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  • Gyllensten, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Older assistant nurses’ motivation for a full or extended working life
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Ageing and Society. - Cambridge University Press. - 0144-686X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to explore older workers’ motivation for a full or extended working life. With particular focus on assistant nurses aged 55–64 years, working in the elderly care sector. Focus group interviews were conducted with five different groups of assistant nurses. Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyse the interviews and five main themes were developed from the data: ‘Organisational issues’, ‘Health-related problems’, ‘Private issues’, ‘Meaningfulness and appreciation’ and ‘Social support’. Several of the main themes concerned problems with too high work demands of the assistant nurses. These findings suggest that it is important to improve the working conditions of assistant nurses in order to create a more sustainable working life. Increasing the number of staff and improving recovery opportunities and work–life balance could be important steps to improving the working conditions for this group. Finally, upgrading the competency and professionalism of assistant nurses could help to increase the motivation for a full or extended working life.
  • Heikkilä, Katriina, et al. (författare)
  • Job strain and COPD exacerbations an individual-participant meta-analysis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936. ; 44:1, s. 247-251
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To the Editor:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide (1). The clinical course of COPD is characterised by exacerbations, which can be minor and manageable at home or in primary care, or severe, leading to hospitalisation or even death. Known causes of exacerbations include tobacco smoke, air pollution, dusts and fumes, and respiratory infections (1, 2). One less well understood risk factor is stress, which could plausibly lead to COPD exacerbations as it can trigger inflammation (3, 4) and is associated with increased smoking (5), which are both implicated in COPD pathology (2). Work is an important source of stress in the age groups in which COPD is typically diagnosed (1, 6). However, we are not aware of previous investigations of work-related stress and the risk of COPD exacerbations.In this study, we examined the associations between job strain (the most widely studied conceptualisation of work-related stress) and severe COPD exacerbations using individual-level data from 10 prospective cohort studies from the Individual Participant Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium (7). Job strain is defined as a combination of high demands (excessive amounts of work) and low control (having little influence on what tasks to.
  • Westberg, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • Mortality Among Hardmetal Production Workers : The Swedish Cohort
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - Philadelphia, PA, USA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1076-2752. ; 59:12, s. e263-e274
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The mortality pattern was determined in a cohort of 16,999 white and blue-collar workers in the Swedish hardmetal industry, particularly for cobalt exposure and lung cancer.METHODS: The mortality follow-up analysis in the Swedish Mortality register covered the period from 1952 to 2012. The exposure measures were ever/never exposed, duration of exposure, cumulative, and mean cobalt concentrations.RESULTS: The mortality of all causes was significantly increased, highly associated with the short-term employed workers. A negative exposure-response was found for lung cancer and duration of exposure. An exposure-response was determined for cumulative and mean cobalt exposures analyzed by quartiles, but not for exposure classes. Internal comparison analysis using proportional hazard showed no exposure-response.CONCLUSIONS: The cohort lung cancer mortality showed no correlation to cobalt, nickel, or tungsten exposure.
  • Pálsdóttir, Anna María, et al. (författare)
  • The journey of recovery and empowerment embraced by nature - clients' perspectives on nature-based rehabilitation in relation to the role of the natural environment.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. - 1660-4601. ; 11:7, s. 7094-7115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents findings from real life situations, a longitudinal single case study on the role of natural environments in nature-based rehabilitation (NBR) for individuals with stress-related mental disorders, at the Alnarp Rehabilitation Garden in Sweden. A sample of 43 former clients voluntarily participated in semi-structured interview, and the data were analyzed according to interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Three main superordinate themes were identified as the three phases of NBR-Prelude, Recuperating and Empowerment-explaining and illuminating the role of the natural environments in each phase. An explanatory model of NBR in this context is presented including the three phases of NBR, IRP supportive occupations and a pyramid of supporting environments. A new component of supportive environments was identified and herby named, Social quietness, an important component facilitating personal and intimate engagement with the natural environments.
