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  • Klompstra, Leonie, 1982- (författare)
  • Physical activity in patients with heart failure motivations, self-efficacy and the potential of exergaming
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p><em>Background:</em> Adherence to recommendations for physical activity is low in patients with heart failure (HF). It is essential to explore to what extent and why patients with HF are physically active. Self-efficacy and motivation for physical activity are important in becoming more physically active, but the role of self-efficacy in the relationship between motivation and physical activity in patients with HF is unknown. Alternative approaches to motivate and increase self-efficacy to exercise are needed. One of these alternatives might be using exergames (games to improve physical exercise). Therefore, it is important to obtain more knowledge on the potential of exergaming to increase physical activity.</p><p>The overall aim was to describe the physical activity in patients with HF, with special focus on motivations and self-efficacy in physical activity, and to describe the potential of exergaming to improve exercise capacity.</p><p><em>Methods:</em> Study I (n = 154) and II (n = 101) in this thesis had a cross-sectional survey design. Study III (n = 32) was a 12-week pilot intervention study, including an exergame platform at home, with a pretest-posttest design. Study IV (n = 14) described the experiences of exergaming in patients who participated in the intervention group of a randomized controlled study in which they had access to an exergame platform at home.</p><p><em>Results:</em> In total, 34% of the patients with HF had a low level of physical activity, 46% had a moderate level, 23% reported a high level. Higher education, higher selfefficacy, and higher motivation were significantly associated with a higher amount of physical activity. Barriers to exercise were reported to be difficult to overcome and psychological motivations were the most important motivations to be physically active. Women had significantly higher total motivation to be physically active. Self-efficacy mediated the relationship between exercise motivation and physical activity; motivation leads to a higher self-efficacy towards physical activity.</p><p>More than half of the patients significantly increased their exercise capacity after 12 weeks of using an exergame platform at home. Lower NYHA-class and shorter time since diagnosis were factors significantly related to the increase in exercise capacity. The mean time spent exergaming was 28 minutes per day. Having grandchildren and being male were related to more time spent exergaming.</p><p>The analysis of the qualitative data resulted in three categories describing patients’ experience of exergaming: (i) making exergaming work, (ii) added value of exergaming, (iii) no appeal of exergaming.</p><p><em>Conclusion:</em> One-third of the patients with HF had a low level of physical activity in their daily life. Level of education, exercise self-efficacy, and motivation were important factors to take into account when advising patients with HF about physical activity. In addition to a high level of motivation to be physically active, it is important that patients with HF have a high degree of exercise self-efficacy.</p><p>Exergaming has the potential to increase exercise capacity in patients with HF. The results also showed that this technology might be suitable for some patients while others may prefer other kinds of physical activity.</p>
  • Fältström, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Functional Performance Among Active Female Soccer Players After Unilateral Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Compared With Knee-Healthy Controls
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Sports Medicine. - Sage Publications. - 0363-5465 .- 1552-3365. ; 45:2, s. 377-385
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background:</strong> Good functional performance with limb symmetry is believed to be important to minimize the risk of injury after a return to pivoting and contact sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR).</p><p><strong>Purpose:</strong> This study aimed to investigate any side-to-side limb differences in functional performance and movement asymmetries in female soccer players with a primary unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)–reconstructed knee and to compare these players with knee-healthy controls from the same soccer teams.</p><p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study included 77 active female soccer players at a median of 18 months after ACLR (interquartile range [IQR], 14.5 months; range, 7-39 months) and 77 knee-healthy female soccer players. The mean age was 20.1 ± 2.3 years for players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and 19.5 ± 2.2 years for controls. We used a battery of tests to assess postural control (Star Excursion Balance Test) and hop performance (1-legged hop for distance, 5-jump test, and side hop). Movement asymmetries in the lower limbs and trunk were assessed with the drop vertical jump and the tuck jump using 2-dimensional analyses.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> The reconstructed and uninvolved limbs did not differ in any of the tests. In the 5-jump test, players with an ACL-reconstructed knee performed worse than controls (mean 8.75 ± 1.05 m vs 9.09 ± 0.89 m; <em>P</em> = .034). On the drop vertical jump test, the ACL-reconstructed limb had significantly less knee valgus motion in the frontal plane (median 0.028 m [IQR, 0.049 m] vs 0.045 m [IQR, 0.043 m]; <em>P</em> = .004) and a lower probability of a high knee abduction moment (pKAM) (median 69.2% [IQR, 44.4%] vs 79.8% [IQR, 44.8%]; <em>P</em> = .043) compared with the control players’ matched limb (for leg dominance). Results showed that 9% to 49% of players in both groups performed outside recommended guidelines on the different tests. Only 14 players with an ACL-reconstructed knee (18%) and 15 controls (19%) had results that met the recommended guidelines for all 5 tests (<em>P</em> = .837).</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The reconstructed and uninvolved limbs did not differ, and players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and controls differed only minimally on the functional performance tests, indicating similar function. It is worth noting that many players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and controls had movement asymmetries and a high pKAM pattern, which have previously been associated with an increased risk for both primary and secondary ACL injury in female athletes.</p>
