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1.
  • Eilertsen, Mary-Elizabeth Bradley, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of Social Support on Bereaved Siblings' Anxiety: A Nationwide Follow-Up
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing. - 1043-4542. ; 30:6, s. 301-310
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose:To assess adolescent and young adult siblings' perception of social support prior to and following the loss of their brother or sister to cancer, 2 to 9 years earlier, and their anxiety at follow-up. Method: In 2009, 174 (73%) bereaved siblings (12-25 years) participated in a nationwide, long-term follow-up study in Sweden using an anonymous study-specific questionnaire. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to measure self-assessed anxiety. Results: Siblings had a higher risk of anxiety if they perceived their need for social support was unsatisfied during their brother or sisters' last month before death, relative risk (RR) = 3.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-7.3); time after death, RR = 2.9 (95% CI = 1.5-5.6); and at follow-up, RR = 3.8 (95% CI = 2.0-7.2). Furthermore, a higher risk for anxiety was shown for siblings if they did not perceive that their parents and neighbors cared for them after their brother or sisters' death, RR = 2.7 (95% CI = 1.3-5.5), RR = 5.4 (95% CI = 1.3-21.9), respectively. Conclusion: Bereaved siblings had a greater probability to report self-assessed anxiety if they perceived that their need for social support was not satisfied prior to and following death. Information from both nurses and other health care professionals to families about the impact of social support may contribute to lessen the siblings' risk of anxiety.
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2.
  • Berg, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Characterisation of Cancer Support and Rehabilitation Programmes: A Swedish Multiple Case Study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The open nursing journal. - 1874-4346. ; 8, s. 1-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cancer support and rehabilitation are suggested to be an integral part of cancer care strategies. This study focuses on comparativeness of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes. The aim of this study was to analyse available cancer support and rehabilitation programmes in Sweden presented as complementary to cancer rehabilitation at cancer clinics. A multiple case study design was chosen in order to inquire the small number of existing supportive and rehabilitative cancer programmes. Based on the structures, processes and outcomes of the nine included programmes, three types of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes were identified: multimodal rehabilitation, comprehensive cancer support and art therapy. Cancer support and rehabilitation programmes offer a variety of activities and therapies which are highly valuable and relevant for people with cancer. The typology of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes and comparability between programmes need further inquiry.
3.
  • Flink, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Measuring care transitions in Sweden validation of the care transitions measure
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal for Quality in Health Care. - Oxford University Press. - 1353-4505. ; 30:4, s. 291-297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To translate and assess the validity and reliability of the original American Care Transitions Measure, both the 15-item and the shortened 3-item versions, in a sample of people in transition from hospital to home within Sweden.Design: Translation of survey items, evaluation of psychometric properties.Setting: Ten surgical and medical wards at five hospitals in Sweden.Participants: Patients discharged from surgical and medical wards.Main outcome measure: Psychometric properties of the Swedish versions of the 15-item (CTM-15) and the 3-item (CTM-3) Care Transition Measure.Results: We compared the fit of nine models among a sample of 194 Swedish patients. Cronbach's alpha was 0.946 for CTM-15 and 0.74 for CTM-3. The model indices for CTM-15 and CTM-3 were strongly indicative of inferior goodness-of-fit between the hypothesized one-factor model and the sample data. A multidimensional three-factor model revealed a better fit compared with CTM-15 and CTM-3 one factor models. The one-factor solution, representing 4 items (CTM-4), showed an acceptable fit of the data, and was far superior to the one-factor CTM-15 and CTM-3 and the three-factor multidimensional models. The Cronbach's alpha for CTM-4 was 0.85.Conclusions: CTM-15 with multidimensional three-factor model was a better model than both CTM-15 and CTM-3 one-factor models. CTM-4 is a valid and reliable measure of care transfer among patients in medical and surgical wards in Sweden. It seems the Swedish CTM is best represented by the short Swedish version (CTM-4) unidimensional construct.
4.
