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1.
  • Nord, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Levodopa Pharmacokinetics in Brain after Both Oral and Intravenous Levodopa in One Patient with Advanced Parkinson’s Disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Advances in Parkinsons Disease. - Scientific Research Publishing Inc. - 2169-9712 .- 2169-9720. ; 6:2, s. 52-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Objective:</strong> One patient received oral levodopa during a study aiming for better understanding of the basal ganglia and of the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) with and without intravenous (IV) levodopa infusion in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The results from oral and IV levodopa treatment are presented.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> Five patients with advanced PD were included in the original study. During planned STN DBS surgery microdialysis probes were implanted in the right putamen and in the right and left globus pallidus interna (Gpi). During the study, microdialysis was performed continuously and STN DBS, with and without IV levodopa infusion, was performed according to a specific protocol. After DBS surgery, but before STN DBS was started, one patient received oral levodopa/ benserazide and entacapone tablets out of protocol due to distressing parkinsonism.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>The levodopa levels increased prompt in the central nervous system after the first PD medication intakes but declined after the last. Immediately the levodopa seemed to be metabolized to dopamine (DA) since the levels of DA correlated well with levodopa concentrations. Left STN DBS seemed to further increase DA levels in left Gpi while right STN DBS seemed to increase DA levels in the right putamen and right Gpi. There was no obvious effect on levodopa levels.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The results indicate that PD patients still have capacity to metabolize levodopa to DA despite advanced disease with on-off symptoms and probably pronounced nigral degeneration. STN DBS seems to increase DA levels with a more pronounced effect on ipsilateral structures in striatum.</p>
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2.
  • Nord, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Is Levodopa Pharmacokinetics in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Depending on Gastric Emptying?
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Advances in Parkinsons Disease. - Scientific Research Publishing. - 2169-9712. ; 06:01
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Levodopa uptake from the gastrointestinal tract in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be affected by delayed gastric emptying (GE). This might lead to fluctuating levodopa levels resulting in increased motor fluctuations. Continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS) improves motor fluctuations and could be a result of smoothening in levodopa uptake. In this study we wanted to study the levodopa pharmacokinetics peripherally in PD patients with motor fluctuations and investigate the relation between levodopa uptake and GE and the effect of CDS. PD patients with wearing off (group 1) and on-off syndrome (group 2) were included. Breath tests were performed to evaluate the half time (T1/2) of GE. Concomitantly 1 tablet of Madopark® was given and the levodopa concentrations in blood and subcutaneous (SC) tissue were analyzed for both groups. Group 2 was then given a 10-d continuous intravenous levodopa treatment and the tests were repeated. Higher levels of levodopa in group 1 compared to group 2 in blood (p = 0.014) were seen. The GE was delayed in both group 1 (p &lt; 0.001) and group 2 (p &lt; 0.05) compared to a reference group with healthy volunteers with T1/2 median values 105 and 78 min vs. 72 min. There was no difference in GE between the two PD groups (p = 0.220) or in group 2 before and after infusion period (p = 0.861). CDS resulted in lower levodopa levels in blood (p &lt; 0.001) and SC tissue (p &lt; 0.01). In conclusion, PD patients in early complication phase have a more favourable levodopa uptake than patients later in disease. We found delayed GE in PD patients with motor fluctuations but no obvious relation between GE and levodopa uptake or GE and PD stage. The effect of CDS indicates no effect of CDS on the mechanisms of GE but on the mechanisms of levodopa uptake.</p>
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3.
