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1.
  • Johansson, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Reduced cerebrospinal fluid concentration of interleukin-12/23 subunit p40 in patients with cognitive impairment.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - 1932-6203. ; 12:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The role of inflammation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other cognitive disorders is unclear. In a well-defined mono-center population, we measured cytokines and chemokines in paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Methods Consecutive patients with AD (n = 30), stable mild cognitive impairment (SMCI, n = 11), other dementias (n = 11), and healthy controls (n = 18) were included. None of the subjects was treated with glucocorticoids, cholinesterase inhibitors, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Serum and CSF concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-12/23 p40, IL-15, IL-16, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), and three chemokines were measured using a multiplex panel. Results After correction for multiple comparisons, only CSF IL-12/23 p40 concentration differed significantly between the total patient group (n = 52) and controls (n = 18; p = 0.002). Further analyses showed that CSF IL-12/23 p40 concentration was decreased in all patient subgroups (AD, other dementias, and SMCI) compared to healthy controls (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, and p < 0.05, respectively). In the total study population (n = 70), CSF IL-12/23 p40 concentrations correlated positively with CSF concentrations of β-amyloid1-42 (Aβ1–42) and phosphorylated tau protein (P-tau) whereas in AD patients (n = 30), CSF IL-12/23 p40 only correlated positively with CSF P-Tau (r = 0.46, p = 0.01). Conclusions Most cytokines and chemokines were similar in patients and controls, but CSF IL-12/23 subunit p40 concentration was decreased in patients with cognitive impairment, and correlated with markers of AD disease status. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of CSF IL-12/23 p40 in other dementias and SMCI.
2.
  • Lundin, Anna-Carin (författare)
  • Tendinosis in Trigger Finger
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Trigger finger is one of the most common hand conditions, with a prevalence of almost 3%. The aetiology remains unclear even though many causes have been suggested. The prevailing paradigm is that the pathogenesis of trigger finger is ascribed to primary changes in the first fibrous condensation of the tendon sheath (A1-pulley). Several studies have investigated pathology in the pulley, but few have investigated the tendon. The general aim of this thesis was to find out if there is pathology in the trigger finger tendon and to define it.</p><p>We first looked at trigger finger tendon biopsies in a light microscope, and found that they were histologically different from healthy tendons. They showed signs of micro-ruptures, collagen degradation, increased amounts of ground substance, both hyper- and hypo-cellular areas, round active cell nuclei and absence of inflammatory cells, all similar to tendinosis. The histological picture was further assessed by using a scoring system for Achilles tendinosis. The trigger finger tendons scored high, suggesting a similar histopathology.</p><p>Next, we performed a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on trigger finger tendons. We assessed the mRNA expression of 10 genes, which have been described to be differently expressed in Achilles tendinosis (collagen 1 and 3, versican, decorin, biglycan, aggrecan, MMP-2, MMP-3, ADAMTS-5, and TIMP-3). The overall expression pattern agreed with previous studies on Achilles tendinosis, suggesting that the cellular function in trigger finger tendons is disturbed in a similar way as in Achilles tendinosis.</p><p>Recent experimental and observational research has suggested potential side effects of statin treatment on tendons, but firm evidence was lacking. We performed an epidemiological study on two large population-based cohorts. Statin use was found to increase the risk of both trigger finger and tendinosis in the shoulder and Achilles tendons, especially among men. This suggests a similar pathology in trigger finger and tendinosis.</p><p>We have also studied the time to treatment effect after a single injection of glucocorticoid in trigger finger. Our results suggest that 60-80% of patients can expect resolution of the triggering within 14 days, and half of them within seven days. This result allows correct information to be given to the patient and proper planning of follow-ups.</p><p>In conclusion, the pathology in trigger finger tendons is similar to tendinosis in other tendons.</p>
3.