  • Lundgren Nilsson, Åsa, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of Fatigue Impact Scale with various item sets – a Rasch analysis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Disability and Rehabilitation. - 0963-8288 .- 1464-5165. ; 41:7, s. 840-846
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group Purpose: Fatigue is a symptom in patients with chronic gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases. Different instruments have been developed to assess the severity of fatigue and the 40-item Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) is among the most widely used. Shorter versions of FIS include the 21-item Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), and an eight-item version for everyday use. The study aimed to assess construct validity, reliability, and sufficiency of the raw score of the original FIS with 40 items, and examine the sufficiency of the 21 items from the Modified scale and the eight items of the Daily Fatigue Impact Scale (D-FIS), all of which are embedded in the 40-item scale. Methods: Patients with chronic GI or liver disease (n = 354) completed the FIS with 40 items. The majority (57%) was under the age of 55 years and approximately half were females (48%). Various item sets of FIS were derived which showed fit to the Rasch model. Results: Local dependency and multidimensionality in FIS and the 21-item Modified scale were resolved with a testlet solution but the D-FIS showed local dependency and multidimensionality and differential item functioning (DIF) still remained. Two new item sets fulfilling unidimensionality and no DIF are suggested, one with 15 items and a six-item scale for daily use. The transformation table shows score-interval scale estimates for all these item sets. Conclusions: Both the FIS and the Modified scale can be used to measure fatigue albeit requiring some adjustment for DIF. The eight-item D-FIS is more problematic, and its summed score is not valid. Alternative 15- and 6-item versions presented in this paper can offer valid summed scores, and the transformation table allows transformation of raw scores and comparisons across all versions.Implications for rehabilitationThe Fatigue Impact Scale and the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale can be used to measure fatigue after adjustments for differential item functioning.Alternative 15- and 6-item versions of Fatigue Impact Scale offer valid summed scores. The summed score for the Daily Fatigue Impact Scale is not valid.A transformation table with raw scores and Rasch transformed interval scale metric makes it possible to compare scores derived from the Fatigue Impact Scale, the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale and the proposed 15- and 6-item versions of Fatigue Impact Scale for research and/or clinical use.
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5.
  • Skärsäter, Ingela, 1952-, et al. (författare)
  • Web-based Support in Long-term Illness – a Person-centred Care Approach
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Medicine 2.0, 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps, Internet/Web 2.0. London, GB; September 23-24, 2013.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Introduction: The abstract outlines a research project that aims to develop and evaluate a person-centred model of web-based learning and support for people with long-term illness. Departing from the widespread use of the internet in modern society and the emerging use of web applications in healthcare the multi-case project captures persons’ needs and expectations in order to develop highly usable web recourses. To support the underlying idea to move beyond the illness, we approach the development of web support from the perspective of the emergent area of person-centred care (PCC).Methods: The research design uses a meta-analytical approach through its focus on synthesizing experiences from four Swedish regional and national cases of design and use of web-based support in long-term illness. The cases include children (bladder dysfunction and uro-genital malformation), young adults (living close to persons with mental illness), and two different cases of adults (women with breast cancer and childbearing women with type 1 diabetes). All of the cases are ongoing, though in different stages of design, implementa-tion, and analysis. An inductive approach characterizes the analysis of the results of the cases. By means of a step-wise analysis a shared knowledge and understanding of each separate case is created followed by the development of central categories (such as types of needs and expectations, types of theories, conceptual framework, etc).Results: To allow valid comparisons between the four cases we explore and problematize them in relation to four main aspects: 1) The use of people’s experiences and needs; 2) The role of use of theories in the design of person-centred web-based supports; 3) The evaluation of the effects of health outcomes for the informants involved and 4) The development of a generic person-centred model for learning and social support for people with long-term illness and their significant others.Discussion and Conclusion: Person-centred web-based support is a new area and no available study focus on how web-based interventions can contribute to the further development of PCC. In the four cases within this project the evaluation model is characterized by evaluation of web support in real settings, and data will be analysed using both within-case and across-case statistical analyses. Therefore, our multiple-case method, in which overlapping results from different contexts will provide comprehensive experiences, will contribute to the design of a more generally applicable, individually modifiable model. However, the multiple case method is also a challenge of validity, as the use of different case experiences and environments, involves an endeavor to understand what types of experiences are actually being captured in the process of developing a web-based support and what this means in relation to PCC. In summary, the main intention of the project outlined here is to contribute with both a synthesis of results on meta-level from four cases and a substantial contribution to the field person centred care.
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6.
