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1.
  • Sundell, Anna Lena, 1970- (författare)
  • Children with orofacial clefts : dental caries and health-related quality of life
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background. The current understanding on caries and enamel developmental defects prevalence and frequency, caries risk, health-related quality life (HRQoL) and stress response in young children with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) are sparse. In this thesis these aspects were investigated in 5- and 10- year-old children with CL/P in comparison to non-cleft children in the same ages.Design. The studies in this thesis have a cross-sectional case-control design. Participants. The study group consisted of 139 children with CL/P (80 children aged 5 years and 59 aged 10 years) and 313 non-cleft controls (144 children aged 5 years and 169 aged 10 years).Method. Caries was scored according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) and developmental enamel defects were measured as presence and frequency of hypoplasia and hypomineralization. Oral hygiene was assessed using Quigley-Hein plaque index. Stimulated saliva samples were analyzed for mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, buffering capacity and secretion rates. Information regarding children’s oral hygiene routines, dietary habits and fluoride exposure were collected with questionnaires. Caries risk was evaluated with algorithm-based software, Cariogram while HRQoL was perceived with KIDSCREEN-52. Stress response was analyzed with cortisol concentration in saliva at three different time points using a commercial competitive radioimmunoassay.Results. Caries prevalence (36% versus 18%) and caries frequency (1.2 dmfs versus 0.9 dmfs) was significantly higher in 5-year-old children with CL/P in comparison to non-cleft controls. In 10-yearolds no significant difference was found between children with CL/P and non-cleft controls in caries prevalence (47% versus 38%) or in caries frequency (0.7 DMFS versus 0.5 DMFS). Children with CL/P had significantly higher prevalence of enamel defects, higher counts of salivary lactobacilli and less good oral hygiene. The odds of being categorized with high caries risk were elevated in children with CL/P. Children with CL/P had similar HRQoL and salivary cortisol concentrations as non-cleft controls. However, 10-year-old boys with CL/P had significantly higher cortisol concentrations in the evening than non-cleft boys.Conclusions. Preschool children with CL/P seem to have more caries in the primary dentition than non-cleft controls. Children with CL/P had increased odds of being categorized as high caries risk individuals compared to controls. Some of the contributing factors seem to be higher prevalence of enamel defects, impaired oral hygiene and elevated salivary lactobacilli. Furthermore, as measured with the help of cortisol concentrations in saliva, children with CL/P were not more stressed than noncleft controls and their HRQoL was comparable to a European norm population. It appears that regular comprehensive preventive oral care in children with CL/P is effective in preventing caries development in permanent teeth. However, children with CL/P are at risk of caries development and preventive oral care should be implemented and started earlier than today.
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2.
  • Lundin, Anna-Carin (författare)
  • Tendinosis in Trigger Finger
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Trigger finger is one of the most common hand conditions, with a prevalence of almost 3%. The aetiology remains unclear even though many causes have been suggested. The prevailing paradigm is that the pathogenesis of trigger finger is ascribed to primary changes in the first fibrous condensation of the tendon sheath (A1-pulley). Several studies have investigated pathology in the pulley, but few have investigated the tendon. The general aim of this thesis was to find out if there is pathology in the trigger finger tendon and to define it.We first looked at trigger finger tendon biopsies in a light microscope, and found that they were histologically different from healthy tendons. They showed signs of micro-ruptures, collagen degradation, increased amounts of ground substance, both hyper- and hypo-cellular areas, round active cell nuclei and absence of inflammatory cells, all similar to tendinosis. The histological picture was further assessed by using a scoring system for Achilles tendinosis. The trigger finger tendons scored high, suggesting a similar histopathology.Next, we performed a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on trigger finger tendons. We assessed the mRNA expression of 10 genes, which have been described to be differently expressed in Achilles tendinosis (collagen 1 and 3, versican, decorin, biglycan, aggrecan, MMP-2, MMP-3, ADAMTS-5, and TIMP-3). The overall expression pattern agreed with previous studies on Achilles tendinosis, suggesting that the cellular function in trigger finger tendons is disturbed in a similar way as in Achilles tendinosis.Recent experimental and observational research has suggested potential side effects of statin treatment on tendons, but firm evidence was lacking. We performed an epidemiological study on two large population-based cohorts. Statin use was found to increase the risk of both trigger finger and tendinosis in the shoulder and Achilles tendons, especially among men. This suggests a similar pathology in trigger finger and tendinosis.We have also studied the time to treatment effect after a single injection of glucocorticoid in trigger finger. Our results suggest that 60-80% of patients can expect resolution of the triggering within 14 days, and half of them within seven days. This result allows correct information to be given to the patient and proper planning of follow-ups.In conclusion, the pathology in trigger finger tendons is similar to tendinosis in other tendons.
