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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Dermatologi och venereologi) "

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1.
  • Florén, Claes-Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Bone mineral density in patients with Crohn's disease during long-term treatment with azathioprine
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2796. ; 243:2, s. 123-126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To ascertain whether patients with Crohn's disease treated with azathioprine maintained bone mineral mass better than patients treated with steroids alone. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: University Hospital of Malmo, Sweden. SUBJECTS: A total of 59 patients with ileocolonic, ileocaecal or colonic Crohn's disease. METHODS: Bone mass was assessed by dual photon X-ray absorptiometry at the level of L2-L4. RESULTS: Patients treated with a high lifetime dose of steroids (> 5 g prednisolone) had significantly (P = 0.011) lower Z-score of L2-L4 (-0.87 +/- 1.11; 11 SD) than steroid-treated patients, who had received a low dose of prednisolone (< 5 g) (0.08 +/- 1.16 SD). Azathioprine did not negatively influence the steroid effect on bone mineral density. CONCLUSIONS: Azathioprine does not seem to affect bone mineral density by itself. However, by being steroid-saving, it seems to conserve bone mineral mass in patients with Crohn's disease.
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2.
  • Nordahl, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Domain 5 of high molecular weight kininogen is antibacterial.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 1083-351X. ; 280:41, s. 34832-34839
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Antimicrobial peptides are important effectors of the innate immune system. These peptides belong to a multifunctional group of molecules that apart from their antibacterial activities also interact with mammalian cells and glycosaminoglycans and control chemotaxis, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Here we demonstrate a novel antimicrobial activity of the heparin-binding and cell-binding domain 5 of high molecular weight kininogen. Antimicrobial epitopes of domain 5 were characterized by analysis of overlapping peptides. A peptide, HKH20 (His(479) - His(498)), efficiently killed the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis. Fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy demonstrated that HKH20 binds to and induces breaks in bacterial membranes. Furthermore, no discernible hemolysis or membrane-permeabilizing effects on eukaryotic cells were noted. Proteolytic degradation of high molecular weight kininogen by neutrophil-derived proteases as well as the metalloproteinase elastase from P. aeruginosa yielded fragments comprising HKH20 epitopes, indicating that kininogen-derived antibacterial peptides are released during proteolysis.
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3.
  • Pasupuleti, Mukesh, et al. (författare)
  • Preservation of antimicrobial properties of complement peptide C3a - from invertebrates to humans.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 1083-351X .- 0021-9258. ; 282:4, s. 2520-2528
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The human anaphylatoxin peptide C3a, generated during complement activation, exerts antimicrobial effects. Phylogenetic analysis, sequence analyses, and structural modeling studies paired with antimicrobial assays of peptides from known C3a sequences showed that, in particular in vertebrate C3a, crucial structural determinants governing antimicrobial activity have been conserved during the evolution of C3a. Thus, regions of the ancient C3a from Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda as well as corresponding parts of human C3a exhibited helical structures upon binding to bacterial lipopolysaccharide permeabilized liposomes and were antimicrobial against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Human C3a and C4a (but not C5a) were antimicrobial, in concert with the separate evolutionary development of the chemotactic C5a. Thus, the results demonstrate that, notwithstanding a significant sequence variation, functional and structural constraints imposed on C3a during evolution have preserved critical properties governing antimicrobial activity.
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4.
