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1.
  • Lewerin, C., et al. (författare)
  • Low holotranscobalamin and cobalamins predict incident fractures in elderly men: the MrOS Sweden.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. - 1433-2965. ; 25:1, s. 131-140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • SummaryIn a population-based study on cobalamin status and incident fractures in elderly men (n  = 790) with an average follow-up of 5.9 years, we found that low levels of metabolically active and total cobalamins predict incident fractures, independently of body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), and cystatin C.IntroductionCobalamin deficiency in elderlies may affect bone metabolism. This study aims to determine whether serum cobalamins or holotranscobalamin (holoTC; the metabolic active cobalamin) predict incident fractures in old men.MethodsMen participating in the Gothenburg part of the population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Sweden cohort and without ongoing vitamin B medication were included in the present study (n = 790; age range, 70–81 years).ResultsDuring an average follow-up of 5.9 years, 110 men sustained X-ray-verified fractures including 45 men with clinical vertebral fractures. The risk of fracture (adjusted for age, smoking, BMI, BMD, falls, prevalent fracture, tHcy, cystatin C, 25-OH-vitamin D, intake of calcium, and physical activity (fully adjusted)), increased per each standard deviation decrease in cobalamins (hazard ratio (HR), 1.38; 95 % confidence intervals (CI), 1.11–1.72) and holoTC (HR, 1.26; 95 % CI, 1.03–1.54), respectively. Men in the lowest quartile of cobalamins and holoTC (fully adjusted) had an increased risk of all fracture (cobalamins, HR = 1.67 (95 % CI, 1.06–2.62); holoTC, HR = 1.74 (95 % CI, 1.12–2.69)) compared with quartiles 2–4. No associations between folate or tHcy and incident fractures were seen.ConclusionsWe present novel data showing that low levels of holoTC and cobalamins predicting incident fracture in elderly men. This association remained after adjustment for BMI, BMD, tHcy, and cystatin C. However, any causal relationship between low cobalamin status and fractures should be explored in a prospective treatment study.
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2.
  • Pourhamidi, Kaveh, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of clinical tools and their diagnostic use in distal symmetric polyneuropathy
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Primary Care Diabetes. - Elsevier. - 1878-0210. ; 8:1, s. 77-84
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: To compare the diagnostic usefulness of tuning fork, monofilament, biothesiometer and skin biopsies in peripheral neuropathy in individuals with varying glucose metabolism. Methods: Normoglycaemic, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) individuals were recruited. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) and thermal threshold tests were performed. Vibrotactile sense was tested with a biothesiometer and a 128-Hz tuning fork. Touch/pressure perception was examined with a 10-g monofilament. Skin biopsies were performed and intraepidermal nerve fibres were quantified. Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSPN) was defined as neuropathy disability score >= 2 and abnormal NCS. Thermal threshold tests were used to define small nerve fibre neuropathy (sDSPN) in cases where NCS (large nerve fibres) were normal. Results: The prevalence of DSPN and sDSPN in the whole group (n = 119) was 18% and 23%, respectively. For the biothesiometer, a cut-off of >= 24.5V had a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 70% (AUC = 0.81, 95% CI 0.71-0.91) when evaluating DSPN. An intraepidermal nerve fibre density cut-off of <= 3.39 fibres/mm showed a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 70% in the detection of sDSPN, whereas the sensitivity of the tuning fork and the biothesiometer were relatively low, 46% and 67%, respectively. When combining skin biopsies with the tuning fork, 10 more sDSPN cases were identified. Adding skin biopsy to the combination of the tuning fork and biothesiometer increased the sensitivity of finding sDSPN cases, but not DSPN, from 81% to 93%. Conclusion: Using a biothesiometer in clinical routine might be a sensitive method to detect large nerve fibre dysfunction in the lower extremity, whereas skin biopsies in combination with methods measuring vibrotactile sense could increase the diagnostic sensitivity of detecting peripheral neuropathy at an early stage. (C) 2013 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
3.
