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  • Gyllensten, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Older assistant nurses’ motivation for a full or extended working life
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Ageing and Society. - Cambridge University Press. - 0144-686X. ; 39:12, s. 2699-2713
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to explore older workers’ motivation for a full or extended working life. With particular focus on assistant nurses aged 55–64 years, working in the elderly care sector. Focus group interviews were conducted with five different groups of assistant nurses. Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyse the interviews and five main themes were developed from the data: ‘Organisational issues’, ‘Health-related problems’, ‘Private issues’, ‘Meaningfulness and appreciation’ and ‘Social support’. Several of the main themes concerned problems with too high work demands of the assistant nurses. These findings suggest that it is important to improve the working conditions of assistant nurses in order to create a more sustainable working life. Increasing the number of staff and improving recovery opportunities and work–life balance could be important steps to improving the working conditions for this group. Finally, upgrading the competency and professionalism of assistant nurses could help to increase the motivation for a full or extended working life.
  • Westberg, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • Mortality Among Hardmetal Production Workers : The Swedish Cohort
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - Philadelphia, PA, USA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1076-2752. ; 59:12, s. e263-e274
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The mortality pattern was determined in a cohort of 16,999 white and blue-collar workers in the Swedish hardmetal industry, particularly for cobalt exposure and lung cancer.METHODS: The mortality follow-up analysis in the Swedish Mortality register covered the period from 1952 to 2012. The exposure measures were ever/never exposed, duration of exposure, cumulative, and mean cobalt concentrations.RESULTS: The mortality of all causes was significantly increased, highly associated with the short-term employed workers. A negative exposure-response was found for lung cancer and duration of exposure. An exposure-response was determined for cumulative and mean cobalt exposures analyzed by quartiles, but not for exposure classes. Internal comparison analysis using proportional hazard showed no exposure-response.CONCLUSIONS: The cohort lung cancer mortality showed no correlation to cobalt, nickel, or tungsten exposure.
  • Wiitavaara, Birgitta, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Psychometric testing of a short form questionnaire for measurement of health experiences among people with musculoskeletal disorders undergoing multimodal rehabilitation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2044-6055. ; 9:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AimThe aim of present study was to assess if a previously suggested short-form questionnaire tested among women with non-specific neck-shoulder pain is suitable also for use among men and women with non-specific musculoskeletal disorders in any part of the body, by testing its construct validity by a confirmatory factor analysis. If not, the secondary aim was to investigate the evolving factor structure when performing an explorative factor analysis of data in the expanded sample.MethodsQuestionnaire data was collected in three different contexts, in primary care via eight different multimodal rehabilitation teams, in specialised care via two different specialist care centres. The sample consisted of 116 participants, male (n=29) and female (n=87) with non-specific musculoskeletal disorders.Data was analysed using confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis and a visual comparison between the result of the Principal Component Analysis in present study, and the results attained in a previous study with a similar aim and design.ResultsThe confirmatory factor analyses did not end up in a model with acceptable measures for validity. Three models were tested, none of them met the criterion for an acceptable model and the goodness-of-fit statistics were not fully acceptable. The exploratory factor analysis had an only partly comparable result, compared to previous study.ConclusionThe results of present study did not prove the suggested short form questionnaire to be suitable for evaluation of symptoms among men and women with non-specific musculoskeletal disorders in any part of the body. Further studies including larger samples are recommended.
  • Strömgren, Marcus, et al. (författare)
  • Leadership quality: a factor important for social capital in healthcare organizations
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Health, Organisation and Management. - 1477-7266. ; 31:2, s. 175-191
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between leadership and social capital and what qualities of leadership are important for social capital among employees in hospital settings over time. Design/methodology/approach - A cohort of employees in hospitals answered a questionnaire at three occasions. Five small (approx. 100-bed) or mid-sized (approx. 500-bed) hospitals were included. The response rate was 54 percent at baseline (n = 865), 59 percent at one-year follow-up (n = 908) and 67 percent at two-year follow-up (n = 632). Findings - Repeated measures over time showed differences between groups in levels of social capital with respect to levels of leadership quality. Relation-oriented leadership had the strongest association with social capital. There was evidence that leadership was associated with social capital over time and that different kinds of leadership qualities were associated with social capital. Research limitations/implications - This study conducted and analyzed quantitative data, and therefore, there is no knowledge of managers' or employees' own perceptions in this study. However, it would be interesting to compare managers' decreased and increased leadership quality and how such differences affect social capital over time. Practical implications - The findings feature the possibility for healthcare leaders to build high quality leadership as an important resource for social capital, by using different leadership orientations under different circumstances. Originality/value - The paper showed that leadership was an important factor for building social capital and that different leadership qualities have different importance with respect to certain circumstances.