  • Osvalder, Anna-Lisa, 1961- (författare)
  • Evaluation of upright posture effects and user experience of the Swedish Posture Flexi harness
  • 2018
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • An upright posture positively affect body language and well-being. A body support that reminds how to sit, stand or walk upright could be a valuable tool for posture correction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate upright posture effects and user experience of the Flexi supportive posture harness with eight test subjects (3 males &amp; 5 females, age 25-57 years) during six weeks. Questionnaires and interviews were used as data collection methods. The results showed that the harness was a useful tool for supporting an upright posture and providing awareness of how to position the body when sitting, standing or walking. It gradually every week improved an upright posture by strengthen the back and core muscles. The harness provided symmetrical loadings on the shoulders and upper back, improved shoulder alignment and contributed to increased satisfaction of body language. Comfort and acceptance of the harness increased over time. A recommendation is that if you want to learn how to position your body correctly in an upright posture by activating the back, core and shoulder muscles an elastic support harness is a useful tool for this. It is important to state in the instruction manual that the harness should be used a number of times each week for 1-2 hours for at least one month to achieve posture learning effects.
  • Peterson, Gunnel, 1959- (författare)
  • Neck muscle function in individuals with persistent pain and disability after whiplash injury
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background:</strong> Neck pain and disability are common after whiplash injury. One year after the accident up to 50 % still have symptoms called whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Despite decades of research the cause of persistent pain and disability are largely unknown and effective treatment and diagnostic tools are lacking. Altered neck muscle function may cause pain and disability, and real-time non-invasive methods that investigate both superficial and deep neck muscle function need to be evaluated.</p><p><strong>Aim:</strong> The general aim of the work presented in this thesis was to investigate mechanical neck muscle function and evaluate effects of three different exercise interventions related to neck muscle function in individuals with persistent pain and disability after whiplash injury.</p><p><strong>Method:</strong> The thesis comprised two studies, reported in four papers. Study A was a prospective randomized controlled trail with 216 participants. The effects of three exercise interventions; neck-specific exercises, neck-specific exercises with behavioral approach and prescription of physical activity were evaluated. Neck muscle endurance, perceived pain following testing, kinesiophobia and satisfaction with treatment were compared between the three groups (paper I). Study B was an experimental case-control study with participants consecutively recruited from the randomized controlled trial. Deformation and deformation rates in the neck muscles were investigated with real-time ultrasound imaging during ten repetitive arm elevations (paper II-IV). To investigate ventral neck muscles, 26 individuals with WAD were compared with 26 healthy controls (paper II). The dorsal neck muscles were investigated in paper III, including 40 individuals with WAD and 40 controls. In total 46 individuals, 23 with WAD and 23 healthy controls were included in paper IV to develop ventral neck muscle interaction models.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> Paper I: Participants in the two neck-specific exercise groups (with and without behavioral approach) showed increased dorsal neck muscle endurance (<em>p</em> = 0.003), decreased pain intensity following testing (<em>p</em> = 0.04) and were more satisfied with treatment (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.001) than participants in the prescribed physical activity group. Kinesiophobia did not significantly differ between groups (<em>p</em> &gt; 0.12).</p><p>Paper II: Deformation and deformation rate showed linear positive relationship between ventral muscle pairs in healthy controls, especially between superficial and deep neck muscles. This relationship was weaker or absent in the WAD group.</p><p>Paper III: The WAD group had higher deformation rates in the deepest dorsal neck muscles during the first and tenth (only women) arm elevations compared to the control group (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.04). Women in the WAD group showed a weaker linear relationship between the two deepest dorsal neck muscles compared to women in the control group.</p><p>Paper IV: The results revealed two different ventral neck muscle models in individuals with WAD and healthy controls (R<sup>2</sup>Y = 0.72, Q<sup>2</sup>Y = 0.59). The models were capable to detect different neck muscle interplay in people with WAD.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Neck-specific exercise intervention with or without a behavioral approach appears to improve neck muscle endurance in individuals with persistent WAD. Decreased pain after the neck muscle endurance test also suggests improved tolerance of load in these two groups. Altered mechanical neck muscle function was revealed in individuals with WAD indicating decreased muscular support for maintain a stable cervical spine during repetitive arm elevations. The results show great promise for improved diagnosis of neck muscle function in WAD.</p>