  • Paterson, R. W., et al. (författare)
  • A targeted proteomic multiplex CSF assay identifies increased malate dehydrogenase and other neurodegenerative biomarkers in individuals with Alzheimer's disease pathology.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Translational psychiatry. - 2158-3188. ; 6:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Biomarkers are required to identify individuals in the preclinical phase, explain phenotypic diversity, measure progression and estimate prognosis. The development of assays to validate candidate biomarkers is costly and time-consuming. Targeted proteomics is an attractive means of quantifying novel proteins in cerebrospinal and other fluids, and has potential to help overcome this bottleneck in biomarker development. We used a previously validated multiplexed 10-min, targeted proteomic assay to assess 54 candidate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in two independent cohorts comprising individuals with neurodegenerative dementias and healthy controls. Individuals were classified as 'AD' or 'non-AD' on the basis of their CSF T-tau and amyloid Aβ1-42 profile measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; biomarkers of interest were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. In all, 35/31 individuals in Cohort 1 and 46/36 in Cohort 2 fulfilled criteria for AD/non-AD profile CSF, respectively. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, five proteins were elevated significantly in AD CSF compared with non-AD CSF in both cohorts: malate dehydrogenase; total APOE; chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40); osteopontin and cystatin C. In an independent multivariate orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), these proteins were also identified as major contributors to the separation between AD and non-AD in both cohorts. Independent of CSF Aβ1-42 and tau, a combination of these biomarkers differentiated AD and non-AD with an area under curve (AUC)=0.88. This targeted proteomic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based assay can simultaneously and rapidly measure multiple candidate CSF biomarkers. Applying this technique to AD we demonstrate differences in proteins involved in glucose metabolism and neuroinflammation that collectively have potential clinical diagnostic utility.
4.
  • Åkerman, Linda, 1983- (författare)
  • Aspects of the Pre-Diabetic Period in Type 1 Diabetes
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by insulin deficiency, due to immune-mediated destruction of beta cells. Current knowledge regarding the period preceding disease onset comes, to a large extent, from studying risk cohorts based on relatives of T1D-patients, as they have an increased disease risk. Among T1D patients in general, however, few have the disease in their immediate family. It is therefore important to study risk cohorts from the general population as well. An ongoing autoimmune reaction can often be seen in the blood long before disease onset, by detection of autoantibodies directed towards beta cell antigens. By autoantibody screening among participants in the ABIS (All Babies in the South-east of Sweden) cohort, we could identify a group of children from the general population with increased risk for T1D, positive for multiple autoantibodies. They were enrolled in a 2-year prospective follow-up aiming to characterize the prediabetic period and to identify factors indicative of progression/non-progression to T1D. We assessed glucose homeostasis and autoantibody titers over time, and searched for risk-biomarkers by analyzing the expression of immune-related genes (Th1-Th2-Th3) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from these children, in comparison to healthy children and newly diagnosed T1D patients. In the same groups we also compared serum micro RNA (miRNA) profiles, knowing that miRNA molecules have desirable biomarker properties. We found that two specific autoantibodies, IA2A and ZnT8A, were detected at higher concentrations in risk-individuals who progressed to overt T1D during or after the follow-up period, compared to those who still have not. We also observed disturbed glucose homeostasis long before onset in the progressors, but it was seen among those who remain symptom free as well. Further, we found support for the possible role of insulin resistance as an accelerator of the disease process. For gene expression and serum miRNA, few differences were observed between risk-individuals and healthy children overall. However, for PBMC gene expression and serum miRNA both, there were associations to beta cell function and glucose homeostasis, and for miRNA also to islet autoantibodies. Although specific profiles for prediction of disease onset or identification of risk-individuals could not be found, these results are interesting and deserve to be evaluated further. As part of another sub-study within ABIS, the effects of physical activity on glucose homeostasis were assessed in healthy schoolchildren. The level of physical activity, measured by pedometers, was related to insulin resistance and beta cell-stress, and decreased physical activity was associated with increased insulin resistance and load on the insulin-producing beta cells, already at school-age.