  • Soderberg, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Women's attitudes towards fertility and childbearing - A study based on a national sample of Swedish women validating the Attitudes to Fertility and Childbearing Scale (AFCS)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare. - 1877-5756 .- 1877-5764. ; 6:2, s. 54-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: A delay in childbearing has been reported in high-resource countries. Factors reported to impact postponement include being mature enough, completing studies, and receiving a good salary. Other reasons are the partner relationship, efficient forms of contraception, value changes, housing conditions, and economic uncertainty. The aim of the study was to validate the previously developed instrument Attitudes to Fertility and Childbearing Scale (AFCS) in a sample of Swedish women and to relate the components to the women's socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: Four hundred and twenty-four women, 20-30 years of age, who were not mothers answered and returned the questionnaire. Statistical analysis was conducted; construct validity using principal comwomen's background characteristics. ponent analysis (PCA), Student's t-test, and ANOVA was performed between the three components and women's background characteristics. Results: The two components with highest loadings were Importance for future and Hindrance at present, indicating a time conflict. The third component was Female identity. The youngest women, single women, students, and women living in large cities were more likely to score high with the component Hindrance at present. Women having a partner were more likely to score high on Importance for future and Female identity. Conclusion: In this population, age, occupation, residential area, and civil (marital) status play a role in the attitudes towards fertility and childbearing. Fertility in relation to individual differences and age needs to be informed and discussed in society as well as in sexual and reproductive health care.
  • Johansson Capusan, Andrea, et al. (författare)
  • Childhood maltreatment and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adults : a large twin study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. - 0033-2917. ; 46:12, s. 2637-2646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundChildhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. It is, however, unclear whether this association is causal or due to familial confounding.MethodData from 18 168 adult twins, aged 20–46 years, were drawn from the population-based Swedish twin registry. Retrospective self-ratings of CM (emotional and physical neglect, physical and sexual abuse and witnessing family violence), and self-ratings for DSM-IV ADHD symptoms in adulthood were analysed. Possible familial confounding was investigated using a within twin-pair design based on monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins.esultsCM was significantly associated with increased levels of ADHD symptom scores in adults [regression coefficient: 0.40 standard deviations, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37–0.43]. Within twin-pair analyses showed attenuated but significant estimates within DZ (0.29, 95% CI 0.21–0.36) and MZ (0.18, 95% CI 0.10–0.25) twin pairs. Similar results emerged for hyperactive/impulsive and inattentive ADHD symptom scores separately in association with CM. We conducted sensitivity analyses for early maltreatment, before age 7, and for abuse and neglect separately, and found similarly reduced estimates in DZ and MZ pairs. Re-traumatization after age 7 did not significantly influence results.ConclusionsCM was significantly associated with increased ADHD symptoms in adults. Associations were partly due to familial confounding, but also consistent with a causal interpretation. Our findings support cognitive neuroscience studies investigating neural pathways through which exposure to CM may influence ADHD. Clinicians treating adults with ADHD should be aware of the association with maltreatment.