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3.
  • Nord, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Levodopa Pharmacokinetics in Brain after Both Oral and Intravenous Levodopa in One Patient with Advanced Parkinson’s Disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Advances in Parkinsons Disease. - : Scientific Research Publishing Inc. - 2169-9712 .- 2169-9720. ; 6:2, s. 52-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: One patient received oral levodopa during a study aiming for better understanding of the basal ganglia and of the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) with and without intravenous (IV) levodopa infusion in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The results from oral and IV levodopa treatment are presented.Methods: Five patients with advanced PD were included in the original study. During planned STN DBS surgery microdialysis probes were implanted in the right putamen and in the right and left globus pallidus interna (Gpi). During the study, microdialysis was performed continuously and STN DBS, with and without IV levodopa infusion, was performed according to a specific protocol. After DBS surgery, but before STN DBS was started, one patient received oral levodopa/ benserazide and entacapone tablets out of protocol due to distressing parkinsonism.Results: The levodopa levels increased prompt in the central nervous system after the first PD medication intakes but declined after the last. Immediately the levodopa seemed to be metabolized to dopamine (DA) since the levels of DA correlated well with levodopa concentrations. Left STN DBS seemed to further increase DA levels in left Gpi while right STN DBS seemed to increase DA levels in the right putamen and right Gpi. There was no obvious effect on levodopa levels.Conclusions: The results indicate that PD patients still have capacity to metabolize levodopa to DA despite advanced disease with on-off symptoms and probably pronounced nigral degeneration. STN DBS seems to increase DA levels with a more pronounced effect on ipsilateral structures in striatum.
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4.
  • Kramberger, Milica Gregoric, et al. (författare)
  • Association between EEG abnormalities and CSF biomarkers in a memory clinic cohort
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. - : S. Karger. - 1420-8008 .- 1421-9824. ; 36:5-6, s. 319-328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The aim of the study was to describe distinct electroencephalogram (EEG) phenotypes defined after routine visual EEG analysis in a large memory clinic cohort and to investigate their relationship to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. Methods: Patients with Alzheimer's disease (n = 131), mild cognitive impairment (n = 285), subjective cognitive impairment (n = 310), and mixed dementia (n = 29) were assessed clinically with neuroimaging, EEG and CSF investigations. EEG phenotypes were based on frequency of background activity (BA) and presence and degree of episodic abnormalities (EA). Results: BA and EA differed significantly (p < 0.001) between diagnostic groups. A lower CSF amyloid β42/phospho-tau ratio and higher total tau were associated with slower BA (p < 0.01) and a higher degree of EA (p < 0.04). Conclusions: Slowing of BA in combination with EA seems to be related to biological markers of neurodegeneration
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5.
