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1.
  • Warkentin, Siegbert, et al. (författare)
  • rCBF pathology in Alzheimer's disease is associated with slow processing speed
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychologia. - Elsevier. - 1873-3514. ; 46:5, s. 1193-1200
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Decreased information processing speed (mental slowing) is a known sequelae of many brain disorders, and can be assessed by continuous naming tasks. Functional imaging studies have shown that pause and articulation times in continuous speech are normally associated with different brain regions, but knowledge about such association in dementia is lacking. We therefore tested the hypothesis that perfusion deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not only associated with slower processing, but also with these speech measures. Using regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements during the performance of a continuous colour and form-naming task, we found that naming speed was substantially slower in AD patients than in controls. This slower naming was exclusively determined by an increase in mean pause time, and only to a limited extent by articulation time. The increased pause time was uniquely associated with temporo-parietal rCBF reductions of the patients, while articulation was not. By contrast, the rCBF of healthy elderly control subjects was consistently accompanied by substantially shorter articulation and pause times, although the naming measures were not statistically associated with rCBF. These findings suggest that pause time (in contrast to articulation time) may serve as a sensitive measure in the assessment of information processing speed deficits in dementia, by virtue of its close association with brain pathology. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Gustafson, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • A factor analytic approach to symptom patterns in dementia.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - Hindawi Publishing Corporation. - 2090-0252.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous publications have shown a high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of three short clinical rating scales for Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and vascular dementia (VaD) validated against neuropathological (NP) diagnoses. In this study, the aim was to perform an exploratory factor analysis of the items in these clinical rating scales. The study included 190 patients with postmortem diagnoses of AD (n = 74), VaD (n = 33), mixed AD/VaD (n = 31), or FTD (n = 52). The factor analysis produced three strong factors. Factor 1 contained items describing cerebrovascular disease, similar to the Hachinski Ischemic Score. Factor 2 enclosed major clinical characteristics of FTD, and factor 3 showed a striking similarity to the AD scale. A fourth symptom cluster was described by perception and expression of emotions. The factor analyses strongly support the construct validity of the diagnostic rating scales.
3.
  • Schöll, Michael, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarkers for tau pathology.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecular and cellular neurosciences. - 1095-9327. ; 97, s. 18-33
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aggregation of fibrils of hyperphosphorylated and C-terminally truncated microtubule-associated tau protein characterizes 80% of all dementia disorders, the most common neurodegenerative disorders. These so-called tauopathies are hitherto not curable and their diagnosis, especially at early disease stages, has traditionally proven difficult. A keystone in the diagnosis of tauopathies was the development of methods to assess levels of tau protein in vivo in cerebrospinal fluid, which has significantly improved our knowledge about these conditions. Tau proteins have also been measured in blood, but the importance of tau-related changes in blood is still unclear. The recent addition of positron emission tomography ligands to visualize, map and quantify tau pathology has further contributed with information about the temporal and spatial characteristics of tau accumulation in the living brain. Together, the measurement of tau with fluid biomarkers and positron emission tomography constitutes the basis for a highly active field of research. This review describes the current state of biomarkers for tau biomarkers derived from neuroimaging and from the analysis of bodily fluids and their roles in the detection, diagnosis and prognosis of tau-associated neurodegenerative disorders, as well as their associations with neuropathological findings, and aims to provide a perspective on how these biomarkers might be employed prospectively in research and clinical settings.
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4.
5.
  • Brun, Arne, et al. (författare)
  • The Birth and Early Evolution of the Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) Concept.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience : MN. - Humana Press. - 1559-1166. ; 45, s. 324-329
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An historical overview of the development of the concept of frontotemporal dementia is presented, regarding the last 30 years, using as a backbone the conferences held on this theme, with a start in 1986 in Lund, Sweden. Since then, a dramatic increase in research activities and publications has rapidly expanded our knowledge in this field, a step necessary for the ultimate goal to find an effective treatment of this devastating disorder.
