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1.
  • Ahlgren, Jennie, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Ethical considerations in relation to personalised nutrition : An overview of Work Package 5, with respect to ethics
  • 2015
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The objectives of Food4Me work package 5 included a baseline assessment of the ethical and legal aspects of personalised nutrition at the start of the project in 2011, as well as a final assessment at the end of the project (2015), taking into account results achieved in other work packages. The initial assessment made a number of ethical issues visible, most of them relating to the consumer of personalised nutrition service. The results depicted in this publication indicate that many of the questions raised in relation to these issues remain unsolved, and in some cases they seem to be neglected in relation to the services offered by internet companies.
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2.
  • Sepp, Hanna, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • Preschool children’s meal patterns analysed using the Food-Based Classification of Eating Episodes model
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Food and Nutrition. - 1748-2976. ; 50:3, s. 131-138
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background : Because of changing food habits that may influence nutritional status it is important, especiallyin children, reproducibly to describe and analyse the timing and frequency of eating and the composition of different types of eating episodes.Objective : To describe eating patterns of 3 -5-year-old Swedish preschool children by analysing 7 day food records using the Food-Based Classification of Eating Episodes (FBCE) model.Design : Food intakes were categorized into four types of ‘‘meals’’ and four types of ‘‘snacks’’, according to their food profile. Complete 7 day weighed and estimated food records for 109 children were processed and analysed.Results : On weekdays the children ate significantly more frequently than on weekend days, having 5.6 and 5.2 eating episodes per day, respectively. More eating episodes were classified as ‘‘meals’’ on weekdays than on weekend days: 72% and 60%, respectively. On average for the whole week, 43% of the daily energy intake was derived from ‘‘complete meals’’ (CM) and 34% from ‘‘incomplete meals’’ (IM). CM contributed significantly more energy and more nutrients, except for calcium, than did IM. In low-quality snacks (LS), sucrose contributed with about one-third of the energy content and the nutrient density was low.Conclusions : The qualitative FBCE model verified nutritional characteristics of the children’s diet previously found in the same cohort by the traditional dietary assessment methods. Processing of the dietary data by the model to show the prevalence and temporal distribution of eating episodes appears to be an applicable toolfor nutritional screening of children’s eating patterns.
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3.
  • Bohman, B., et al. (författare)
  • Infrequent attention to dietary and physical activity behaviours in conversations in Swedish child health services
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0803-5253. ; 102:5, s. 520-524
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To investigate conversations between nurses and parents in Swedish child health services and to assess to what extent attention is directed towards dietary and physical activity behaviours in children.Methods: Twenty-three nurses audio-recorded one session each. Recordings were assessed and topics were classified according to predetermined categories.Results: The three most frequent topics of conversation concerned physical examinations of the child (30% of session time), talking to the child to establish or maintain contact and interest (15%), and development of language skills (12%). Dietary habits came on fourth place (10%), and physical activity ranked 14 (4%).Conclusion: Attention to dietary and physical activity behaviours in children is infrequent in Swedish child health services. Concern is raised about the efficacy of prevention efforts against childhood obesity.
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4.
  • Fondell, Elinor, et al. (författare)
  • Adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations as a measure of a healthy diet and upper respiratory tract infection
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition. - 1368-9800. ; 14:5, s. 860-869
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The Nordic countries have published joint dietary recommendations, the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), since 1980. We evaluated adherence to the NNR as a measure of a healthy diet and its potential association with self-reported upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). Design: A prospective, population-based study with a follow-up period of 4 months. Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative FFQ with ninety-six items, along with other lifestyle factors, at baseline. URTI was assessed every three weeks. A Poisson regression model was used to control for age, sex and other confounding factors. Setting: A middle-sized county in northern Sweden. Subjects: Swedish men and women (n 1509) aged 20-60 years. Results: The NNR include recommendations on macronutrient proportions, physical activity and intake of micronutrients, sodium, fibre and alcohol. We found that overall adherence to the NNR was moderately good. In addition, we found that high adherence to the NNR (>5.5 adherence points) was not associated with a lower risk of URTI (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.89, 95% CI 0.73, 1.08) compared with low adherence (<4.5 adherence points). When investigating individual components of the NNR, only high physical activity was associated with lower URTI risk (IRR=0.82, 95% CI 0.69, 0.97) whereas none of the dietary components were associated with risk of URTI. Conclusions: Overall adherence to the NNR was moderately good. Overall adherence to the NNR was not associated with URTI risk in our study. However, when investigating individual components of the NNR, we found that high physical activity was associated with lower URTI risk.