  • Strömbäck, Edit, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and consequences of injuries in powerlifting a cross-sectional study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine. - Thousand Oaks, California : Sage Publications. - 2325-9671. ; 6:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Powerlifting consists of the squat, bench press, and dead lift, and extreme loads are lifted during training and competitions. Previous studies, which have defined an injury as an event that causes an interruption in training or competitions, have reported a relatively low frequency of powerlifting injuries (1.0-4.4 injuries/1000 hours of training). No previous study has investigated the prevalence of injuries, defined as a condition of pain or impairment of bodily function that affects powerlifters’ training, in a balanced sample of men and women, and no studies have established possible risk factors for an injury.</p><p>Purpose: To investigate the prevalence, localization, and characterization of injuries among Swedish subelite classic powerlifters, with an emphasis on differences between men and women, and to investigate whether training and lifestyle factors are associated with an injury.</p><p>Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.</p><p>Methods: A total of 53 female and 51 male Swedish subelite powerlifters answered an online questionnaire including questions about background characteristics, training habits, and lifestyle factors. The main part of the questionnaire included questions about injuries and their consequences. An injury was defined as a condition of pain or impairment of bodily function that affects powerlifters’ training.</p><p>Results: Seventy percent (73/104) of participants were currently injured, and 87% (83/95) had experienced an injury within the past 12 months. The lumbopelvic region, shoulder, and hip were the most commonly injured areas for both sexes. Women experienced a significantly greater frequency of injuries in the neck and thoracic region than men. Injuries seemed to occur during training, although only 16% (11/70) of those currently injured had to completely refrain from training. Training frequency, greater personal best in the dead lift, injury onset during bench-press and dead-lift training, use of straps, alcohol consumption, and dietary issues were associated with current injuries.</p><p>Conclusion: Injuries are very common in subelite powerlifters. Men and women report similar injury frequencies but different anatomic locations. These injuries do not prevent powerlifters from training and competing, but they may change the content of training sessions. Why powerlifters develop injuries is still unclear; however, it is likely that the management of training loads and optimization of the lifting technique during the squat, bench press, and dead lift are of importance.</p>
  • Rizzi, Maria C, et al. (författare)
  • The potential of different countermeasures to prevent injuries with high risk of health loss among bicyclists in Sweden
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Traffic Injury Prevention. - 1538-9588. ; 21:3, s. 215-221
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: As bicyclists account for the largest share of serious injuries in Sweden, focus to improve safety for bicyclists is needed. While knowledge about fatal bicycle crashes is rather extensive, the number of studies that have investigated non-fatal injuries is still rather limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential of different countermeasures to reduce crashes resulting in injuries with high risk of health-loss among cyclists in Sweden. A further aim was to describe the residual—that is, crashes that were not considered to be addressed by the analyzed countermeasures. Methods: A sample of individuals with specific injury diagnoses was drawn from the Swedish national crash database Strada. A survey form was used to collect additional information about the crash and the health-related outcomes. The potential of countermeasures currently included in the Swedish Safety Performance Indicators, as well as of countermeasures that could be described as “existing but not fully implemented” was assessed. The overall potential of all countermeasures assessed was calculated, giving a grand total without double counting. Cases that were considered not to be addressed by any of the countermeasures included (i.e., the residual crashes) were described in more detail. Results: The current Swedish Safety Performance Indicators that relate to safe cycling addressed 22% of crashes. Improved maintenance by deicing and removal of snow from bicycle infrastructure was found to have the highest potential (8%), followed by improved crashworthiness of passenger cars (5%) and safer bicycle crossings (4%). The potential for existing but not fully implemented safety improvements was 56%. The greatest potential was found for Autonomous Emergency Braking with cyclist detection for passenger cars (12%), followed by studded winter tyres for bicycles (12%), and improved maintenance on non-bicycle infrastructure (11%). In total, taking double counting into consideration, all safety improvements could address 64% of all crashes. Among the residual crashes, the majority (69%) were single bicycle crashes of which most were related to wheel locking during braking and losing balance at low speed or stationary. Conclusions: Compared with fatal crashes that involve a majority of bicycle-car crashes, the crashes leading to health-loss are mostly single bicycle crashes. Therefore, innovation and development of additional countermeasures to improve safety for bicyclists should focus on single bicycle crashes.
