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1.
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2.
  • Sundell, Anna Lena, 1970- (författare)
  • Children with orofacial clefts dental caries and health-related quality of life
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p><em>Background. </em>The current understanding on caries and enamel developmental defects prevalence and frequency, caries risk, health-related quality life (HRQoL) and stress response in young children with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) are sparse. In this thesis these aspects were investigated in 5- and 10- year-old children with CL/P in comparison to non-cleft children in the same ages.</p><p><em>Design. </em>The studies in this thesis have a cross-sectional case-control design. <em>Participants. </em>The study group consisted of 139 children with CL/P (80 children aged 5 years and 59 aged 10 years) and 313 non-cleft controls (144 children aged 5 years and 169 aged 10 years).</p><p><em>Method. </em>Caries was scored according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) and developmental enamel defects were measured as presence and frequency of hypoplasia and hypomineralization. Oral hygiene was assessed using Quigley-Hein plaque index. Stimulated saliva samples were analyzed for mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, buffering capacity and secretion rates. Information regarding children’s oral hygiene routines, dietary habits and fluoride exposure were collected with questionnaires. Caries risk was evaluated with algorithm-based software, Cariogram while HRQoL was perceived with KIDSCREEN-52. Stress response was analyzed with cortisol concentration in saliva at three different time points using a commercial competitive radioimmunoassay.</p><p><em>Results. </em>Caries prevalence (36% versus 18%) and caries frequency (1.2 dmfs versus 0.9 dmfs) was significantly higher in 5-year-old children with CL/P in comparison to non-cleft controls. In 10-yearolds no significant difference was found between children with CL/P and non-cleft controls in caries prevalence (47% versus 38%) or in caries frequency (0.7 DMFS versus 0.5 DMFS). Children with CL/P had significantly higher prevalence of enamel defects, higher counts of salivary lactobacilli and less good oral hygiene. The odds of being categorized with high caries risk were elevated in children with CL/P. Children with CL/P had similar HRQoL and salivary cortisol concentrations as non-cleft controls. However, 10-year-old boys with CL/P had significantly higher cortisol concentrations in the evening than non-cleft boys.</p><p><em>Conclusions. </em>Preschool children with CL/P seem to have more caries in the primary dentition than non-cleft controls. Children with CL/P had increased odds of being categorized as high caries risk individuals compared to controls. Some of the contributing factors seem to be higher prevalence of enamel defects, impaired oral hygiene and elevated salivary lactobacilli. Furthermore, as measured with the help of cortisol concentrations in saliva, children with CL/P were not more stressed than noncleft controls and their HRQoL was comparable to a European norm population. It appears that regular comprehensive preventive oral care in children with CL/P is effective in preventing caries development in permanent teeth. However, children with CL/P are at risk of caries development and preventive oral care should be implemented and started earlier than today.</p>
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3.
  • Gustafson, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • A factor analytic approach to symptom patterns in dementia.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - Hindawi Publishing Corporation. - 2090-0252.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous publications have shown a high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of three short clinical rating scales for Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and vascular dementia (VaD) validated against neuropathological (NP) diagnoses. In this study, the aim was to perform an exploratory factor analysis of the items in these clinical rating scales. The study included 190 patients with postmortem diagnoses of AD (n = 74), VaD (n = 33), mixed AD/VaD (n = 31), or FTD (n = 52). The factor analysis produced three strong factors. Factor 1 contained items describing cerebrovascular disease, similar to the Hachinski Ischemic Score. Factor 2 enclosed major clinical characteristics of FTD, and factor 3 showed a striking similarity to the AD scale. A fourth symptom cluster was described by perception and expression of emotions. The factor analyses strongly support the construct validity of the diagnostic rating scales.
4.
  • Nord, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Is Levodopa Pharmacokinetics in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Depending on Gastric Emptying?