  • Lundquist, Ingmar, et al. (författare)
  • Monoamines in pancreatic islets of guinea pig, hamster, rat, and mouse determined by high performance liquid chromatography
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: Pancreas. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0885-3177. ; 4:6, s. 662-667
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous studies on the occurrence of catecholamines and serotonin in pancreatic islets using various histochemical and chemical methods have given widely different results. We therefore performed a comparative analysis of these amines in whole pancreas and islet tissue from hamster, guinea pig, rat, and mouse by the use of high performance liquid chromatography. Whole pancreas of guinea pig, hamster, and rat had a norepinephrine concentration of approximately 1.1 [mu]mol/kg of pancreatic wet weight. The mouse pancreas had less than one-half of that concentration. Epinephrine and dopamine concentrations were on the order of 0.02 [mu]mol/kg of pancreatic wet weight in all four species. The serotonin concentration was 2.1 [mu]mol/kg of pancreatic wet weight in the guinea pig pancreas and approximately 0.2 [mu]mol/kg in the other three species studied. The catecholamine concentrations were much higher in the pancreatic islets than in the exocrine pancreas. Thus, the norepinephrine concentration was approximately 35 [mu]mol/kg of islet wet weight in hamster islets and 5-10 [mu]mol/kg in rat, guinea pig, and mouse islets. The epinephrine concentration in islet tissue ranged between 1 and 7 [mu]mol/kg of islet wet weight and the dopamine concentration between 0.5 and 4 [mu]mol/kg except for guinea pig islets (12 [mu]mol/kg). The islet tissue in the mouse, rat, and guinea pig contained disproportionately more epinephrine and dopamine relative to norepinephrine than did the exocrine pancreas. Chemical sympathectomy (6- hydroxydopamine treatment) in the mouse reduced the norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations in islet tissue to nondetectable levels, whereas the dopamine concentration was essentially unchanged, thus suggesting an extraneuronal source of this amine in addition to its occurrence in adrenergic nerves. The islets of hamster, rat, and mouse contained no serotonin, whereas guinea pig islets contained approximately 275 [mu]mol/kg of islet wet weight. We conclude that, although species differences exist, the pancreatic islets have markedly higher levels of catecholamines than the exocrine pancreas, and that serotonin occurs in the exocrine pancreas of all four species studied but in the endocrine pancreas only in the guinea pig.
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5.
  • Bergfors, Elisabet, et al. (författare)
  • A child with a long-standing, intensely itching subcutaneous nodule on a thigh : an uncommon (?) reaction to commonly used vaccines
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMJ Case Reports. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1757-790X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A 2-year-old girl presented with an intensely itching subcutaneous nodule on the front of a thigh. The nodule persisted for 10 months until it was excised. Subsequent investigation for malignancy and systemic disease showed no pathological findings. The diagnosis, persistent itching vaccination granuloma, was revealed by hazard almost 2 years after the onset of symptoms. Persistent itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site for aluminium containing vaccines (mostly diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis combination vaccines for primary immunisation of infants) may appear with a long delay after the vaccination (months), cause prolonged itching (years) and are often associated with contact allergy to aluminium. The condition is poorly recognised in Health Care which may lead to prolonged symptoms and unnecessary investigations.
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6.
  • Hult, Jenny, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of photoacoustic imaging and histopathological examination in determining the dimensions of 52 human melanomas and nevi ex vivo : Biomedical Optics Express
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Biomedical Optics Express. - : Optical Society of America. - 2156-7085. ; 12:7, s. 4097-4114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Surgical excision followed by histopathological examination is the gold standard for the diagnosis and staging of melanoma. Reoperations and unnecessary removal of healthy tissue could be reduced if non-invasive imaging techniques were available for presurgical tumor delineation. However, no technique has gained widespread clinical use to date due to shallow imaging depth or the absence of functional imaging capability. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a novel technology that combines the strengths of optical and ultrasound imaging to reveal the molecular composition of tissue at high resolution. Encouraging results have been obtained from previous animal and human studies on melanoma, but there is still a lack of clinical data. This is the largest study of its kind to date, including 52 melanomas and nevi. 3D multiwavelength PA scanning was performed ex vivo, using 59 excitation wavelengths from 680 nm to 970 nm. Spectral unmixing over this broad wavelength range, accounting for the absorption of several tissue chromophores, provided excellent contrast between healthy tissue and tumor. Combining the results of spectral analysis with spatially resolved information provided a map of the tumor borders in greater detail than previously reported. The tumor dimensions determined with PA imaging were strongly correlated with those determined by histopathological examination for both melanomas and nevi.
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7.