  • Wiitavaara, Birgitta, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Psychometric testing of a short form questionnaire for measurement of health experiences among people with musculoskeletal disorders undergoing multimodal rehabilitation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2044-6055. ; 9:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AimThe aim of present study was to assess if a previously suggested short-form questionnaire tested among women with non-specific neck-shoulder pain is suitable also for use among men and women with non-specific musculoskeletal disorders in any part of the body, by testing its construct validity by a confirmatory factor analysis. If not, the secondary aim was to investigate the evolving factor structure when performing an explorative factor analysis of data in the expanded sample.MethodsQuestionnaire data was collected in three different contexts, in primary care via eight different multimodal rehabilitation teams, in specialised care via two different specialist care centres. The sample consisted of 116 participants, male (n=29) and female (n=87) with non-specific musculoskeletal disorders.Data was analysed using confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis and a visual comparison between the result of the Principal Component Analysis in present study, and the results attained in a previous study with a similar aim and design.ResultsThe confirmatory factor analyses did not end up in a model with acceptable measures for validity. Three models were tested, none of them met the criterion for an acceptable model and the goodness-of-fit statistics were not fully acceptable. The exploratory factor analysis had an only partly comparable result, compared to previous study.ConclusionThe results of present study did not prove the suggested short form questionnaire to be suitable for evaluation of symptoms among men and women with non-specific musculoskeletal disorders in any part of the body. Further studies including larger samples are recommended.
  • Strömgren, Marcus, et al. (författare)
  • Leadership quality: a factor important for social capital in healthcare organizations
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Health, Organisation and Management. - 1477-7266. ; 31:2, s. 175-191
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between leadership and social capital and what qualities of leadership are important for social capital among employees in hospital settings over time. Design/methodology/approach - A cohort of employees in hospitals answered a questionnaire at three occasions. Five small (approx. 100-bed) or mid-sized (approx. 500-bed) hospitals were included. The response rate was 54 percent at baseline (n = 865), 59 percent at one-year follow-up (n = 908) and 67 percent at two-year follow-up (n = 632). Findings - Repeated measures over time showed differences between groups in levels of social capital with respect to levels of leadership quality. Relation-oriented leadership had the strongest association with social capital. There was evidence that leadership was associated with social capital over time and that different kinds of leadership qualities were associated with social capital. Research limitations/implications - This study conducted and analyzed quantitative data, and therefore, there is no knowledge of managers' or employees' own perceptions in this study. However, it would be interesting to compare managers' decreased and increased leadership quality and how such differences affect social capital over time. Practical implications - The findings feature the possibility for healthcare leaders to build high quality leadership as an important resource for social capital, by using different leadership orientations under different circumstances. Originality/value - The paper showed that leadership was an important factor for building social capital and that different leadership qualities have different importance with respect to certain circumstances.
  • Soderberg, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Women's attitudes towards fertility and childbearing - A study based on a national sample of Swedish women validating the Attitudes to Fertility and Childbearing Scale (AFCS)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare. - 1877-5756 .- 1877-5764. ; 6:2, s. 54-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: A delay in childbearing has been reported in high-resource countries. Factors reported to impact postponement include being mature enough, completing studies, and receiving a good salary. Other reasons are the partner relationship, efficient forms of contraception, value changes, housing conditions, and economic uncertainty. The aim of the study was to validate the previously developed instrument Attitudes to Fertility and Childbearing Scale (AFCS) in a sample of Swedish women and to relate the components to the women's socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: Four hundred and twenty-four women, 20-30 years of age, who were not mothers answered and returned the questionnaire. Statistical analysis was conducted; construct validity using principal comwomen's background characteristics. ponent analysis (PCA), Student's t-test, and ANOVA was performed between the three components and women's background characteristics. Results: The two components with highest loadings were Importance for future and Hindrance at present, indicating a time conflict. The third component was Female identity. The youngest women, single women, students, and women living in large cities were more likely to score high with the component Hindrance at present. Women having a partner were more likely to score high on Importance for future and Female identity. Conclusion: In this population, age, occupation, residential area, and civil (marital) status play a role in the attitudes towards fertility and childbearing. Fertility in relation to individual differences and age needs to be informed and discussed in society as well as in sexual and reproductive health care.