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6.
  • Lewerin, Catharina, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Low holotranscobalamin and cobalamins predict incident fractures in elderly men: the MrOS Sweden Study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - 0937-941X .- 1433-2965. ; 25:1, s. 131-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a population-based study on cobalamin status and incident fractures in elderly men (n = 790) with an average follow-up of 5.9 years, we found that low levels of metabolically active and total cobalamins predict incident fractures, independently of body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), and cystatin C. INTRODUCTION: Cobalamin deficiency in elderlies may affect bone metabolism. This study aims to determine whether serum cobalamins or holotranscobalamin (holoTC; the metabolic active cobalamin) predict incident fractures in old men. METHODS: Men participating in the Gothenburg part of the population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Sweden cohort and without ongoing vitamin B medication were included in the present study (n = 790; age range, 70-81 years). RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 5.9 years, 110 men sustained X-ray-verified fractures including 45 men with clinical vertebral fractures. The risk of fracture (adjusted for age, smoking, BMI, BMD, falls, prevalent fracture, tHcy, cystatin C, 25-OH-vitamin D, intake of calcium, and physical activity (fully adjusted)), increased per each standard deviation decrease in cobalamins (hazard ratio (HR), 1.38; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.11-1.72) and holoTC (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.03-1.54), respectively. Men in the lowest quartile of cobalamins and holoTC (fully adjusted) had an increased risk of all fracture (cobalamins, HR = 1.67 (95% CI, 1.06-2.62); holoTC, HR = 1.74 (95% CI, 1.12-2.69)) compared with quartiles 2-4. No associations between folate or tHcy and incident fractures were seen. CONCLUSIONS: We present novel data showing that low levels of holoTC and cobalamins predicting incident fracture in elderly men. This association remained after adjustment for BMI, BMD, tHcy, and cystatin C. However, any causal relationship between low cobalamin status and fractures should be explored in a prospective treatment study.
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7.
  • Rosengren, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Inferior physical performance test results of 10,998 men in the MrOS Study is associated with high fracture risk.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Age and ageing. - 1468-2834. ; 41:3, s. 339-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: most fractures are preceded by falls.Objective: the aim of this study was to determine whether tests of physical performance are associated with fractures.Subjects: a total of 10,998 men aged 65 years or above were recruited.Methods: questionnaires evaluated falls sustained 12 months before administration of the grip strength test, the timed stand test, the six-metre walk test and the twenty-centimetre narrow walk test. Means with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) are reported. P < 0.05 is a statistically significant difference.Results: fallers with a fracture performed worse than non-fallers on all tests (all P < 0.001). Fallers with a fracture performed worse than fallers with no fractures both on the right-hand-grip strength test and on the six-metre walk test (P < 0.001). A score below -2 standard deviations in the right-hand-grip strength test was associated with an odds ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 2.1-7.4) for having had a fall with a fracture compared with having had no fall and with an odds ratio of 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2) for having had a fall with a fracture compared with having had a fall with no fracture.Conclusion: the right-hand-grip strength test and the six-metre walk test performed by old men help discriminate fallers with a fracture from both fallers with no fracture and non-fallers.
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8.
  • Reynolds, C. A., et al. (författare)
  • Sortilin receptor 1 predicts longitudinal cognitive change
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - 0197-4580. ; 34:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The gene encoding sortilin receptor 1 (SORL1) has been associated with Alzheimer's disease risk. We examined 15 SORL1 variants and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) set risk scores in relation to longitudinal verbal, spatial, memory, and perceptual speed performance, testing for age trends and sex-specific effects. Altogether, 1609 individuals from 3 population-based Swedish twin studies were assessed up to 5 times across 16 years. Controlling for apolipoprotein E genotype (APOE), multiple simple and sex-moderated associations were observed for spatial, episodic memory, and verbal trajectories (p = 1.25E-03 to p = 4.83E-02). Five variants (rs11600875, rs753780, rs7105365, rs11820794, rs2070045) were associated across domains. Notably, in those homozygous for the rs2070045 risk allele, men demonstrated initially favorable performance but accelerating declines, and women showed overall lower performance. SNP set risk scores predicted spatial (Card Rotations, p = 5.92E-03) and episodic memory trajectories (Thurstone Picture Memory, p = 3.34E-02), where higher risk scores benefited men's versus women's performance up to age 75 but with accelerating declines. SORL1 is associated with cognitive aging, and might contribute differentially to change in men and women.