  • Johansson, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Dynamics of leukocyte receptors after severe burns : an exploratory study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Burns. - Oxford : Elsevier. - 0305-4179 .- 1879-1409. ; 37:2, s. 227-233
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Patients with burns are susceptible to organ failure, and there is indirect evidence that leukocytes may contribute to this process. They may change the expression of cell-surface receptors after certain stimuli, for example, the burn. We therefore aimed to assess the changes induced by the burn in the expression of leukocyte cell-surface receptors CD11b, CD14, CD16, and CD62L on the surface of PMNs and monocytes. We also wanted to examine the dynamics of this activation during the first week after the burn, and to relate it to the size of the injury.METHODS: Ten patients with burns of >15% (TBSA) were included in the study. Blood samples were collected on arrival and every consecutive morning during the first week. Healthy volunteers acted as controls.RESULTS: PMN CD11b expression was increased. The extent of PMN CD11b expression correlated negatively to the size of the full thickness burn. Monocyte CD14 expression increased initially but there was no relation to the size of the burn. PMN CD16 expression decreased initially during the first days and the decrease was related to burn size. CD62L did not vary depending on the burn in either PMN or monocytes during the first week after the burn.CONCLUSION: This study showed that specific receptors on the surface of leukocytes (PMN CD11b, monocyte CD14 and PMN CD16) are affected by the burn. Expression of PMN CD11b and CD16 are related to burn size. Burn-induced effects on the expression of PMN receptors, such as PMN CD11b and CD16, may contribute to burn-induced infection susceptibility.
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8.
  • Kalle, Martina, et al. (författare)
  • A Peptide of Heparin Cofactor II Inhibits Endotoxin-Mediated Shock and Invasive Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 9:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sepsis and septic shock remain important medical problems with high mortality rates. Today's treatment is based mainly on using antibiotics to target the bacteria, without addressing the systemic inflammatory response, which is a major contributor to mortality in sepsis. Therefore, novel treatment options are urgently needed to counteract these complex sepsis pathologies. Heparin cofactor II (HCII) has recently been shown to be protective against Gram-negative infections. The antimicrobial effects were mapped to helices A and D of the molecule. Here we show that KYE28, a 28 amino acid long peptide representing helix D of HCII, is antimicrobial against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as the fungus Candida albicans. Moreover, KYE28 binds to LPS and thereby reduces LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses by decreasing NF-κB/AP-1 activation in vitro. In mouse models of LPS-induced shock, KYE28 significantly enhanced survival by dampening the pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Finally, in an invasive Pseudomonas infection model, the peptide inhibited bacterial growth and reduced the pro-inflammatory response, which lead to a significant reduction of mortality. In summary, the peptide KYE28, by simultaneously targeting bacteria and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses represents a novel therapeutic candidate for invasive infections.
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9.
  • Nielsen, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Swedish CDKN2A mutation carriers do not present the atypical mole syndrome phenotype.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Melanoma Research. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0960-8931. ; Jul 1, s. 266-272
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Phenotypic characteristics were examined in melanoma-prone southern Swedish CDKN2A (p16-113insArg/p14ARF-128insSer) mutation families, in relation to the CDKN2A genotype, nevi, clinically atypical nevi (CAN) and melanoma. Individuals from eight melanoma-prone families, with index patients carrying the CDKN2A mutation, were offered skin examinations and genotyping (CDKN2A and MC1R). Ninety-three individuals above 18 years of age participated; 29 invasive melanomas in 16 patients were recorded, all in the 38 verified CDKN2A mutation carriers. Median age at diagnosis was 36 years. Several MC1R variants were observed. A significant correlation to CAN (P=0.01) and red hair colour (P=0.02) could be confirmed in melanoma patients. A positive mutation status (CDKN2A) was correlated to one or more CAN (P=0.007) but neither to blue eyes, red hair colour, heavy freckling nor high number of nevi. For mutation carriers, median total naevus count was 24 and interquartile range was 12-47 (mean 31); whereas for the whole cohort, median total naevus count was 12 and interquartile range was 5-25 (mean 22). No participant fulfilled the atypical mole syndrome phenotype criteria. Melanomas were diagnosed only in mutation carriers, and melanoma diagnosis was statistically correlated to the presence of one or more CAN and red hair colour, supporting the possible synergistic effect of a MC1R mutation on increased risk of melanoma in patients with a CDKN2A mutation. Family history, with verified tumour diagnoses, remains an important clinical tool for finding mutation carriers for referral to clinical geneticists and simultaneous presence of CAN in probable mutation carriers might strengthen this indication. The atypical mole syndrome phenotype was, however, not verified in the studied families and total naevus counts were low.
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10.
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