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Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Infektionsmedicin)

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1.
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2.
  • Anesäter, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • The influence on wound contraction and fluid evacuation of a rigid disc inserted to protect exposed organs during negative pressure wound therapy.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Wound Journal. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1742-481X. ; 8, s. 393-399
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The use of a rigid disc as a barrier between the wound bed and the wound filler during negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been suggested to prevent damage to exposed organs. However, it is important to determine that the effects of NPWT, such as wound contraction and fluid removal, are maintained during treatment despite the use of a barrier. This study was performed to examine the effect of NPWT on wound contraction and fluid evacuation in the presence of a rigid disc. Peripheral wounds were created on the backs of eight pigs. The wounds were filled with foam, and rigid discs of different designs were inserted between the wound bed and the foam. Wound contraction and fluid evacuation were measured after application of continuous NPWT at -80 mmHg. Wound contraction was similar in the presence and the absence of a rigid disc (84 ± 4% and 83 ± 3%, respectively, compared with baseline). Furthermore, the rigid disc did not affect wound fluid removal compared with ordinary NPWT (e.g. after 120 seconds, 71 ± 4 ml was removed in the presence and 73 ± 3 ml was removed in the absence of a disc). This study shows that a rigid barrier may be placed under the wound filler to protect exposed structures during NPWT without affecting wound contraction and fluid removal, which are two crucial features of NPWT.
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3.
  • Svensson, Katrin, et al. (författare)
  • Hypoxia triggers a proangiogenic pathway involving cancer cell microvesicles and PAR-2-mediated heparin-binding EGF signaling in endothelial cells.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - : National Acad Sciences. - 1091-6490. ; 108:32, s. 13147-13152
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Highly malignant tumors, such as glioblastomas, are characterized by hypoxia, endothelial cell (EC) hyperplasia, and hypercoagulation. However, how these phenomena of the tumor microenvironment may be linked at the molecular level during tumor development remains ill-defined. Here, we provide evidence that hypoxia up-regulates protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2), i.e., a G-protein-coupled receptor of coagulation-dependent signaling, in ECs. Hypoxic induction of PAR-2 was found to elicit an angiogenic EC phenotype and to specifically up-regulate heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF). Inhibition of HB-EGF by antibody neutralization or heparin treatment efficiently counteracted PAR-2-mediated activation of hypoxic ECs. We show that PAR-2-dependent HB-EGF induction was associated with increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, and inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation attenuated PAR-2-dependent HB-EGF induction as well as EC activation. Tissue factor (TF), i.e., the major initiator of coagulation-dependent PAR signaling, was substantially induced by hypoxia in several types of cancer cells, including glioblastoma; however, TF was undetectable in ECs even at prolonged hypoxia, which precludes cell-autonomous PAR-2 activation through TF. Interestingly, hypoxic cancer cells were shown to release substantial amounts of TF that was mainly associated with secreted microvesicles with exosome-like characteristics. Vesicles derived from glioblastoma cells were found to trigger TF/VIIa-dependent activation of hypoxic ECs in a paracrine manner. We provide evidence of a hypoxia-induced signaling axis that links coagulation activation in cancer cells to PAR-2-mediated activation of ECs. The identified pathway may constitute an interesting target for the development of additional strategies to treat aggressive brain tumors.
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4.
  • Jonsson, Jerker, et al. (författare)
  • A borderline range for Quantiferon Gold In-Tube results
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 12:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Interferon gamma release assays like Quantiferon Gold In-Tube (QFT) are used to identify individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A dichotomous cut-off (0.35 IU/ml) defines a positive QFT without considering test variability. Our objective was to evaluate the introduction of a borderline range under routine conditions. Methods Results of routine QFT samples from Sweden (2009-2014) were collected. A borderline range (0.20-0.99 IU/ml) was introduced in 2010 recommending a follow-up sample. The association between borderline results and incident active TB within 3 to 24 months was investigated through linkage with the national TB-register. Results Using the recommended QFT cut-off, 75.1 % tests were negative, 21.4% positive and 3.5% indeterminate. In total, 9% (3656/40773) were within the borderline range. In follow-up samples, individuals with initial results between 0.20-0.34 IU/ml and 0.35-0.99 IU/ml displayed negative results below the borderline range (amp;lt;0.20 IU/ml) in 66.1% (230/348) and 42.5% (285/671) respectively, and none developed incident TB. Among 6712 individuals with a positive initial test amp;gt;0.99 IU/ml, 65 (0.97%) developed incident TB within 3-24 months. Conclusions We recommend retesting of subjects with QFT results in the range 0.20-0.99 IU/ml to enhance reliability and validity of the test. Half of the subjects in the borderline range will be negative at a levelamp;lt;0.20 IU/ml when retested and have a very low risk of developing incident active TB.