  • Nord, Maria (författare)
  • Levodopa pharmacokinetics -from stomach to brain A study on patients with Parkinson’s disease
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Parkinsons sjukdom (PS) är en av de vanligaste s.k. neurodegenerativasjukdomarna och orsakas av förlust av dopamin(DA)producerande nervceller i hjärnan. Detta orsakar motoriska symptom såsom skakningar, stelhet och förlångsammade rörelser. Levodopa (LD) är ett ämne, som kan omvandlas till DA i hjärnan och ge symptomlindring och det är oftast förstahandsval vid behandling av patienter med PS. Flera faktorer påverkar tillgängligheten av LD, bl.a. den hastighet som magsäcken tömmer sig med och denna verkar förlångsammad hos personer med PS vilket ger sämre tillgänglighet av LD i blodet och därmed i hjärnan. LD bryts även ner i hög grad av olika enzym ute i kroppen vilket leder till mindre mängd LD som hamnar i hjärnan och till fler nedbrytningsprodukter som orsakar biverkningar. Tillägg av enzymhämmare leder till ökad mängd LD som kan nå hjärnan och omvandlas till DA. Det anses viktigt att undvika höga toppar av LD i hjärnan då dessa verkar bidra till utvecklandet av besvärliga motoriska komplikationer hos patienter med PS. Om LD ges mer kontinuerligt, exempelvis som en kontinuerlig infusion in i tarmen eller i blodet, så minskar dessa motoriska komplikationer. Inopererande av stimulatorer i vissa delar av hjärnan (DBS) har också visat sig minska dessa motoriska komplikationer och även resultera i att man kan minska LD-dosen.</p><p>Huvudsyftet med den här avhandlingen är att studera LD hos patienter med PS; i blod och fettvävnad då LD ges i tablettform och se om det finns något samband med LD-upptag och hastigheten på magsäckstömningen (MT) och om kontinuerligt given LD påverkar LD-upptaget eller MT; i blod och i ryggmärgsvätska då enzymhämmarna entakapon och karbidopa tillsätts LD; i hjärna vid behandling med DBS och då LD ges både som tablett och som infusion i blodet.</p><p>Sammanfattningsvis kan vi se att LD-upptaget är mer gynnsamt hos patienter med PS i tidigare skede av sjukdomens komplikationsfas. MT är förlångsammad hos patienter med PS och det är inget tydligt samband mellan LD-upptag och MT eller mellan MT och sjukdomsgrad. Kontinuerligt given LD minskar LDnivåerna. Enzymhämmaren entakapon ökar den maximala koncentrationen av LD i blod och ryggmärgsvätska och effekten är mer tydlig vid tillägg av karbidopa vilket är viktigt att ta i beaktande vid behandling av PS för att undvika höga toppar av LD i hjärnan. LD ökar i hjärnan då man behandlar med LD i tablettform och som infusion i blodet och DA-nivåerna i hjärnan följer LD väl vilket visar på att patienter med PS fortfarande kan omvandla LD till DA trots trolig uttalad brist av de DA-producerande nervcellerna i hjärnan. DBS verkar öka DA i vissa områden i hjärnan och tillsammans med LD-infusion i blodet verkar det även öka LD i hjärnan och det kan förklara varför man kan sänka LDdosen efter DBS-operation.</p>
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6.
  • Romlin, Birgitta S, et al. (författare)
  • Perioperative monitoring of platelet function in paediatric cardiac surgery by thromboelastometry, or platelet aggregometry?
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Anaesthesia. - 0007-0912 .- 1471-6771. ; 116:6, s. 822-828
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Impaired platelet function increases the risk of bleeding complications in cardiac surgery. Reliable assessment of platelet function can improve treatment. We investigated whether thromboelastometry detects clinically significant preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-dependent platelet dysfunction in paediatric cardiac surgery patients. Methods Fifty-seven children were included in a single-centre prospective observational study. Clot formation (modified rotational thromboelastometry with heparinase, HEPTEM) and platelet aggregation (multiple electrode aggregometry) were analysed at five time points before, during, and after surgery. The accuracy of thromboelastometric indices of platelet function [maximal clot firmness (MCF) and clot formation time (CFT)] to detect ADP-dependent platelet dysfunction (defined as ADP-induced aggregation ≤30 units) was calculated with receiver operating characteristics analysis, which also identified optimal cut-off levels. Positive and negative predictive values for the identified cut-off levels (CFT≥166 s; MCF≤43 mm) to detect platelet function were determined. Results The MCF and CFT were highly accurate in predicting platelet dysfunction during cardiopulmonary bypass [CPB; area under the aggregation curve 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.80–0.97) and 0.86 (0.77–0.96), respectively] but not immediately after CPB [0.64 (0.48–0.79) and 0.67 (0.52–0.82), respectively] or on arrival at the intensive care unit [0.53 (0.37–0.69) and 0.60 (0.44–0.77), respectively]. The positive and negative predictive values were acceptable during CPB (87 and 67%, respectively, for MCF≤43 mm; 80 and 100% for CFT≥166 s) but markedly lower after surgery. Conclusion In paediatric cardiac surgery, thromboelastometry has acceptable ability to detect ADP-dependent platelet dysfunction during, but not after, CPB.