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9.
  • Sundvall, Pär-Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of dipstick analysis among elderly residents to detect bacteriuria: a cross-sectional study in 32 nursing homes.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BMC geriatrics. - 1471-2318. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated dipstick urinalysis for elderly and practically none present confidence intervals. Furthermore, most previous studies combine all bacteria species in a "positive culture". Thus, their evaluation may be inappropriate due to Yule-Simpson's paradox. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of dipstick urinalysis for the elderly in nursing homes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study voided urine specimens were collected from 651 elderly individuals in nursing homes. Dipstick urinalysis for nitrite, leukocyte esterase and urine culture were performed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Visual readings were compared to readings with a urine chemistry analyzer. RESULTS: 207/651 (32%) of urine cultures showed growth of a potentially pathogenic bacterium. Combining the two dipsticks improved test characteristics slightly compared to using only one of the dipsticks. When both dipsticks are negative, presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria can be ruled out with a negative predictive value of 88 (84-92)%. Visual and analyzer readings had acceptable agreement. CONCLUSION: When investigating for bacteriuria in elderly people at nursing homes we suggest nitrite and leukocyte esterase dipstick be combined. There are no clinically relevant differences between visual and analyzer dipstick readings. When dipstick urinalysis for nitrite and leukocyte esterase are both negative it is unlikely that the urine culture will show growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and in a patient with an uncomplicated illness further testing is unnecessary.
10.
  • Sundvall, Par-Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Interleukin-6 concentrations in the urine and dipstick analyses were related to bacteriuria but not symptoms in the elderly: a cross sectional study of 421 nursing home residents.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC geriatrics. - 1471-2318. ; 14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Up to half the residents of nursing homes for the elderly have asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), which should not be treated with antibiotics. A complementary test to discriminate between symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) and ABU is needed, as diagnostic uncertainty is likely to generate significant antibiotic overtreatment. Previous studies indicate that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the urine might be suitable as such a test. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between laboratory findings of bacteriuria, IL-6 in the urine, dipstick urinalysis and newly onset symptoms among residents of nursing homes. Methods: In this cross sectional study, voided urine specimens for culture, urine dipstick and IL-6 analyses were collected from all residents capable of providing a voided urine sample, regardless of the presence of symptoms. Urine specimens and symptom forms were provided from 421 residents of 22 nursing homes. The following new or increased nonspecific symptoms occurring during the previous month were registered; fatigue, restlessness, confusion, aggressiveness, loss of appetite, frequent falls and not being herself/himself, as well as symptoms from the urinary tract; dysuria, urinary urgency and frequency. Results: Recent onset of nonspecific symptoms was common among elderly residents of nursing homes (85/421). Urine cultures were positive in 32% (135/421), Escherichia coli was by far the most common bacterial finding. Residents without nonspecific symptoms had positive urine cultures as often as those with nonspecific symptoms with a duration of up to one month. Residents with positive urine cultures had higher concentrations of IL-6 in the urine (p < 0.001). However, among residents with positive urine cultures there were no differences in IL-6 concentrations or dipstick findings between those with or without nonspecific symptoms. Conclusions: Nonspecific symptoms among elderly residents of nursing homes are unlikely to be caused by bacteria in the urine. This study could not establish any clinical value of using dipstick urinalysis or IL-6 in the urine to verify if bacteriuria was linked to nonspecific symptoms.
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