5.
  • Borg, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • High levels of antigen-specific islet antibodies predict future beta-cell failure in patients with onset of diabetes in adult age
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - The Endocrine Society. - 1945-7197. ; 86:7, s. 3032-3038
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is unclear whether high levels of antigen-specific islet antibodies [GADA (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 antibodies) and IA2-ab (protein tyrosine phosphatase-like protein antibodies)] predict beta-cell failure in patients with onset of diabetes in adult age. Therefore, GADA and IA2-ab levels at the diagnosis of diabetes were related to fasting plasma C-peptide levels 5 yr later in 148 patients with diabetes onset in adult age (age at onset, 20-77 yr; median, 57 yr). Classical islet cell antibodies (ICA) were also determined. Complete beta-cell failure (undetectable fasting plasma C-peptide) was only present in 4 patients at diagnosis of diabetes, but in 21 patients 5 yr thereafter. At diagnosis, ICA were detected in 20 of 21 (95%) patients with beta-cell failure after 5 yr and in only 7 of 127 (5%) without, whereas GADA and/or IA2-ab (>97.5 percentile of healthy controls) were detected in all 21 (100%) with but also in 23 of 127 (18%) patients without beta-cell failure after 5 yr. Thus, ICA had a higher positive predictive value (74%) than GADA and/or IA2-ab (47%; P < 0.05). With high cutoff values for GADA and IA2-ab, however, GADA and/or IA2-ab were detected in 19 of 21 (90%) patients with beta-cell failure vs. only in 5 of 127 (4%) without, giving a positive predictive value of 79%. Slightly elevated GADA levels in IA2-ab-negative patients were associated with progressive but not complete beta-cell failure within the study period. Hence, high GADA and/or IA2-ab levels predict a future complete beta-cell failure, whereas low GADA levels predict slowly progressive beta-cell insufficiency.
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6.
  • Sofizadeh, Sheyda, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Liraglutide on Times in Glycaemic Ranges as Assessed by CGM for Type 2 Diabetes Patients Treated With Multiple Daily Insulin Injections
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Therapy. - Springer. - 1869-6953. ; 10:6, s. 2115-2130
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: The effects of the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide on time in hypoglycaemia, time in hyperglycaemia, and time in range for type 2 diabetes patients initially treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) were investigated. Variables associated with hypoglycaemia in the current population were also identified. Methods: Analyses were based on data from a previously performed double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which 124 MDI-treated patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to liraglutide or placebo. Masked continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was performed at baseline and week 24 in 99 participants. Results: The mean time in hypoglycaemia was similar for participants receiving liraglutide and those receiving placebo after 24 weeks of treatment. Mean time in target was greater in the liraglutide group than in the placebo group: 430 versus 244 min/24 h (p < 0.001) and 960 versus 695 min/24 h (p < 0.001) for the two glycaemic ranges considered, 4–7 mmol/l and 4–10 mmol/l, respectively. Mean time in hyperglycaemia was lower in the liraglutide group: 457 versus 723 min/24 h (p = 0.001) and 134 versus 264 min/24 h (p = 0.023) for the two cutoffs considered, > 10 mmol/l and > 14 mmol/l, respectively. Lower mean glucose level, lower C-peptide, and higher glucose variability were associated with an increased risk of hypoglycaemia in both treatment groups. Higher proinsulin level was associated with a lower risk of hypoglycaemia in the liraglutide group. Conclusion: For type 2 diabetes patients initially treated with MDI, introducing liraglutide had a beneficial effect on glucose profiles estimated by masked CGM. Mean glucose level, glycaemic variability, C-peptide, and proinsulin level influenced the risk of hypoglycaemia in this population. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, number (EudraCT nr: 2012-001941-42). Funding: Novo Nordisk funded this study. The Diabetes Research Unit, NU-Hospital Group funded the journal’s Rapid Service Fee.