  • Mangialasche, Francesca, et al. (författare)
  • Serum levels of vitamin E forms and risk of cognitive impairment in a Finnish cohort of older adults
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Experimental Gerontology. - 0531-5565 .- 1873-6815. ; 48:12, s. 1428-1435
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Vitamin E includes eight natural antioxidant compounds (four tocopherols and four tocotrienols), but a-tocopherol has been the main focus of investigation in studies of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Objective: To investigate the association between serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols, markers of vitamin E oxidative/nitrosative damage (alpha-tocopherylquinone, 5-nitro-gamma-tocopherol) and incidence of cognitive impairment in a population-based study. Design: A sample of 140 non-cognitively impaired elderly subjects derived from the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Dementia (CAIDE) study was followed-up for 8 years to detect cognitive impairment, defined as development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's dementia. The association between baseline serum vitamin E and cognitive impairment was analyzed with multiple logistic regression after adjusting for several confounders. Results: The risk of cognitive impairment was lower in subjects in the middle tertile of the alpha-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio than in those in the lowest tertile: the multiadjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.27 (0.10-0.78). Higher incidence of cognitive impairment was found in the middle [OR (95% CI): 3.41 (1.29-9.06)] and highest [OR (95% CI): 2.89 (1.05-7.97)] tertiles of the 5-NO2-gamma-tocopherol/gamma-tocopherol ratio. Analyses of absolute serum levels of vitamin E showed lower risk of cognitive impairment in subjects with higher levels of gamma-tocopherol, beta-tocotrienol, and total tocotrienols. Conclusions: Elevated levels of tocopherol and tocotrienol forms are associated with reduced risk of cognitive impairment in older adults. The association is modulated by concurrent cholesterol concentration. Various vitamin E forms might play a role in cognitive impairment, and their evaluation can provide a more accurate measure of vitamin E status in humans.
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6.
  • Vuorinen, Miika, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in vascular factors 28 years from midlife and late-life cortical thickness
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 34:1, s. 100-109
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We assessed midlife blood pressure (BP), body mass index, total cholesterol, and their changes over time in relation to cortical thickness on magnetic resonance imaging 28 years later in 63 elderly at risk of dementia. Participants in the population-based Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Dementia study were first examined at midlife. A first follow-up was conducted after 21 years, and a second follow-up after an additional 7 years. Magnetic resonance images from the second follow-up were analyzed using algorithms developed at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Midlife hypertension was related to thinner cortex in several brain areas, including insular, frontal, and temporal cortices. In elderly with thinner insular cortex, there was a continuous decline in systolic BP and an increase in pulse pressure after midlife, while in elderly with thicker insular cortex the decline in systolic BP started at older ages, paralleled by a decline in pulse pressure. No associations were found between body mass index, cholesterol, or apolipoprotein E ε4 allele and cortical thickness in this group of elderly at risk individuals.
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7.
  • Löfqvist, Anders (författare)
  • Vowel-related tongue movements in speech: Straight or curved paths? (L).
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. - : American Institute of Physics (AIP). - 1520-8524. ; 129:3, s. 1149-1152
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper examines tongue movements between the two vowels in sequences of vowel-labial consonant-vowel, addressing the question whether the movement is a straight line or a curved path. Native speakers of Japanese and Italian served as subjects. The linguistic material consisted of words where the bilabial consonant was either long or short. The inclusion of words with different consonant lengths was motivated by earlier findings that the tongue movement is often longer when the consonant is long, which may be due to a more curved movement path. Tongue movements were recorded using a three-transmitter magnetometer system. To assess the movement path, the movement magnitude was calculated in two ways, as a straight line, the Euclidean distance, and as the actual path, obtained by summing the individual Euclidean distances between successive samples from movement onset to offset. The ratio between the path and the Euclidean distance is 1 when the movement is a straight line and greater than 1 when the path is curved. Results show that in virtually all 21 cases examined the ratio was very close to 1 and in most cases 1.2 or less. There was no reliable influence of consonant length on the ratio.
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8.