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5.
  • Holmberg, Christopher, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Adolescents' presentation of food in social media: an explorative study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Appetite. - 0195-6663 .- 1095-8304. ; 99, s. 121-129
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The study aimed to explore how adolescents communicate food images in a widely used social media image-sharing application. We examined how and in what context food was presented and the type of food items that were frequently portrayed by following a youth related hashtag on Instagram. The hashtag #14år (“14 years”) was used to find adolescent users on Instagram: these users public photo streams were then searched for food items they had shared with others. Food items were identified and categorized based on type of food and how the food items were presented. Most of the adolescent users (85%) shared images containing food items. A majority of the images (67.7%) depicted foods high in calories but low in nutrients. Almost half of these images were arranged as a still life with food brand names clearly exposed. Many of these images were influenced by major food marketing campaigns. Fruits and vegetables occurred in 21.8% of all images. This food group was frequently portrayed zoomed in with focus solely on the food, with a hashtag or caption expressing palatability. These images were often presented in the style of a cook book. Food was thus presented in varied ways. Adolescents themselves produced images copying food advertisements. This has clear health promotion implications since it becomes more challenging to monitor and tackle young people's exposure to marketing of unhealthy foods in these popular online networks because images are part of a lifestyle that the young people want to promote. Shared images contain personal recommendations, which mean that they may have a more powerful effect than commercial advertising.
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6.
  • Bärebring, Linnea, et al. (författare)
  • Sociodemographic factors associated with dietary supplement use in early pregnancy in a Swedish cohort.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The British journal of nutrition. - 1475-2662. ; Jan;119:1, s. 90-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sociodemographic factors have been associated with dietary supplement use among pregnant women but few data exist in a Swedish population. This study aimed to identify factors associated with overall supplement use as well as use of folic acid, vitamin D and n-3 in early pregnancy. Women in the first trimester of pregnancy were included at registration to the antenatal care in 2013-2014 (n 2109). Information regarding supplement use as well as sociodemographic and anthropometric data were obtained from questionnaires and medical records. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between sociodemographic variables and supplement use. A total of 78 % of the participants reported using at least one dietary supplement in the first trimester. Folic acid supplement use was reported by 74 %, vitamin D supplement use by 43 % and n-3 supplement use by <5 %. Use of any type of supplement in early pregnancy was related to gestational age, parity, birthplace, education and employment. Folic acid supplement use was related to gestational age, parity, birthplace, income, education and employment. Vitamin D supplement use was related to gestational age, birthplace and education. In conclusion, in the first trimester of pregnancy, folic acid supplements were used by three in four women, while vitamin D supplements were used by less than half of the women. The results of this study show a socioeconomic disparity between supplement users and non-users which may have a negative impact on the health of future generations.
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7.
  • Hoppe, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Is cord blood hepcidin influenced by the low-grade acute-phase response occurring during delivery? A small-scale longitudinal study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. - 1476-7058. ; 32:13, s. 2166-2172
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To measure serum hepcidin in late pregnancy and in cord blood, and to analyze relationship between hepcidin, interleukin-6 and biomarkers of fetal iron status.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 15 uncomplicated singleton pregnancies were analyzed longitudinally in trimester 3 (T3) and at birth.RESULTS: In T3, S-ferritin (median 14 µg/L) and transferrin (median 4.0 g/L) indicated low iron status, whereas the median soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) was 4.0 mg/L, ie within the reference interval. Median T3 S-hepcidin was 7.8 ng/mL. Later on in cord blood, ferritin concentration (180 µg/L) were significantly higher, transferrin concentration (1.8 g/L) were significantly lower, and both sTfR (4.7 mg/L) and S-hepcidin concentrations (30.5 ng/mL) were significantly higher than maternal T3 concentrations. At the same time, cord blood interleukin-6 indicated an activated acute-phase reaction. In T3, after logarithmic transformation, there was a significant correlation between S-hepcidin and both S-ferritin (r = 0.691) and sTfR (r = -0.825). There was also a significant correlation between S-ferritin and both sTfR (r = -0.729) and transferrin (r = 0.549) in T3.CONCLUSIONS: Although S-ferritin, S-hepcidin, and sTfR were correlated during pregnancy, these relationships were not apparent in umbilical cord blood. Further, cord blood interleukin-6 indicated an activated acute-phase response, and sTfR, which is known to be unaffected by inflammation, indicated a low iron status in cord blood. Thus, instead of representing an enhanced iron status, the data appear to suggest that hepcidin and ferritin in cord blood may be influenced by the low-grade acute-phase response that occurs during delivery.