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8.
  • Samuelsson Palmgren, Gabriella, et al. (författare)
  • Platelet retention in coronary artery bypass surgery with and without a heart-lung machine. Cause of thrombosis in coronary artery bypass surgery
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal. - Taylor & Francis. - 1651-2006. ; 34:3, s. 301-306
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to examine platelet function after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with and without the use of extracorporeal circulation (ECC). Sixteen male patients scheduled for CABG with (n = 8) and without (n = 8) ECC were included in the study. Platelet retention, as measured with a glass-bead retention test, was examined daily during the first postoperative week. Von Willebrand factor (vWF), ristocetin co-factor (Rcof) and prothrombin fragment (PF 1 + 2) were analyzed the day after the operation. We found a significant increase (p < 0.0001) in platelet retention during the first postoperative week after CABG. There was a tendency (not statistically significant) towards a more pronounced increase in the group operated on without ECC. This increase occurred despite the fact that all patients were treated with aspirin (75 mg daily) from the first postoperative day. The median time to maximal postoperative platelet retention was 2 days. In 3 patients platelet retention increased to more than 6 times the basal level.
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9.
  • Khoshnood, Ardavan (författare)
  • Prehospital Diagnosis and Oxygen Treatment in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • IntroductionPaper I: An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was constructed to identify ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) and predict the need for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). Paper II, III and IV: Studies suggest that O2 therapy may be harmful in STEMI patients. We therefore conducted the SOCCER study to evaluate the effects of O2 therapy in STEMI patients.MethodsPaper I: 560 ambulance ECGs sent to the Cardiac Care Unit (CCU), was together with the CCU physicians interpretation and decision of conducting an acute PCI or not collected, and compared with the interpretation and PCI decision of the ANN. Paper II, III, IV: Normoxic (≥94%) STEMI patients accepted for acute PCI were in the ambulance randomized to standard care with 10 L/min O2 or room air. A subset of the patients underwent echocardiography for determination of the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF) and the Wall Motion Score Index (WMSI). All patients had a Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMRI) to evaluate Myocardial area at Risk (MaR), Infarct Size (IS) and Myocardial Salvage Index (MSI).ResultsPaper I: The area under the ANN’s receiver operating characteristics curve for STEMI detection as well as predicting the need of acute PCI were very good.Paper II, III, IV: No significant differences could be shown in discussing MaR, MSI or IS between the O2 group (n=46) and the air group (n=49). Neither could any differences be shown for LVEF and WMSI at the index visit as well after six months between the O2 group (n=46) and the air group (n=41)ConclusionsPaper I: The results indicate that the number of ECGs sent to the CCU could be reduced with 2/3 as the ANN would safely identify ECGs not being STEMI.Paper II, III, IV: The results suggest that it is safe to withhold O2 therapy in normoxic, stable STEMI patients.
10.