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5.
  • Midlöv, Patrik, et al. (författare)
  • Medication report reduces number of medication errors when elderly patients are discharged from hospital
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: PHARMACY WORLD & SCIENCE. - : Springer. - 0928-1231. ; 30:1, s. 92-98
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To investigate whether a Medication Report can reduce the number of medication errors when elderly patients are discharged from hospital. Method We conducted a prospective intervention with retrospective controls on patients at three departments at Lund University Hospital, Sweden that where transferred to primary care. The intervention group, where patients received a Medication Report at discharge, was compared with a control group with patients of the same age, who were not given a Medication Report when discharged from the same ward one year earlier. Main outcome measures The main outcome measure was the number of medication errors when elderly patients were discharged from hospital. Results Among 248 patients in the intervention group 79 (32%) had at least one medication error as compared with 118 (66%) among the 179 patients in the control group. In the intervention group 15% of the patients had errors that were considered to have moderate or high risk of clinical consequences compared with 32% in the control group. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion Medication errors are common when elderly patients are discharged from hospital. The Medication Report is a simple tool that reduces the number of medication errors.
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6.
  • Linge, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • The Antibacterial Chemokine MIG/CXCL9 Is Constitutively Expressed in Epithelial Cells of the Male Urogenital Tract and Is Present in Seminal Plasma.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research. - : Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.. - 1079-9907. ; 28:3, s. 190-196
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT The integrity of the urogenital tract against potentially invasive pathogens is important for the health of the individual, fertilization, and continuance of species. Antibiotic peptides with broad antimicrobial activity, among them chemokines, are part of the innate immune system. We investigated the presence of the antibacterial interferon (IFN)-dependent CXC chemokines, MIG/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10, and I-TAC/CXCL11, in the human male reproductive system. MIG/CXCL9 was detected at 25.0 nM (range 8.1-40.6 nM; n = 14), whereas IP-10/CXCL10 and I-TAC/CXCL11 were detected at lower levels (mean 1.8 nM, range 0.3-5.8 nM and mean 0.6, 0.2-1.6 nM, respectively) in seminal plasma of fertile donors. The levels of MIG/CXCL9 are more than 300-fold higher than those previously reported in blood plasma. In vasectomized donors, significantly lower levels of MIG/CXCL9 (mean 14.7 nM, range 6.6-21.8) were found, suggesting that the testis and epididymis, in addition to the prostate, significantly contribute to the MIG/CXCL9 content of seminal plasma. Strong expression of MIG/CXCL9 was found in the epithelium of testis, epididymis, and prostate, as detected by immunohistochemistry. MIG/CXCL9 at concentrations in the order of those found in seminal plasma possessed antibacterial activity against the urogenital pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The relatively high levels of MIG/CXCL9 in seminal plasma point to roles for this chemokine in both host defense of the male urogenital tract and during fertilization.
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7.
  • Nordahl, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Domain 5 of high molecular weight kininogen is antibacterial.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 1083-351X. ; 280:41, s. 34832-34839
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Antimicrobial peptides are important effectors of the innate immune system. These peptides belong to a multifunctional group of molecules that apart from their antibacterial activities also interact with mammalian cells and glycosaminoglycans and control chemotaxis, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Here we demonstrate a novel antimicrobial activity of the heparin-binding and cell-binding domain 5 of high molecular weight kininogen. Antimicrobial epitopes of domain 5 were characterized by analysis of overlapping peptides. A peptide, HKH20 (His(479) - His(498)), efficiently killed the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis. Fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy demonstrated that HKH20 binds to and induces breaks in bacterial membranes. Furthermore, no discernible hemolysis or membrane-permeabilizing effects on eukaryotic cells were noted. Proteolytic degradation of high molecular weight kininogen by neutrophil-derived proteases as well as the metalloproteinase elastase from P. aeruginosa yielded fragments comprising HKH20 epitopes, indicating that kininogen-derived antibacterial peptides are released during proteolysis.