8.
  • Korotkova, Marina, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal dietary intake of essential fatty acids affects adipose tissue growth and leptin mRNA expression in suckling rat pups
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Research. - 0031-3998 .- 1530-0447. ; 52:1, s. 78-84
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have previously shown that maternal intake of essential fatty acids during late gestation and lactation affects the level of serum leptin in pups. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary essential fatty acids on leptin content in the milk of rat dams and leptin expression in white adipose tissue of pups during the suckling period. During late gestation and throughout lactation, rats were fed a control or an essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) diet. Milk of the EFAD dams contained more saturated and less polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with the control dams. Milk leptin levels were higher in the EFAD dams than in the control dams at 3 wk of lactation. The weight of inguinal white adipose tissue depots and the serum leptin levels of the EFAD pups were significantly lower than in the control pups during the whole suckling period. In addition, semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis of leptin mRNA levels in inguinal white adipose tissue showed a reduction in the EFAD pups compared with the control pups at 3 wk of age. We conclude that maternal dietary essential fatty acid intake affects serum leptin levels in pups by regulating both the amount of adipose tissue and the leptin mRNA expression.
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9.
  • Kumar, M., et al. (författare)
  • Gut microbiota dysbiosis is associated with malnutrition and reduced plasma amino acid levels: Lessons from genome-scale metabolic modeling
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Metabolic Engineering. - 1096-7176. ; 49, s. 128-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Malnutrition is a severe non-communicable disease, which is prevalent in children from low-income countries. Recently, a number of metagenomics studies have illustrated associations between the altered gut microbiota and child malnutrition. However, these studies did not examine metabolic functions and interactions between individual species in the gut microbiota during health and malnutrition. Here, we applied genome-scale metabolic modeling to model the gut microbial species, which were selected from healthy and malnourished children from three countries. Our analysis showed reduced metabolite production capabilities in children from two low-income countries compared with a high-income country. Additionally, the models were also used to predict the community-level metabolic potentials of gut microbes and the patterns of pairwise interactions among species. Hereby we found that due to bacterial interactions there may be reduced production of certain amino acids in malnourished children compared with healthy children from the same communities. To gain insight into alterations in the metabolism of malnourished (stunted) children, we also performed targeted plasma metabolic profiling in the first 2 years of life of 25 healthy and 25 stunted children. Plasma metabolic profiling further revealed that stunted children had reduced plasma levels of essential amino acids compared to healthy controls. Our analyses provide a framework for future efforts towards further characterization of gut microbial metabolic capabilities and their contribution to malnutrition.
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10.
  • Marklund, Matti, et al. (författare)
  • Alkylresorcinol metabolites in urine correlate with the intake of whole grains and cereal fibre in free-living Swedish adults
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition. - Cambridge Journals. - 0007-1145 .- 1475-2662. ; 109:1, s. 129-136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alkylresorcinols (AR) have been established as short/medium-term biomarkers for whole grain (WG) wheat and rye intake; and AR metabolites, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, have been suggested as complementary biomarkers to AR. The present study examined the medium-term reproducibility and relative validity of urinary AR metabolites as biomarkers for WG and cereal fibre intake. A total of sixty-six free-living Swedes completed 3 d weighed food records and provided single 24 h urine collections and morning urine spot samples on two occasions, 2–3 months apart. The medium-term reproducibility of urinary AR metabolites was moderate when assessed in 24 h collections and lower in creatinine (CR)-adjusted morning urine. Mean AR metabolite 24 h excretions correlated well with total WG (rs 0·31–0·52, P &lt; 0·05) and cereal fibre (rs 0·46–0·58, P &lt; 0·001) intake on both occasions. As expected, correlations with WG (rs 0·28–0·38, P &lt; 0·05) and cereal fibre (rs 0·35–0·42, P &lt; 0·01) were weaker for mean CR-adjusted AR metabolite concentrations in spot samples of morning urine, although the adjusted concentrations correlated well with 24 h urinary excretion (rs 0·69–0·73, P &lt; 0·001). Adjustment for intra-individual variations substantially improved the correlations between intake and excretion. These findings suggest that urinary AR metabolites can successfully reflect the medium-term intake of WG and cereal fibre when adjusted for intra-individual variation in this population, where rye was the major contributor to high WG intake. The performance of urinary AR metabolites as medium-term biomarkers appears to be comparable to that of fasting plasma AR concentration in this population.
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