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Advances in Parkinsons Disease. - Scientific Research Publishing. - 2169-9712. ; 06:01
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Levodopa uptake from the gastrointestinal tract in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be affected by delayed gastric emptying (GE). This might lead to fluctuating levodopa levels resulting in increased motor fluctuations. Continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS) improves motor fluctuations and could be a result of smoothening in levodopa uptake. In this study we wanted to study the levodopa pharmacokinetics peripherally in PD patients with motor fluctuations and investigate the relation between levodopa uptake and GE and the effect of CDS. PD patients with wearing off (group 1) and on-off syndrome (group 2) were included. Breath tests were performed to evaluate the half time (T1/2) of GE. Concomitantly 1 tablet of Madopark® was given and the levodopa concentrations in blood and subcutaneous (SC) tissue were analyzed for both groups. Group 2 was then given a 10-d continuous intravenous levodopa treatment and the tests were repeated. Higher levels of levodopa in group 1 compared to group 2 in blood (p = 0.014) were seen. The GE was delayed in both group 1 (p &lt; 0.001) and group 2 (p &lt; 0.05) compared to a reference group with healthy volunteers with T1/2 median values 105 and 78 min vs. 72 min. There was no difference in GE between the two PD groups (p = 0.220) or in group 2 before and after infusion period (p = 0.861). CDS resulted in lower levodopa levels in blood (p &lt; 0.001) and SC tissue (p &lt; 0.01). In conclusion, PD patients in early complication phase have a more favourable levodopa uptake than patients later in disease. We found delayed GE in PD patients with motor fluctuations but no obvious relation between GE and levodopa uptake or GE and PD stage. The effect of CDS indicates no effect of CDS on the mechanisms of GE but on the mechanisms of levodopa uptake.</p>
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5.
  • Sjöholm, H, et al. (författare)
  • Necrosis of malignant gliomas after intratumoral injection of 201Tl in vivo in the rat
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Anti-Cancer Drugs. - Rapid Communications. - 0959-4973. ; 6:1, s. 109-114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fourteen adult Fischer 344 rats were inoculated in vivo unilaterally in the caudate nucleus in the brain with malignant RG 2 glioma cells. By 3 weeks a tumor with a diameter of 3-6 mm normally develops. Ten animals which survived the repeated periods of anesthesia and thallium (Tl) injections (intratumorally three times of 201Tl, 15-23 days after inoculation) showed a prolonged retention of radioactivity at the site of injection with no uptake in other organs except for the kidneys. Singular circumscribed necroses were found post-mortem at the site of injection, comprising malignant glioma tumor tissue, which in six animals was absent, in three animals was markedly reduced in size compared with controls and in one animal had the expected size. In four animals metastases were found in distant locations in the brain; in three of these cases there was a retention of radioactivity in the tumor. The selective necrotizing effect on the tumor cells is interpreted as mainly due to emission of Auger electrons from intracellularly accumulated 201Tl, giving rise to very high energy deposition in the vicinity of the cell nucleus. The results should also have implications for the treatment of human malignant gliomas.
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6.
  • Hellström Ängerud, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in symptoms in relation to myocardial infarction.
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background:</strong> In myocardial infarction (MI) rapid diagnosis and treatment is crucial for the prognosis. Previous research has found that symptom presentation influence pre hospital delay times but studies about differences in MI symptoms between patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) are sparse and inconclusive. To enhance the understanding of symptom presentation in regard to MI type, we aimed to describe symptoms in relation to MI type and to find predictors of STEMI versus NSTEMI in patients with MI.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> Patients with MI (n=694) from the SymTime study were included. SymTime was a multicentre cross-sectional study of symptoms and actions in the prehospital phase of MI and data were collected using a previously validated questionnaire administered to MI patients within 24 h of admission to hospital.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> Patients with STEMI were younger, more often men and smokers. Patients with NSTEMI were more likely to have a history of hypertension, MI and stroke. Chest pain was the most common symptom in both groups. Pain, discomfort, or pressure located in the jaw or teeth, vertigo/pre-syncope, cold sweat and nausea/vomiting were significantly more frequent in patients with STEMI (Table 1). In a multivariate logistic regression model patients with STEMI were more likely to present with cold sweat (OR 4.13, 95% CI 2.71–6.29) jaw pain (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.02–4.50), and nausea (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.20–3.33), and less likely to have a history of stroke (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.15–0.84), fluctuating symptoms (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.36–0.83) and anxiety (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32–0.92) compared to patients with NSTEMI.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Patients with STEMI differed significantly from those with NSTEMI regarding symptom presentation. This knowledge is important for health care personnel to recognize symptoms alarming for STEMI when evaluating patients with MI symptoms.</p>
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7.