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8.
  • Pasupuleti, Mukesh, et al. (författare)
  • Preservation of antimicrobial properties of complement peptide C3a - from invertebrates to humans.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 1083-351X .- 0021-9258. ; 282:4, s. 2520-2528
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The human anaphylatoxin peptide C3a, generated during complement activation, exerts antimicrobial effects. Phylogenetic analysis, sequence analyses, and structural modeling studies paired with antimicrobial assays of peptides from known C3a sequences showed that, in particular in vertebrate C3a, crucial structural determinants governing antimicrobial activity have been conserved during the evolution of C3a. Thus, regions of the ancient C3a from Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda as well as corresponding parts of human C3a exhibited helical structures upon binding to bacterial lipopolysaccharide permeabilized liposomes and were antimicrobial against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Human C3a and C4a (but not C5a) were antimicrobial, in concert with the separate evolutionary development of the chemotactic C5a. Thus, the results demonstrate that, notwithstanding a significant sequence variation, functional and structural constraints imposed on C3a during evolution have preserved critical properties governing antimicrobial activity.
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9.
  • Brundin, Peik, et al. (författare)
  • Gene Expression of Estrogen Receptors in Pbmc From Patients With Puumala-Virus Infection
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Shock. - Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1073-2322 .- 1540-0514. ; 37:4, s. 355-359
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The influence of estrogen signaling on infectious diseases is not fully known. Males seem to be more susceptible to infections than females. This has also been noted for the Scandinavian form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). To investigate the differences in estrogen receptors in relation to sex and clinical severity, 20 patients (10 males, 10 females) with confirmed PUUV infection were studied. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for analyzing mRNA expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERV), ER beta, and ER beta 2 (ER beta cx) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients and healthy age-and sex-matched blood donors. Blood chemistry and peripheral blood mononuclear cells sampling were performed during the acute and convalescent phases. None or very small amounts of ER beta were detected, and ER alpha and ER beta 2 mRNA were elevated in the patient group. The samples from the males were correlated with ER beta 2; the female samples, with ER alpha. Furthermore, the female and male samples are partly separated using multivariate statistic analysis (principal component analysis), supporting findings that clinical symptoms differ depending on sex.
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10.
  • Friberg, Örjan, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence, microbiological findings, and clinical presentation of sternal wound infections after cardiac surgery with and without local gentamicin prophylaxis
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. - Berlin : Springer. - 0934-9723 .- 1435-4373. ; 26:2, s. 91-97
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sternal wound infection (SWI) is a serious complication after cardiac surgery. In a previous randomized controlled trial, the addition of local collagen-gentamicin in the sternal wound before wound closure was found to significantly reduce the incidence of postoperative wound infections compared with the routine intravenous prophylaxis of isoxazolyl-penicillin only. The aims of the present study were to analyse the microbiological findings of the SWIs from the previous trial as well as to correlate these findings with the clinical presentation of SWI. Differences in clinical presentation of SWIs, depending on the causative agent, could be identified. Most infections had a late, insidious onset, and the majority of these were caused by staphylococci, predominantly coagulase-negative staphylococci. The clinically most fulminant infections were caused by gram-negative bacteria and presented early after surgery. Local administration of gentamicin reduced the incidence of SWIs caused by all major, clinically important bacterial species. Propionibacterium acnes was identified as a possible cause of SWI and may be linked to instability in the sternal fixation. There was no indication of an increase in the occurrence of gentamicin-resistant bacterial isolates in the treatment group. Furthermore, the addition of local collagen-gentamicin reduced the incidence of SWIs caused by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci. This technique warrants further evaluation as an alternative to prophylactic vancomycin in settings with a high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
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