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1.
  • Marklund, Matti, et al. (författare)
  • Alkylresorcinol metabolites in urine correlate with the intake of whole grains and cereal fibre in free-living Swedish adults
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition. - Cambridge Journals : Cambridge University Press (CUP): PDF allowed. - 0007-1145 .- 1475-2662. ; 109:1, s. 129-136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alkylresorcinols (AR) have been established as short/medium-term biomarkers for whole grain (WG) wheat and rye intake; and AR metabolites, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, have been suggested as complementary biomarkers to AR. The present study examined the medium-term reproducibility and relative validity of urinary AR metabolites as biomarkers for WG and cereal fibre intake. A total of sixty-six free-living Swedes completed 3 d weighed food records and provided single 24 h urine collections and morning urine spot samples on two occasions, 2–3 months apart. The medium-term reproducibility of urinary AR metabolites was moderate when assessed in 24 h collections and lower in creatinine (CR)-adjusted morning urine. Mean AR metabolite 24 h excretions correlated well with total WG (rs 0·31–0·52, P < 0·05) and cereal fibre (rs 0·46–0·58, P < 0·001) intake on both occasions. As expected, correlations with WG (rs 0·28–0·38, P < 0·05) and cereal fibre (rs 0·35–0·42, P < 0·01) were weaker for mean CR-adjusted AR metabolite concentrations in spot samples of morning urine, although the adjusted concentrations correlated well with 24 h urinary excretion (rs 0·69–0·73, P < 0·001). Adjustment for intra-individual variations substantially improved the correlations between intake and excretion. These findings suggest that urinary AR metabolites can successfully reflect the medium-term intake of WG and cereal fibre when adjusted for intra-individual variation in this population, where rye was the major contributor to high WG intake. The performance of urinary AR metabolites as medium-term biomarkers appears to be comparable to that of fasting plasma AR concentration in this population.
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2.
  • Tham, Wilhelm, 1951-, et al. (författare)
  • More than one variant of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from each of two human cases of invasive listeriosis
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Epidemiology and Infection. - 0950-2688 .- 1469-4409. ; 135:5, s. 854-856
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two variants of Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from blood cultures from each of two patients with listeriosis. Each variant displayed a two-band difference in DNA profile from the other by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Although this difference in profile is insufficient to distinguish clearly between the variants, the possibility of co-infection with different strains of L. monocytogenes needs to be considered. We suggest that more than one colony should be selected for molecular typing to aid interpretation during investigation of the sources and routes of Listeria infection.
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3.
  • Sindi, Shireen, et al. (författare)
  • Healthy dietary changes in midlife are associated with reduced dementia risk later in life
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nutrients. - : MDPI. - 2072-6643 .- 2072-6643. ; 10:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diet is an important modifiable lifestyle factor related to dementia risk. Yet, the role of midlife dietary changes is unclear. The goal is to investigate whether midlife healthy dietary changes are associated with late-life dementia risk. Data were collected within the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Dementia (CAIDE) population-based cohort study (n = 2000) (mean baseline age = 56 years). Participants returned for two late-life re-examinations (mean age = 70 and 78 years). Self-reported midlife diet was measured in a sub-sample (n = 341) (mean total follow-up = 16.8 years). Changes in specific dietary components (fats, vegetables, sugar, salt) were measured in midlife. Dementia diagnoses were ascertained with detailed examinations. Analyses adjusted for potential confounders. Total midlife healthy dietary changes (improving quality of fats, increasing vegetables, decreasing sugar and salt) were associated with a reduced risk of dementia (fully adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.20–0.85). In contrast, when each factor was assessed individually, associations were not significant. This study is the first to show that beneficial midlife dietary changes are associated with a reduced dementia risk later in life. The results highlight the importance of targeting dietary patterns, where various food items may have synergistic effects. 
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4.
  • Tognon, Gianluca, et al. (författare)
  • Does the Mediterranean diet predict longevity in the elderly? : A Swedish perspective
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Age (Omaha). - : Springer. - 0161-9152 .- 1574-4647. ; 33:3, s. 439-450
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dietary pattern analysis represents a useful improvement in the investigation of diet and health relationships. Particularly, the Mediterranean diet pattern has been associated with reduced mortality risk in several studies involving both younger and elderly population groups. In this research, relationships between dietary macronutrient composition, as well as the Mediterranean diet, and total mortality were assessed in 1,037 seventy-year-old subjects (540 females) information. Diet macronutrient composition was not associated with mortality, while a refined version of the modified Mediterranean diet index showed a significant inverse association (HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89; 0.98). As expected, inactive subjects, smokers and those with a higher waist circumference had a higher mortality, while a reduced risk characterized married and more educated people. Sensitivity analyses (which confirmed our results) consisted of: exclusion of one food group at a time in the Mediterranean diet index, exclusion of early deaths, censoring at fixed follow-up time, adjusting for activities of daily living and main cardiovascular risk factors including weight/waist circumference changes at follow up. In conclusion, we can reasonably state that a higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern, especially by consuming wholegrain cereals, foods rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a limited amount of alcohol, predicts increased longevity in the elderly.