  • Venetsanos, Dimitrios (författare)
  • Improving management of STEMI patients treated with primary PCI Pharmacotherapy, renal function estimation and gender perspective
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This thesis focused on the acute management of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in an effort to provide information that may improve outcome. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bivalirudin versus unfractionated heparin (UFH) in STEMI patients during primary PCI. Furthermore, to provide pharmacodynamic data of novel ways of ticagrelor administration compared to standard tivcagrelor. Additionally, to identify subgroups of patients, such as women who may derive greater benefit from specific antithrombotic strategies due to their risk/benefit profile. Finally, to evaluate current formulas for estimation of renal function in the acute phase of STEMI.</p><p>In Paper I, all STEMI patients in Sweden between 2008 and 2014, treated with primary PCI and UFH or bivalirudin were included in our analysis. Of the total population of 23 800 patients, 8 783 (36.9%) were included in the UFH group and 15 017 (63.1%) in the bivalirudin group. Concomitant GPI administration was 68.5% in the UFH arm compared to 3.5% in the bivalirudin arm (p&lt;0.01).The adjusted incidence of 30-day mortality was not significant different between the two groups (UFH vs bivalirudin, adjusted HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.82 -1.07). The adjusted risk for 1-year mortality, 30-day and 1-year stent thrombosis and re-infarction did not differ significantly between the two groups. In contrast, patients treated with UFH had a significantly higher incidence of major in-hospital bleeding (adjusted OR 1.62; 95%CI 1.30 -2.03).</p><p>In Paper II pharmacodynamic data of chewed or crushed ticagrelor compared to standard ticagrelor loading dose (LD) was assessed in 99 patients with stable angina. Platelet reactivity (PR) was assessed with VerifyNow before, 20 and 60 minutes after LD. High Residual platelet reactivity (HRPR) was defined as &gt; 208 P2Y12 reaction units (PRU). Chewed ticagrelor tablets resulted in significantly lower PRU values compared to crushed or integral tablets at 20 and 60 minutes. Crushed ticagrelor LD resulted in significantly lower PRU values compared to integral tablets at 20 minutes whereas no difference was observed at 60 minutes. At 20 minutes, no patients had HRPR with chewed ticagrelor compared to 68% with integral and 30% with crushed ticagrelor LD (p&lt;0.01).</p><p>In Paper III we presented a pre-specified gender analysis of the ATLANTIC trial including 1 862 STEMI patients that were randomly assigned to pre-hospital versus in-hospital administration of 180mg ticagrelor. Women were older and had higher TIMI risk score. Women had a 3-fold higher risk for all-cause mortality compared to men (5.7% vs 1.9%, HR 3.13, 95% CI 1.78 – 5.51). However, after adjustment for baseline characteristics, the difference was lesser and no longer significant (HR 1.98, 95% CI 0.97 – 4.04). Female gender was not an independent predictor of risk for bleeding after multivariable adjustments (BARC type 3-5 HR 1.52, 95% CI 0.74-3.09). There was no interaction between gender and efficacy or safety of randomised treatment.</p><p>In Paper IV, forty patients with PCI- treated STEMI were included between November 2011 and February 2013. We validated the performance of the Cockcroft-Gault (CG), the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD-IDMS), the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) and the Grubb relative cystatin C (rGCystC) equations for estimation of GFR against measured GFR (mGFR) during the index hospitalisation for STEMI.</p><p>MDRD-IDMS and CKD-EPI demonstrated a good performance to estimate GFR with accuracy within 30% (P30) 82.5% vs 82.5%, respectively. CKD was best classified by CKD-EPI (Kappa 0.83). CG showed the worst performance with the lowest P30. The rG-CystC equation had a marked bias of -17.8% and significantly underestimated mGFR (p=0.03).</p><p>Conclusions – In STEMI patients treated with primary PCI, bivalirudin should be preferred in patient at high risk for bleeding. With crushed or chewed ticagrelor tablets a more rapid platelet inhibition may be achieved, compared with standard integral tablets. In STEMI patients, fast and potent platelet inhibition with chewed ticagrelor may reduce the risk of early stent thrombosis and patients treated with a less aggressive antithrombotic strategy, such as UFH or bivalirudin monotherapy, may derive a greater benefit. Although gender differences in adverse outcomes could mainly be explained by older age and clustering of comorbidities in women, a bleedreduction strategy in women with high risk characteristics is warranted in order to improve their outcome. Regardless the choice of antithrombotic strategy, dose adjustment of drugs cleared by kidneys based on GFR estimation is of crucial importance. MDRD and CKD-EPI should be the formulas used for estimation of GFR in STEMI patients</p>
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8.