  • Nord, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Levodopa Pharmacokinetics in Brain after Both Oral and Intravenous Levodopa in One Patient with Advanced Parkinson’s Disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Advances in Parkinsons Disease. - Scientific Research Publishing Inc. - 2169-9712 .- 2169-9720. ; 6:2, s. 52-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Objective:</strong> One patient received oral levodopa during a study aiming for better understanding of the basal ganglia and of the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) with and without intravenous (IV) levodopa infusion in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The results from oral and IV levodopa treatment are presented.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> Five patients with advanced PD were included in the original study. During planned STN DBS surgery microdialysis probes were implanted in the right putamen and in the right and left globus pallidus interna (Gpi). During the study, microdialysis was performed continuously and STN DBS, with and without IV levodopa infusion, was performed according to a specific protocol. After DBS surgery, but before STN DBS was started, one patient received oral levodopa/ benserazide and entacapone tablets out of protocol due to distressing parkinsonism.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>The levodopa levels increased prompt in the central nervous system after the first PD medication intakes but declined after the last. Immediately the levodopa seemed to be metabolized to dopamine (DA) since the levels of DA correlated well with levodopa concentrations. Left STN DBS seemed to further increase DA levels in left Gpi while right STN DBS seemed to increase DA levels in the right putamen and right Gpi. There was no obvious effect on levodopa levels.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The results indicate that PD patients still have capacity to metabolize levodopa to DA despite advanced disease with on-off symptoms and probably pronounced nigral degeneration. STN DBS seems to increase DA levels with a more pronounced effect on ipsilateral structures in striatum.</p>
4.
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5.
  • Björkman, Kristoffer, et al. (författare)
  • Genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with complex I deficiency due to mutations in NDUFS1 and NDUFV1
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Euromit 2014, 15-19 juni, Tampere, Finland.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objectives: To study genotype-phenotype correlations in genes encoding complex I electron input module subunits. Materials and methods: We studied five patients with isolated complex I deficiency, three with NDUFS1 mutations and two with NDUFV1 mutations. A literature review of all reported cases of mutations in the affected genes was performed. Results: The literature review revealed pathological mutations in NDUFS1 for 18 patients in 17 families and correspondingly in NDUFV1 for 26 patients in 19 families. Unpublished clinical data for our five patients were added. Our study showed quite variable clinical courses; death before two years of age was seen in 41% of patients while 18% were alive at seven years. There was a significant difference between the NDUFS1 and NDUFV1 groups for clinical onset and life-span. Mutations in NDUFS1 were linked to a worse clinical course with earlier onset and earlier death. Conclusions: Genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with mutations affecting the genes that encode the electron input module of complex I vary, but patients with NDUFS1 mutation tend to have a worse clinical course than patients with NDUFV1 mutation. Identifying the mutations is of importance for accurate prognostic information and genetic counseling.
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6.
  • Paterson, R. W., et al. (författare)
  • A targeted proteomic multiplex CSF assay identifies increased malate dehydrogenase and other neurodegenerative biomarkers in individuals with Alzheimer's disease pathology.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Translational psychiatry. - 2158-3188. ; 6:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Biomarkers are required to identify individuals in the preclinical phase, explain phenotypic diversity, measure progression and estimate prognosis. The development of assays to validate candidate biomarkers is costly and time-consuming. Targeted proteomics is an attractive means of quantifying novel proteins in cerebrospinal and other fluids, and has potential to help overcome this bottleneck in biomarker development. We used a previously validated multiplexed 10-min, targeted proteomic assay to assess 54 candidate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in two independent cohorts comprising individuals with neurodegenerative dementias and healthy controls. Individuals were classified as 'AD' or 'non-AD' on the basis of their CSF T-tau and amyloid Aβ1-42 profile measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; biomarkers of interest were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. In all, 35/31 individuals in Cohort 1 and 46/36 in Cohort 2 fulfilled criteria for AD/non-AD profile CSF, respectively. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, five proteins were elevated significantly in AD CSF compared with non-AD CSF in both cohorts: malate dehydrogenase; total APOE; chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40); osteopontin and cystatin C. In an independent multivariate orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), these proteins were also identified as major contributors to the separation between AD and non-AD in both cohorts. Independent of CSF Aβ1-42 and tau, a combination of these biomarkers differentiated AD and non-AD with an area under curve (AUC)=0.88. This targeted proteomic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based assay can simultaneously and rapidly measure multiple candidate CSF biomarkers. Applying this technique to AD we demonstrate differences in proteins involved in glucose metabolism and neuroinflammation that collectively have potential clinical diagnostic utility.