  • Johansson Capusan, Andrea, et al. (författare)
  • Childhood maltreatment and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adults : a large twin study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. - 0033-2917. ; 46:12, s. 2637-2646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundChildhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. It is, however, unclear whether this association is causal or due to familial confounding.MethodData from 18 168 adult twins, aged 20–46 years, were drawn from the population-based Swedish twin registry. Retrospective self-ratings of CM (emotional and physical neglect, physical and sexual abuse and witnessing family violence), and self-ratings for DSM-IV ADHD symptoms in adulthood were analysed. Possible familial confounding was investigated using a within twin-pair design based on monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins.esultsCM was significantly associated with increased levels of ADHD symptom scores in adults [regression coefficient: 0.40 standard deviations, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37–0.43]. Within twin-pair analyses showed attenuated but significant estimates within DZ (0.29, 95% CI 0.21–0.36) and MZ (0.18, 95% CI 0.10–0.25) twin pairs. Similar results emerged for hyperactive/impulsive and inattentive ADHD symptom scores separately in association with CM. We conducted sensitivity analyses for early maltreatment, before age 7, and for abuse and neglect separately, and found similarly reduced estimates in DZ and MZ pairs. Re-traumatization after age 7 did not significantly influence results.ConclusionsCM was significantly associated with increased ADHD symptoms in adults. Associations were partly due to familial confounding, but also consistent with a causal interpretation. Our findings support cognitive neuroscience studies investigating neural pathways through which exposure to CM may influence ADHD. Clinicians treating adults with ADHD should be aware of the association with maltreatment.
  • Klinthäll, Martin, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Migration and health: a study of effects of early life experiences and current socio-economic situation on mortality of immigrants in Sweden.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Ethnicity and Health. - Taylor & Francis. - 1355-7858. ; 16, s. 601-623
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives. Previous research has demonstrated mortality differences between immigrants and natives living in Sweden. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of early life conditions in the country of birth and current socio-economic conditions in adult life in Sweden on cardiovascular, cancer, all other cause and total mortality among immigrants and natives in Sweden. Design. The cohort data concerning individual demographic characteristics and socio-economic conditions stems from the Swedish Longitudinal Immigrant Database (SLI), a register-based representative database, and consists of individuals from 11 countries of birth, born between 1921 and 1939, who were residents in Sweden between 1980 and 2001. The associations between current socio-economic conditions as well as infant mortality rates (IMR) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in the year and country of birth, and total, cardiovascular, cancer and 'all other' mortality in 1980-2001 were calculated by survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate hazard rate ratios. Results. The effects of current adult life socio-economic conditions in Sweden on mortality are both stronger and more straightforward than the effects of early life conditions in the sense that higher socio-economic status is significantly associated with lower mortality in all groups of diagnoses; however, we find associations between infant mortality rates (IMR) in the year and country of birth, and cancer mortality among men and women in the final model. Conclusions. Socioeconomic conditions in Sweden are more strongly associated with mortality than early life indicators IMR and GDP per capita in the year of birth in the country of origin. This finding has health policy and other policy implications.
  • Lydell, Marie, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Thoughts and feelings of future working life as a predictor of return to work : a combined qualitative and quantitative study of sick-listed persons with musculoskeletal disorders
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Disability and Rehabilitation. - London : Taylor & Francis Group. - 0963-8288. ; 33:13-14, s. 1262-1271
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose. The main aim of this study was to describe the thoughts and feelings of future working life related to return to work (RTW) in sick-listed persons due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Further aim was to compare these descriptions with the person’s actual working situation 1, 5 and 10 years after a rehabilitation period.Methods. This study consisted of two parts. The first part had an explorative design, and qualitative content analysis was chosen in order to analyse the response to an open question regarding future working life answered before, persons sick-listed due to MSD (n = 320), took part in a rehabilitation programme 10 years ago. The second part had a prospective design and quantitative analysis was used to compare the results of the qualitative analysis with RTW and the working situation 1, 5 and 10 years after baseline.Results. Three categories emerged from the data with a total of nine subcategories. In the categories Motivation and optimism and Limitations to overcome, there were significantly more persons who had RTW 1 year after baseline when compared with the category Hindrance and hesitation. There were also some significant differences between the subcategories.Conclusions. The question, regarding thoughts and feelings of future working life, may be a simple screening method to predict RTW in persons sick-listed with MSD. This will guide the rehabilitation team to adjust the rehabilitation to each person’s needs and facilitating RTW.
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