  • Hultkvist, Henrik, 1968- (författare)
  • Implications of myocardial dysfunction before and after aortic valve intervention
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong></p><p>Postoperative heart failure in the setting of aortic valve surgery results in poor long-term survival. We hypothesized that there could be a myocardial factor that is not addressed by risk scores currently available. We speculated that this myocardial factor could be diastolic dysfunction. By evaluating postoperative heart failure, the EuroSCORE, the NT-proBNP level, and diastolic function, we might achieve a deeper understanding of the outcome for individuals with postoperative heart failure.</p><p><strong>METHODS</strong></p><p>This research project was built upon four cohort studies. The first two studies (I and II) were retrospective in nature, and studies III and IV were prospective, observational, and longitudinal. All work was based on data from clinical and national databases. In Study I, we compared the outcome of patients with or without postoperative heart failure, evaluated according to the preoperative risk score. In Study II, we explored the effect of underlying heart disease on the preoperative level of NT-proBNP and the relationships between NT-proBNP and severe postoperative heart failure and short-term mortality. In Study III, we described the dynamics</p><p>of NT-proBNP, from a preoperative evaluation to a six-month follow-up, in patients that underwent one of two different procedures: a surgical aortic valve replacement and a transcatheter implantation. We related both pre- and postprocedural NT-proBNP levels to one-year mortality. In Study IV, we evaluated diastolic function in patients that underwent surgical aortic valve replacement and its influence on outcome. We also evaluated NT-proBNP levels and postoperative heart failure as predictors of long-term mortality.</p><p><strong>RESULTS</strong></p><p><strong>Study I</strong></p><p>This study included 397 patients that underwent isolated surgical aortic valve replacements. Of these, 45 patients (11%) were treated for postoperative heart failure. With an average follow-up of 8.1 years (range 5.2-11.2), among patients at low risk (EuroSCORE≤7), the crude five-year survival rates were 58% in patients with postoperative heart failure and 89% in those without postoperative heart failure (p&lt;0.001). Among patients with postoperative heart failure, those classified as low risk had the same poor long-term prognosis as those classified as high risk (EuroSCORE&gt;7). In the high risk group, survival rates were similar between patients with or without postoperative heart failure (57% vs. 64%; p=0.60).</p><p><strong>Study II</strong></p><p>This study included a cohort of 2978 patients with coronary artery disease, aortic stenosis, and mitral regurgitation. Preoperative NTproBNP levels were found to be 1.7-fold higher in patients with aortic stenosis than in patients with coronary artery disease and 1.4-fold higher in patients with mitral regurgitation than in patients with coronary disease. The power of preoperative NT-proBNP for predicting severe postoperative heart conditions was good among patients with coronary heart disease and patients with mitral regurgitation, but not as good among patients with aortic stenosis. NT-proBNP also showed good discriminating power for short-term mortality among patients with coronary artery disease. Moreover, NT-proBNP was found to be an independent predictor for both severe postoperative heart failure and short-term mortality in patients with coronary artery disease.</p><p><strong>Study III</strong></p><p>This study included 462 patients that underwent preoperative evaluations for aortic valve disease. Aortic valve interventions elicited a rise in NT-proBNP that was more pronounced in patients undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement compared to patients undergoing transcatheter valve implantation. No deterioration in NT-proBNP was observed during the waiting time before the intervention, despite a median duration of four months. At six months after the intervention, NT-proBNP levels had decreased to or below the preoperative levels in all groups. Among patients that received surgical aortic valve replacements, pre-and early postoperative NT-proBNP levels showed good discriminatory power for oneyear mortality. This discriminatory power was not observed among patients that had undergone a transcatheter procedure; those patients had higher levels of both pre- and postoperative NT-proBNP compared to patients that had undergone surgery.</p><p><strong>Study IV</strong></p><p>We evaluated 273 patients that underwent aortic valve surgery. High left ventricular filling pressure was present in 22% (n=54) of patients at the time of surgery. At six months after surgery, diastolic function deteriorated in 24/193 (12%) patients and improved in 27/54 (50%) patients. Diastolic dysfunction was not found to be associated with long-term mortality. However, both postoperative heart failure and preoperative NTproBNP levels were associated with increases in long-term mortality. In a multivariable Cox analysis, NT-proBNP remained predictive of long-term mortality.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSION</strong></p><p>Postoperative heart failure contributed to long-term mortality, even in patients considered to be at low risk preoperatively. Our results suggested that pressure overload, followed by a volume overload led to a NTproBNP response that was more pronounced than the ischemia response. Elevated levels of NT-proBNP were associated with both short- and long-term mortality. In these studies, we could not corroborate the notion that high left ventricular filling pressure was associated with long-term mortality.</p>
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