7.
  • Nilsson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • The enigma of increased non-cancer mortality after weight loss in healthy men who are overweight or obese.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1365-2796. ; 252:1, s. 70-78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To study effects on non-cancer mortality of observational weight loss in middle-aged men stratified for body mass index (BMI), taking a wide range of possible confounders into account. Design. Prospective, population based study. Setting. Male population of Malmö, Sweden. Participants. In all 5722 men were screened twice with a mean time interval of 6 years in Malmö, southern Sweden. They were classified according to BMI category at baseline (<21, 22-25, overweight: 26-30, and obesity: 30+ kg m-2) and weight change category until second screening (weight stable men defined as having a baseline BMI ± 0.1 kg m-2 year-1 at follow-up re-screening). Main outcome measures. Non-cancer mortality calculated from national registers during 16 years of follow-up after the second screening. Data from the first year of follow-up were excluded to avoid bias by mortality caused by subclinical disease at re-screening. Results. The relative risk (RR; 95% CI) for non-cancer mortality during follow-up was higher in men with decreasing BMI in all subgroups: RR 2.64 (1.46-4.71, baseline BMI <21 kg m-2), 1.39 (0.98-1.95, baseline BMI 22-25 kg m-2), and 1.71 (1.18-2.47, baseline BMI 26+ kg m-2), using BMI-stable men as reference group. Correspondingly, the non-cancer mortality was also higher in men with increasing BMI, but only in the obese group (baseline BMI 26+ kg m-2) with RR 1.86 (1.31-2.65). In a subanalysis, nonsmoking obese (30+ kg m-2) men with decreased BMI had an increased non-cancer mortality compared with BMI-stable obese men (Fischer's test: P=0.001). The mortality risk for nonsmoking overweight men who increased their BMI compared with BMI-stable men was also significant (P=0.006), but not in corresponding obese men (P=0.094). Conclusions. Weight loss in self-reported healthy but overweight middle-aged men, without serious disease, is associated with an increased non-cancer mortality, which seems even more pronounced in obese, nonsmoking men, as compared with corresponding but weight-stable men. The explanation for these observational findings is still enigmatic but could hypothetically be because of premature ageing effects causing so-called weight loss of involution.
8.
  • Palmqvist, Sebastian, et al. (författare)
  • Detailed comparison of amyloid PET and CSF biomarkers for identifying early Alzheimer disease
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - American Academy of Neurology. - 1526-632X. ; 85:14, s. 1240-1249
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective:To compare the diagnostic accuracy of CSF biomarkers and amyloid PET for diagnosing early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD).Methods:From the prospective, longitudinal BioFINDER study, we included 122 healthy elderly and 34 patients with mild cognitive impairment who developed AD dementia within 3 years (MCI-AD). -Amyloid (A) deposition in 9 brain regions was examined with [F-18]-flutemetamol PET. CSF was analyzed with INNOTEST and EUROIMMUN ELISAs. The results were replicated in 146 controls and 64 patients with MCI-AD from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study.Results:The best CSF measures for identifying MCI-AD were A42/total tau (t-tau) and A42/hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) (area under the curve [AUC] 0.93-0.94). The best PET measures performed similarly (AUC 0.92-0.93; anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate/precuneus, and global neocortical uptake). CSF A42/t-tau and A42/p-tau performed better than CSF A42 and A42/40 (AUC difference 0.03-0.12, p < 0.05). Using nonoptimized cutoffs, CSF A42/t-tau had the highest accuracy of all CSF/PET biomarkers (sensitivity 97%, specificity 83%). The combination of CSF and PET was not better than using either biomarker separately.Conclusions:Amyloid PET and CSF biomarkers can identify early AD with high accuracy. There were no differences between the best CSF and PET measures and no improvement when combining them. Regional PET measures were not better than assessing the global A deposition. The results were replicated in an independent cohort using another CSF assay and PET tracer. The choice between CSF and amyloid PET biomarkers for identifying early AD can be based on availability, costs, and doctor/patient preferences since both have equally high diagnostic accuracy.Classification of evidence:This study provides Class III evidence that amyloid PET and CSF biomarkers identify early-stage AD equally accurately.