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5.
  • Berendsen, A. A. M., et al. (författare)
  • Association of Adherence to a Healthy Diet with Cognitive Decline in European and American Older Adults: A Meta-Analysis within the CHANCES Consortium
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. - 1420-8008 .- 1421-9824. ; 43:3-4, s. 215-227
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To examine the association between a healthy diet, assessed by the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and cognitive decline in older adults. Methods: Data from 21,837 participants aged >= 55 years from 3 cohorts (Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly, a Concerted Action [SENECA], Rotterdam Study [RS], Nurses' Health Study [NHS]) were analyzed. HDI scores were based on intakes of saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, mono-and disaccharides, protein, cholesterol, fruits and vegetables, and fiber. The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status in NHS and Mini-Mental State Examination in RS and SENECA were used to assess cognitive function from multiple repeated measures. Using multivariable-adjusted, mixed linear regression, mean differences in annual rates of cognitive decline by HDI quintiles were estimated. Results: Multivariable-adjusted differences in rates in the highest versus the lowest HDI quintile were 0.01 (95% CI -0.01, 0.02) in NHS, 0.00 (95% CI -0.02, 0.01) in RS, and 0.00 (95% CI -0.05, 0.05) in SENECA with a pooled estimate of 0.00 (95% CI -0.01, 0.01), I-2 = 0%. Conclusions: A higher HDI score was not related to reduced rates of cognitive decline in European and American older adults. (C) 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel
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6.
  • Davide, Giacalone, et al. (författare)
  • Health and quality of life in an aging population - Food and beyond
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Food Quality and Preference. - : Elsevier Ltd. - 0950-3293 .- 1873-6343. - 09503293 (ISSN) ; 47, s. 166-170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In Europe the percentage of citizens aged 65 and over is increasing at an unprecedented rate, and is expected to account for over 30% of the population by 2050. Coupled with an increase in life expectancy, this massive demographic change calls for a major effort to ensure quality of life in our older population. A thorough understanding of the elderly as food consumers, their nutritional needs, their food perception and preferences is increasingly needed.The role of food in healthy aging was a prominent theme at the 6th European Conference on Sensory and Consumer Research, which had quality of life across the life span as a focal point. This short paper is based on a workshop held at the EuroSense meeting, focusing on research from sensory and consumer scientists. The workshop featured contributions focusing on food-related perception, needs and behavior of the elderly, and aimed at demonstrating the relevance of sensory and consumer scientists in promoting food-related well-being in an aging population. The workshop contributions are here reviewed and summarized three main themes: nutritional needs, food perception and aging, and behavioral drivers of food consumption.
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7.
  • Eiben, G, et al. (författare)
  • Secular trends in diet among elderly Swedes : cohort comparisons over three decades
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition. - 1368-9800 .- 1475-2727. ; 7:5, s. 637-644
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare dietary practices among different birth cohorts of 70-year-old Swedes, who were examined between 1971 and 2000.Setting: Göteborg, Sweden.Design: Four population-based samples of 1360 70-year-olds, born in 1901, 1911, 1922 and 1930, have undergone health examinations and dietary assessments over a period of almost three decades. One-hour diet history (DH) interviews were conducted in 1971, 1981, 1992 and 2000 with a total of 758 women and 602 women. The formats and contents of the dietary examinations were similar over the years. Statistical analysis of linear trends was conducted, using year of examination as the independent variable, to detect secular trends in food and nutrient intakes across cohorts.Results: At the 2000 examination, the majority of 70-year-olds consumed nutritionally adequate diets. Later-born cohorts consumed more yoghurt, breakfast cereals, fruit, vegetables, chicken, rice and pasta than earlier-born cohorts. Consumption of low-fat spread and milk also increased, along with that of wine, light beer and candy. In contrast, potatoes, cakes and sugar were consumed less in 2000 than in 1971. The ratio of reported energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate did not show any systematic trend over time in women, but showed a significant upward trend in men.Conclusions: The diet history method has captured changes in food selections in the elderly without changing in general format over three decades. Dietary quality has improved in a number of ways, and these findings in the elderly are consistent with national food consumption trends in the general population.
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8.