7.
  • Decker, Ralph, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • Case report of a girl with secondary amenorrhea associated with aurantiasis cutis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Hormone Research in Paediatrics. - 1663-2818 .- 1663-2826.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Introduction: --- Aurantiasis cutis is a condition of yellowish or golden skin discoloration that can result from eating excessive amounts of foods containing carotene leading to hypercarotenemia(1), described causing secondary amenorrhea(2). Objective & hypothesis: --- Hypercarotenemia can cause secondary amenorrhea without overconsumption of excessive quantities of carotene. Results: --- Laboratory tests showed a ß-Carotene level more than the 2-fold above the upper reference level. Hyperbilirubinemia could be excluded. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism was not present. There was no evidence for adrenal dysfunction. Liver function tests were normal. Material/ Methods: --- A 16-year-old girl presented to our endocrine outpatient clinic with a 2-year history of varying yellow discoloration of her skin and secondary amenorrhea. The findings of the general physical examination were normal, but there was a marked yellow discoloration of the palms, soles, and nasolabial folds. A dietary history revealed a low carotene diet, but also a low carbohydrate diet. BMI was 19.9 kg/m² (-0.2 SDS) without signs of anorexia. Discussion: --- In this girl we observed hypercarotenemia associated with secondary nonhypothalamic amenorrhea in absence of excess external intake of carotenes. This suggests an intrinsic reason due to a polymorphism(3) in ß-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (BCO)(4), an enzyme breaking down carotenes to vitamin A(5). Phenotype-genotype association studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. Conclusion: --- Secondary non-hypothalamic amenorrhea can be associated with hypercarotenemia. References: --- 1. Tanikawa K, Seta K, Machii A, Itoh S 1961 [Aurantiasis cutis due to overeating of dried laver (nori): a case report]. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 50:414-419 2. Kemmann E, Pasquale SA, Skaf R 1983 Amenorrhea associated with carotenemia. JAMA 249:926-929 3. Leung WC, Hessel S, Meplan C, Flint J, Oberhauser V, Tourniaire F, Hesketh JE, von Lintig J, Lietz G 2009 Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding beta-carotene 15,15'-monoxygenase alter beta-carotene metabolism in female volunteers. FASEB j 23:1041-1053 4. Frumar AM, Meldrum DR, Judd HL 1979 Hypercarotenemia in hypothalamic amenorrhea. Fertil Steril 32:261-264 5. Lindqvist A, Andersson S 2002 Biochemical properties of purified recombinant human beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase. J Biol Chem 277:23942-23948
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10.
  • Rosengren, Björn E, et al. (författare)
  • Inferior physical performance test results of 10,998 men in the MrOS Study is associated with high fracture risk.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Age and ageing. - 1468-2834. ; 41:3, s. 339-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: most fractures are preceded by falls. Objective: the aim of this study was to determine whether tests of physical performance are associated with fractures. Subjects: a total of 10,998 men aged 65 years or above were recruited. Methods: questionnaires evaluated falls sustained 12 months before administration of the grip strength test, the timed stand test, the six-metre walk test and the twenty-centimetre narrow walk test. Means with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) are reported. P &lt; 0.05 is a statistically significant difference. Results: fallers with a fracture performed worse than non-fallers on all tests (all P &lt; 0.001). Fallers with a fracture performed worse than fallers with no fractures both on the right-hand-grip strength test and on the six-metre walk test (P &lt; 0.001). A score below -2 standard deviations in the right-hand-grip strength test was associated with an odds ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 2.1-7.4) for having had a fall with a fracture compared with having had no fall and with an odds ratio of 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2) for having had a fall with a fracture compared with having had a fall with no fracture. Conclusion: the right-hand-grip strength test and the six-metre walk test performed by old men help discriminate fallers with a fracture from both fallers with no fracture and non-fallers.
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