  • Smedbäck, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Palliative care during the final week of life of older people in nursing homes : A register-based study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Palliative and Supportive Care. - Cambridge University Press. - 1478-9515. ; 15:4, s. 417-424
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective:: Our aim was to explore the presence of symptoms, symptom relief, and other key aspects of palliative care during the final week of life among older people residing in nursing homes. Method:: Our study employed data from the Swedish Palliative Care Register on all registered individuals aged 60 and older who had died in nursing homes during the years 2011 and 2012. Variables pertaining to monitoring and treatment of symptoms, end-of-life discussions, circumstances around the death, and the individual characteristics of deceased individuals were explored using descriptive statistics. Results:: The most common underlying causes of death among the 49,172 deceased nursing home residents were circulatory diseases (42.2%) and dementia (22.7%). The most prevalent symptom was pain (58.7%), followed by rattles (42.4%), anxiety (33.0%), confusion (21.8%), shortness of breath (14.0%), and nausea (11.1%). Pain was the symptom with the highest degree of total relief (46.3%), whereas shortness of breath and confusion were totally relieved in 6.1 and 4.3% of all individuals, respectively. The use of valid instruments for symptom assessment was reported for pain in 12.3% and for other symptoms in 7.8% of subjects. The most prevalent individual prescriptions for injection PRN (pro re nata, according to circumstances) were for pain treatment (79.5%) and rattles (72.8%). End-of-life discussions were performed with 27.3% of all the deceased individuals and with 53.9% of their relatives. Of all individuals, 82.1% had someone present at death, and 15.8% died alone. Of all the nursing home resident deaths recorded, 45.3% died in their preferred place. Significance of results:: There were large variations in degree of relief from different symptoms during the final week of life. Pain was the most prevalent symptom, and it was also the symptom with the highest proportion of total/partial relief. Other symptoms were less prevalent but also less well-relieved. Our results indicate a need for improvement of palliative care in nursing home settings, focusing on management of distressing symptoms and promotion of end-of-life discussions.
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7.
  • Eckerblad, Jeanette, et al. (författare)
  • To adjust and endure a qualitative study of symptom burden in older people with multimorbidity
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Applied Nursing Research. - Elsevier. - 0897-1897. ; 28:4, s. 322-327
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context Older people with multimorbidity are vulnerable and often suffer from conditions that produce a multiplicity of symptoms and a reduced health-related quality of life. Objectives The aim of this study is to explore the experience of living with a high symptom burden from the perspective of older community-dwelling people with multi-morbidity.Method A qualitative descriptive design with semi-structured interviews, including 20 community-dwelling older people with multi-morbidity and a high symptom burden. The participants were 79-€“89 years old with a mean of 12 symptoms per person. Data were analyzed using content analyses.Results The experience of living with a high symptom burden revealed the overall theme, “To adjust and endure” and three sub-themes. The first sub-theme was "To feel inadequate and limited". Participants reported that they no longer had the capacity or the ability to manage, and they felt limited and isolated from friends or family. The second sub-theme was "To feel dependent". This was a new and inconvenient experience; the burden they put on others caused a feeling of guilt. The final sub-theme was "To feel dejected". The strength to manage and control their conditions was gone; the only thing left to do was to sit or lie down and wait for it all to pass.Conclusion This study highlights the importance of a holistic approach when taking care of older people with multi-morbidity. This approach should employ a broad symptom assessment to reveal diseases and conditions that are possible to treat or improve.
8.