  • Klinthäll, Martin, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Migration and health: a study of effects of early life experiences and current socio-economic situation on mortality of immigrants in Sweden.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Ethnicity and Health. - Taylor & Francis. - 1355-7858. ; 16, s. 601-623
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives. Previous research has demonstrated mortality differences between immigrants and natives living in Sweden. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of early life conditions in the country of birth and current socio-economic conditions in adult life in Sweden on cardiovascular, cancer, all other cause and total mortality among immigrants and natives in Sweden. Design. The cohort data concerning individual demographic characteristics and socio-economic conditions stems from the Swedish Longitudinal Immigrant Database (SLI), a register-based representative database, and consists of individuals from 11 countries of birth, born between 1921 and 1939, who were residents in Sweden between 1980 and 2001. The associations between current socio-economic conditions as well as infant mortality rates (IMR) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in the year and country of birth, and total, cardiovascular, cancer and 'all other' mortality in 1980-2001 were calculated by survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate hazard rate ratios. Results. The effects of current adult life socio-economic conditions in Sweden on mortality are both stronger and more straightforward than the effects of early life conditions in the sense that higher socio-economic status is significantly associated with lower mortality in all groups of diagnoses; however, we find associations between infant mortality rates (IMR) in the year and country of birth, and cancer mortality among men and women in the final model. Conclusions. Socioeconomic conditions in Sweden are more strongly associated with mortality than early life indicators IMR and GDP per capita in the year of birth in the country of origin. This finding has health policy and other policy implications.
  • Lydell, Marie, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Thoughts and feelings of future working life as a predictor of return to work : a combined qualitative and quantitative study of sick-listed persons with musculoskeletal disorders
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Disability and Rehabilitation. - London : Taylor & Francis Group. - 0963-8288. ; 33:13-14, s. 1262-1271
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose. The main aim of this study was to describe the thoughts and feelings of future working life related to return to work (RTW) in sick-listed persons due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Further aim was to compare these descriptions with the person’s actual working situation 1, 5 and 10 years after a rehabilitation period.Methods. This study consisted of two parts. The first part had an explorative design, and qualitative content analysis was chosen in order to analyse the response to an open question regarding future working life answered before, persons sick-listed due to MSD (n = 320), took part in a rehabilitation programme 10 years ago. The second part had a prospective design and quantitative analysis was used to compare the results of the qualitative analysis with RTW and the working situation 1, 5 and 10 years after baseline.Results. Three categories emerged from the data with a total of nine subcategories. In the categories Motivation and optimism and Limitations to overcome, there were significantly more persons who had RTW 1 year after baseline when compared with the category Hindrance and hesitation. There were also some significant differences between the subcategories.Conclusions. The question, regarding thoughts and feelings of future working life, may be a simple screening method to predict RTW in persons sick-listed with MSD. This will guide the rehabilitation team to adjust the rehabilitation to each person’s needs and facilitating RTW.
  • Virtanen, M., et al. (författare)
  • Long working hours and alcohol use Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal (International Ed.). - 0959-8146. ; 350, s. Art. no. g7772
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objective: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. Data sources: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. Review methods: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression. Results: Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333 693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100 602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours and ≥55 hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate. Conclusions: Individuals whose working hours exceed standard recommendations are more likely to increase their alcohol use to levels that pose a health risk.
  • Bergdahl, Ingvar A., et al. (författare)
  • Mercury in serum predicts low risk of death and myocardial infarction in Gothenburg women.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International archives of occupational and environmental health. - 1432-1246. ; 86:1, s. 71-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Markers of mercury (Hg) exposure have shown both positive and negative associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We assessed the association between serum Hg (S-Hg) and risk of cardiovascular disease in a prospective population-based cohort, with attention to the roles of dental health and fish consumption.METHODS: Total mortality, as well as morbidity and mortality from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke, was followed up for 32 years in 1,391 women (initially age 38-60), in relation to S-Hg at baseline, using Cox regression models. Potential confounders (age, socioeconomic status, serum lipids, alcohol consumption, dental health, smoking, hypertension, waist-hip ratio, and diabetes) and other covariates (e.g., fish consumption) were also considered.RESULTS: Hazard ratios (HR) adjusted only for age showed strong inverse associations between baseline S-Hg and total mortality [highest quartile: hazard ratio (HR) 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59-0.97], incident AMI (HR 0.56; CI 0.34-0.93), and fatal AMI (HR 0.31; CI 0.15-0.66). Adjustment for potential confounding factors, especially dental health, had a strong impact on the risk estimates, and after adjustment, only the reduced risk of fatal AMI remained statistically significant.CONCLUSIONS: There was a strong inverse association between Hg exposure and CVD. Likely, reasons are confounding with good dental health (also correlated with the number of amalgam fillings in these age groups) and/or fish consumption. The results suggest potential effects of dental health and/or fish consumption on CVD that deserve attention in preventive medicine.
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