  • Englund, Davis A., et al. (författare)
  • Nutritional Supplementation With Physical Activity Improves Muscle Composition in Mobility-Limited Older Adults, The VIVE2 Study : A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. - 1079-5006 .- 1758-535X. ; 73:1, s. 95-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Nutritional supplementation and physical activity have been shown to positively influence muscle mass and strength in older adults. The efficacy of long-term nutritional supplementation in combination with physical activity in older adults remains unclear.Methods: Mobility-limited (short physical performance battery [SPPB] ≤9) and vitamin D insufficient (serum 25(OH) D 9–24 ng/mL) older adults were recruited for this study. All subjects participated in a physical activity program. Subjects were randomized to consume a daily nutritional supplement (150 kcal, 20 g whey protein, 800 IU vitamin D, 119 mL beverage) or placebo (30 kcal, nonnutritive, 119 mL). In a prespecified secondary analysis, we examined total-body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), thigh composition (computed tomography), and muscle strength, power, and quality before and after the 6-month intervention.Results: One hundred and forty-nine subjects were randomized into the study [mean (standard deviation, SD) age 78.5 (5.4) years; 46.3% female; mean (SD) short physical performance battery 7.9 (1.2); mean (SD) vitamin D 18.7 (6.4) ng/mL]. After the intervention period both groups demonstrated improvements in muscle strength, body composition, and thigh composition. Nutritional supplementation lead to further losses of intermuscular fat (p = .049) and increased normal muscle density (p = .018).Conclusions: Six months of physical activity resulted in improvements in body composition, subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat, and strength measures. The addition of nutritional supplementation resulted in further declines in intermuscular fat and improved muscle density compared to placebo. These results suggest nutritional supplementation provides additional benefits to mobility-limited older adults undergoing exercise training.
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9.
  • Farooqi, N., et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of energy intake in women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A doubly labeled water method study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nutrition Health & Aging. - 1279-7707 .- 1760-4788. ; 19:5, s. 518-524
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To maintain energy balance, reliable methods for assessing energy intake and expenditure should be used in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study was to validate the diet history and 7-day food diary methods of assessing energy intake (EI) using total energy expenditure (TEE) with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method (TEEDLW) as the criterion method in outpatient women with COPD. EI was assessed by diet history (EIDH) and a 7-day food diary (EIFD) in 19 women with COPD, using TEEDLW as the criterion method. The three methods were compared using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman analyses. The participants were classified according to their reporting status (EI/TEE) as valid-reporters 0.79-1.21, under-reporters < 0.79 or over-reporters > 1.21. Diet history underestimated reported EI by 28%, and 7-day food diary underestimated EI by approximately 20% compared with TEEDLW. The ICC analysis showed weak agreement between TEEDLW and EIDH (ICC=-0.01; 95%CI-0.10 to 0.17) and between TEEDLW and EIFD (ICC=0.11; 95%CI -0.16 to 0.44). The Bland-Altman plots revealed a slight systematic bias for both methods. For diet history, six women (32%) were identified as valid-reporters, and for the 7-day food diary, twelve women (63%) were identified as valid-reporters. The accuracy of reported EI was only related to BMI. The diet history and 7-day food diary methods underestimated energy intake in women with COPD compared with the DLW method. Individuals with higher BMIs are prone to underreporting. Seven-day food diaries should be used with caution in assessing EI in women with COPD.
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10.
  • Liberman, Keliane, et al. (författare)
  • Thirteen weeks of supplementation of vitamin D and leucine-enriched whey protein nutritional supplement attenuates chronic low-grade inflammation in sarcopenic older adults : the PROVIDE study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. - : SPRINGER. - 1594-0667 .- 1720-8319. ; 31:6, s. 845-854
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background A chronic low-grade infammatory profle (CLIP) is associated with sarcopenia in older adults. Protein and Vitamin (Vit)D have immune-modulatory potential, but evidence for efects of nutritional supplementation on CLIP is limited. Aim To investigate whether 13 weeks of nutritional supplementation of VitD and leucine-enriched whey protein afected CLIP in subjects enrolled in the PROVIDE-study, as a secondary analysis. Methods Sarcopenic adults (low skeletal muscle mass) aged ≥ 65 years with mobility limitations (Short Physical Performance Battery 4–9) and a body mass index of 20–30 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to two daily servings of active (n=137, including 20 g of whey protein, 3 g of leucine and 800 IU VitD) or isocaloric control product (n=151) for a double-blind period of 13 weeks. At baseline and after 13 weeks, circulating interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA), soluble tumor-necrosis-factor receptor (sTNFR)1, IL-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, pre-albumin and 25-hydroxyvitamin(OH) D were measured. Data-analysis included repeated measures analysis of covariance (corrected for dietary VitD intake) and linear regression. Results IL-6 and IL-1Ra serum levels showed overall increases after 13 weeks (p=0.006 and p<0.001, respectively). For IL-6 a signifcant time × treatment interaction (p=0.046) was observed, with no signifcant change over time in the active group (p=0.155) compared to control (signifcant increase p=0.012). IL-8 showed an overall signifcant decrease (p=0.03). The change in pre-albumin was a signifcant predictor for changes in IL-6 after 13 weeks. Conclusions We conclude that 13 weeks of nutritional supplementation with VitD and leucine-enriched whey protein may attenuate the progression of CLIP in older sarcopenic persons with mobility limitations.
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