  • Zeisig, E, et al. (författare)
  • Akut behandling av hälseneruptur
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Svensk IdrottsMedicin nr 3. - 1103-7652. ; :3, s. 17-19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Stigson, Helena, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence of acute injuries among licensed and non-licensed cyclists using insurance registry data
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Conference proceedings International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, IRCOBI. - 22353151. ; s. 603-610
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Few previous studies have examined acute injuries in competitive cycling or training as compared to other sports. By using nationwide insurance data including all injured cyclist registered in the Swedish Cycling Federation and all reported injuries during exercise race in Sweden, the objective was to examine acute injuries during competitive cycling or training for different types of cyclists. The injury incidence and injuries leading to permanent medical impairment were examined. All cyclists that were injured during 2008-2017 were included (n=1937). Among the 2666 licensed cyclists the incidence of cyclists injured during training or competition was 44 per 1000 licensed cyclists per year. Focusing on participants in exercise races, the incidence was annually 1.5 injured cyclists per 1000 participants per year. The most commonly injured body region was the upper extremity (41%), followed by head and neck (18%). In total 9.4% of all injured cyclists sustained a permanent medical impairment. Given an injury, non-licensed participants in exercise races were slightly older, and the proportion of females were higher (30% vs. 16%), than among licensed cyclists. The injury incidence among the cyclists was high, and to maintain a healthy and physically active population it is important to make efforts to prevent injuries.
  • Gilenstam, Kajsa, et al. (författare)
  • Body Composition of Women’s Ice Hockey Players Comparison of Estimates Using Skinfolds and iDXA
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. - Wolters Kluwer. - 1064-8011 .- 1533-4287. ; 33:9, s. 2496-2502
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The purpose of this study was to compare percent fat (% Fat) estimates from anthropometric equations using skinfolds (SKF) in women’s ice hockey players to estimates obtained from Lunar iDXA. Data were collected on 19 elite female Swedish hockey players (mean age ± SD = 18.4 ± 2.4 y). Four skinfolds (SKF) (triceps, abdominal, suprailiac, and thigh) were measured within two hours of iDXA assessments. The % Fat estimates from iDXA and four anthropometric equations were compared using paired t-tests, and a one-way ANOVA was used to compare % Fat estimates from the anthropometric equations. Bland Altman analyses were used to assess agreement between % Fat estimates from SKF and iDXA. The significance level was set a priori at p&lt;0.05. The % Fat estimates from anthropometric equations were significantly lower than those from iDXA (mean ± SD: 26.85 ± 4.93%,p=0.000). Bland Altman analyses indicated mean differences of -7.96 to -10.13 percentage points between anthropometric equations and iDXA. Estimates of % Fat from anthropometric equations (range: 16.72% to 18.89%) were within the range reported in earlier studies using the Sum of 7 SKF. Thus, SKF offer a reasonable alternative to iDXA for this population, but result in underestimates of % Fat relative to iDXA. Strength and conditioning coaches should use the same body composition assessment method consistently, and interpret the results with caution, as they are estimates and not true values.</p>
  • Gonzalez-Calvo, Gustavo, et al. (författare)
  • 'I feel, therefore I am' : unpacking preservice physical education teachers' emotions
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Sport, Education and Society. - Routledge. - 1357-3322 .- 1470-1243. ; 25:5, s. 543-555
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The teaching profession requires an understanding of teachers' and students' emotions, and teachers' emotions can influence their teaching practice, professional development and pedagogical approaches. Furthermore, emotions are embodied and they may have a detrimental effect on wellbeing if they are not addressed properly. This paper explores the emotional dimensions of preservice primary teachers' practicum experiences in physical education (PE). Body journals were used to collect data which were analysed using a Sociology of Emotions (SoE) approach. The findings revealed that preservice teachers' emotions manifest physically during their practicum, especially at particular junctures, such as at the beginning of their teaching. Preservice teachers felt the need to make a 'good impression' within the school through the regulation of their emotions as they faced continual challenges to succeed in unfamiliar teaching circumstances. The conclusions of this study demonstrate the benefits of providing opportunities for preservice PE teachers to reflect on their emotions during the practicum and the consequences that these may have on their bodies and teaching practices.</p>
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