ; 28:4, s. 363-372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Physical activity provides fundamental health benefits and plays a positive role in physical well-being. The aim of this present study was to investigate whether a 6-month physical activity program could influence physical self-esteem and frequency of physical activity in physically inactive female high school students in short- and long-term periods and whether personality traits were related to physical activity behaviour and compliance with the program. METHODS: The study was a cluster-randomised controlled intervention study including 104 physically inactive female high school students aged 16-19 years, 60 females in an intervention group and 44 females in a control group. The intervention group exercised at sport centres at least once per week during a 6-month period. Questionnaires were used for evaluation. RESULTS: At a 6-month follow up, the intervention group improved physical self-perception in all subdomains and significantly improved physical condition, physical self-worth and self-related health compared to the control group. At 1-year follow up, 25 females out of 53 females were still physically active, and all ratings remained almost the same as at the 6-month follow up. There were no particular personality traits that were dominant in the groups. CONCLUSION: A 6-month physical activity program can positively influence physical self-esteem and the frequency of physical activity, both from a short- and long-term perspective.
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