  • Klompstra, Leonie, 1982- (författare)
  • Physical activity in patients with heart failure motivations, self-efficacy and the potential of exergaming
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Adherence to recommendations for physical activity is low in patients with heart failure (HF). It is essential to explore to what extent and why patients with HF are physically active. Self-efficacy and motivation for physical activity are important in becoming more physically active, but the role of self-efficacy in the relationship between motivation and physical activity in patients with HF is unknown. Alternative approaches to motivate and increase self-efficacy to exercise are needed. One of these alternatives might be using exergames (games to improve physical exercise). Therefore, it is important to obtain more knowledge on the potential of exergaming to increase physical activity.The overall aim was to describe the physical activity in patients with HF, with special focus on motivations and self-efficacy in physical activity, and to describe the potential of exergaming to improve exercise capacity.Methods: Study I (n = 154) and II (n = 101) in this thesis had a cross-sectional survey design. Study III (n = 32) was a 12-week pilot intervention study, including an exergame platform at home, with a pretest-posttest design. Study IV (n = 14) described the experiences of exergaming in patients who participated in the intervention group of a randomized controlled study in which they had access to an exergame platform at home.Results: In total, 34% of the patients with HF had a low level of physical activity, 46% had a moderate level, 23% reported a high level. Higher education, higher selfefficacy, and higher motivation were significantly associated with a higher amount of physical activity. Barriers to exercise were reported to be difficult to overcome and psychological motivations were the most important motivations to be physically active. Women had significantly higher total motivation to be physically active. Self-efficacy mediated the relationship between exercise motivation and physical activity; motivation leads to a higher self-efficacy towards physical activity.More than half of the patients significantly increased their exercise capacity after 12 weeks of using an exergame platform at home. Lower NYHA-class and shorter time since diagnosis were factors significantly related to the increase in exercise capacity. The mean time spent exergaming was 28 minutes per day. Having grandchildren and being male were related to more time spent exergaming.The analysis of the qualitative data resulted in three categories describing patients’ experience of exergaming: (i) making exergaming work, (ii) added value of exergaming, (iii) no appeal of exergaming.Conclusion: One-third of the patients with HF had a low level of physical activity in their daily life. Level of education, exercise self-efficacy, and motivation were important factors to take into account when advising patients with HF about physical activity. In addition to a high level of motivation to be physically active, it is important that patients with HF have a high degree of exercise self-efficacy.Exergaming has the potential to increase exercise capacity in patients with HF. The results also showed that this technology might be suitable for some patients while others may prefer other kinds of physical activity.
9.
  • Svanberg, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of emotional distress and pain-related fear on patients with chronic pain Subgroup analysis of patients referred to multimodal rehabilitation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. - Foundation for Rehabilitation Information. - 1650-1977. ; 49:4, s. 354-361
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Multimodal rehabilitation programmes (MMRP) for chronic pain could be improved by determining which patients do not benefit fully. General distress and pain-related fear may explain variations in the treatment effects of MMRP.Design: Cohort study with a cross-sectional, prospective part.Patients: Chronic musculoskeletal pain patients referred to 2 hospital-based pain rehabilitation clinics.Methods: The cross-sectional part of this study cluster analyses patients (n = 1,218) with regard to distress and pain-related fear at first consultation in clinical pain rehabilitation and describes differences in external variables between clusters. The prospective part follows the subsample of patients (n = 260) participating in MMRP and describes outcome post-treatment.Results: Four distinct subgroups were found: (i) those with low levels of distress and pain-related fear; (ii) those with high levels of pain-related fear; (iii) those with high levels of distress; and (iv) those with high levels of distress and pain-related fear. These subgroups showed differences in demographics, pain characteristics, quality of life, and acceptance, as well as the degree of MMRP participation and MMRP outcome.Conclusion: Among patients with chronic pain referred to MMRP there are subgroups with different profiles of distress and pain-related fear, which are relevant to understanding the adaptation to pain and MMRP outcome. This knowledge may help us to select patients and tailor treatment for better results.
10.
  • Wickford, Jenny, et al. (författare)
  • Physiotherapy in Afghanistan - Needs and challenges for development.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Disabil Rehabil.. - 0963-8288. ; 30:4, s. 305-313
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the current situation of the physiotherapy component of the Rehabilitation of Afghans with Disability (RAD) programme, in order to identify the needs and challenges for further development. Method. The study was conducted as a field study with an anthropological approach by means of participant observation, unstructured and semi-structured interviews and photography. Results. The therapists in RAD work in isolation with little opportunity for further education or professional development. Their approach is mainly medical, where the work is dictated by the patients' expectations and doctors' recommendations. They use primarily passive methods of treatment, and their work is affected by cultural, religious and situational factors. They demonstrate a low capacity of clinical reasoning in their practical work. Conclusions. There is a need for further development of physiotherapy in Afghanistan. Active and individually adapted treatment methods, clinical reasoning processes and evidence-based practice should be encouraged. There are several challenges in this, based on Afghan culture and traditions, gender issues, religious factors, an authoritative society, a medical approach in treatment, and isolation and limitations in access to information. By means of an Action Research project the physiotherapists could be included in further development and research to promote a sustainable and culturally relevant development.
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