  • Gustafson, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • A factor analytic approach to symptom patterns in dementia.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - : Hindawi Limited. - 2090-0252 .- 2090-8024.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous publications have shown a high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of three short clinical rating scales for Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and vascular dementia (VaD) validated against neuropathological (NP) diagnoses. In this study, the aim was to perform an exploratory factor analysis of the items in these clinical rating scales. The study included 190 patients with postmortem diagnoses of AD (n = 74), VaD (n = 33), mixed AD/VaD (n = 31), or FTD (n = 52). The factor analysis produced three strong factors. Factor 1 contained items describing cerebrovascular disease, similar to the Hachinski Ischemic Score. Factor 2 enclosed major clinical characteristics of FTD, and factor 3 showed a striking similarity to the AD scale. A fourth symptom cluster was described by perception and expression of emotions. The factor analyses strongly support the construct validity of the diagnostic rating scales.
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9.
  • Hellström Ängerud, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in symptoms in relation to myocardial infarction.
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: In myocardial infarction (MI) rapid diagnosis and treatment is crucial for the prognosis. Previous research has found that symptom presentation influence pre hospital delay times but studies about differences in MI symptoms between patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) are sparse and inconclusive. To enhance the understanding of symptom presentation in regard to MI type, we aimed to describe symptoms in relation to MI type and to find predictors of STEMI versus NSTEMI in patients with MI.Methods: Patients with MI (n=694) from the SymTime study were included. SymTime was a multicentre cross-sectional study of symptoms and actions in the prehospital phase of MI and data were collected using a previously validated questionnaire administered to MI patients within 24 h of admission to hospital.Results: Patients with STEMI were younger, more often men and smokers. Patients with NSTEMI were more likely to have a history of hypertension, MI and stroke. Chest pain was the most common symptom in both groups. Pain, discomfort, or pressure located in the jaw or teeth, vertigo/pre-syncope, cold sweat and nausea/vomiting were significantly more frequent in patients with STEMI (Table 1). In a multivariate logistic regression model patients with STEMI were more likely to present with cold sweat (OR 4.13, 95% CI 2.71–6.29) jaw pain (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.02–4.50), and nausea (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.20–3.33), and less likely to have a history of stroke (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.15–0.84), fluctuating symptoms (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.36–0.83) and anxiety (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32–0.92) compared to patients with NSTEMI.Conclusion: Patients with STEMI differed significantly from those with NSTEMI regarding symptom presentation. This knowledge is important for health care personnel to recognize symptoms alarming for STEMI when evaluating patients with MI symptoms.
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10.
  • Nord, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Is Levodopa Pharmacokinetics in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Depending on Gastric Emptying?
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Advances in Parkinsons Disease. - : Scientific Research Publishing. - 2169-9712. ; 06:01
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Levodopa uptake from the gastrointestinal tract in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be affected by delayed gastric emptying (GE). This might lead to fluctuating levodopa levels resulting in increased motor fluctuations. Continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS) improves motor fluctuations and could be a result of smoothening in levodopa uptake. In this study we wanted to study the levodopa pharmacokinetics peripherally in PD patients with motor fluctuations and investigate the relation between levodopa uptake and GE and the effect of CDS. PD patients with wearing off (group 1) and on-off syndrome (group 2) were included. Breath tests were performed to evaluate the half time (T1/2) of GE. Concomitantly 1 tablet of Madopark® was given and the levodopa concentrations in blood and subcutaneous (SC) tissue were analyzed for both groups. Group 2 was then given a 10-d continuous intravenous levodopa treatment and the tests were repeated. Higher levels of levodopa in group 1 compared to group 2 in blood (p = 0.014) were seen. The GE was delayed in both group 1 (p < 0.001) and group 2 (p < 0.05) compared to a reference group with healthy volunteers with T1/2 median values 105 and 78 min vs. 72 min. There was no difference in GE between the two PD groups (p = 0.220) or in group 2 before and after infusion period (p = 0.861). CDS resulted in lower levodopa levels in blood (p < 0.001) and SC tissue (p < 0.01). In conclusion, PD patients in early complication phase have a more favourable levodopa uptake than patients later in disease. We found delayed GE in PD patients with motor fluctuations but no obvious relation between GE and levodopa uptake or GE and PD stage. The effect of CDS indicates no effect of CDS on the mechanisms of GE but on the mechanisms of levodopa uptake.
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