9.
  • Magnéli, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Telemetric intracranial pressure monitoring : a noninvasive method to follow up children with complex craniosynostoses. A case report
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Child's nervous system (Print). - 0256-7040 .- 1433-0350. ; 32:7, s. 1311-1315
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> There are no reliable noninvasive methods of monitoring ICP. Most assessments are made by indirect measures and are difficult to follow over time. Invasive studies can be used but up until now have required in-hospital transcutaneous measurements. Accurate ICP recordings over longer periods of time can be very valuable in timing different surgical procedures in syndromal cases. This case shows that telemetric ICP monitoring can be used for long-term follow-up in patients that may need repeated surgeries related to their craniosynostosis condition.</p><p><strong>CASE REPORT:</strong> In this report, the telemetric ICP probe (Raumedic Neurovent-P-tel) was implanted before surgery and was used for repeated "noninvasive" ICP recordings pre- and postoperatively in a patient with craniosynostosis. The patient was an eight-year-old girl with pansynostosis with only the right lambdoid suture open. A telemetric ICP probe was implanted the day before cranial vault remodeling and the ICP was monitored pre- and postoperatively. The ICP was above 15 mmHg 72.2 % of the monitoring time before surgery, and the amplitude of the curve was greater than normal suggesting impaired compliance. Direct postoperative ICP was normal, and the amplitude was lower. The ICP was then monitored both in out-patient clinic and in four longer hospital stays. Both the values and the curves were analyzed, and the time with ICP above 15 mmHg decreased over time, and the waveform amplitude of the curves improved.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> This "noninvasive" way of recording ICP is a feasible and helpful tool in decision-making and intervening in patients with craniosynostosis.</p>
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10.
  • Borg, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • High levels of antigen-specific islet antibodies predict future beta-cell failure in patients with onset of diabetes in adult age
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 86:7, s. 3032-3038
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is unclear whether high levels of antigen-specific islet antibodies [GADA (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 antibodies) and IA2-ab (protein tyrosine phosphatase-like protein antibodies)] predict beta-cell failure in patients with onset of diabetes in adult age. Therefore, GADA and IA2-ab levels at the diagnosis of diabetes were related to fasting plasma C-peptide levels 5 yr later in 148 patients with diabetes onset in adult age (age at onset, 20-77 yr; median, 57 yr). Classical islet cell antibodies (ICA) were also determined. Complete beta-cell failure (undetectable fasting plasma C-peptide) was only present in 4 patients at diagnosis of diabetes, but in 21 patients 5 yr thereafter. At diagnosis, ICA were detected in 20 of 21 (95%) patients with beta-cell failure after 5 yr and in only 7 of 127 (5%) without, whereas GADA and/or IA2-ab (>97.5 percentile of healthy controls) were detected in all 21 (100%) with but also in 23 of 127 (18%) patients without beta-cell failure after 5 yr. Thus, ICA had a higher positive predictive value (74%) than GADA and/or IA2-ab (47%; P < 0.05). With high cutoff values for GADA and IA2-ab, however, GADA and/or IA2-ab were detected in 19 of 21 (90%) patients with beta-cell failure vs. only in 5 of 127 (4%) without, giving a positive predictive value of 79%. Slightly elevated GADA levels in IA2-ab-negative patients were associated with progressive but not complete beta-cell failure within the study period. Hence, high GADA and/or IA2-ab levels predict a future complete beta-cell failure, whereas low GADA levels predict slowly progressive beta-cell insufficiency.
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