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9.
  • Lundberg, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Kvantifiering av leversteatos: diagnostisk utvärdering av protonmagnetresonansspektroskopi jämfört med histologiska metoder
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Bakgrund</p><p>Leversteatos är den vanligaste manifestationen av leversjukdom i västvärlden. Leverbiopsi med semikvantitativ histologisk gradering är referensmetod vid gradering av leversteatos. Med protonmagnetsresonansspektroskopi (1H-MRS), en metod som föreslagits ersätta leverbiopsi för värdering av steatos, kan leverns innehåll av triglycerider mätas icke-invasivt. Triglyceridinnehåll &gt;5,00 % används ofta som ett diagnostiskt kriterium för leversteatos vid undersökning med 1H-MRS. Syftet med studien var att jämföra 1H-MRS med semikvantitativ histologisk steatosgradering och kvantitativ histologisk steatosmätning.</p><p>Metod</p><p>Patienter remitterade för utredning av förhöjda leverenzymer in-kluderades i studien. Samtliga patienter genomgick klinisk undersökning, laboratorieprovtagning samt 1H-MRS direkt följd av leverbiopsi. För konventionell histologisk semikvantitativ gradering av steatos användes kriterierna utarbetade av Brunt och medarbetare. Kvantitativ mätning av fett i biopsierna utfördes genom att med hjälp av stereologisk punkträkning (SPC) mäta andelen av ytan som innehöll fettvakuoler.</p><p>Resultat</p><p>I studien inkluderades 94 patienter, varav 37 hade icke-alkoholor-sakad fettleversjukdom (NAFLD), 49 hade andra leversjukdomar och 8 hade normal leverbiopsi. En stark korrelation noterades mel-lan 1H-MRS och SPC (r=0,92, p&lt;0,0001; к=0.82). Korrelationen mellan 1H-MRS och Brunts kriterier (к=0.26) samt mellan SPC och Brunts kriterier (к=0.38) var betydligt sämre. När patologens gradering (Brunts kriterier) användes som referensmetod för diag-nos av leversteatos så hade alla patienter med triglyceridinnehåll &gt;5,00 % mätt med 1H-MRS steatos (specificitet 100 %). Emellertid hade 22 av 69 patienter med triglyceridinnehåll ≤5,00 % också le-versteatos enligt Brunts kriterier (sensitivitet 53 %). Motsvarande siffror när man använde gränsvärdet 3,02 % var sensitivitet 79 % och specificitet 100 %. Vid ytterligare reduktion av gränsvärdet för triglyceridinnehåll till 2,00 % ökade sensitiviteten till 87 % med upprätthållande av hög specificitet (94 %).</p><p>Slutsats</p><p>1H-MRS och SPC uppvisade en mycket hög korrelation vid kvantifiering av leversteatos. SPC borde därför föredras framför Brunts kriterier när noggrann histologisk kvantifiering av leversteatos är önskvärd. Många patienter kan ha histologisk leversteatos trots triglyceridinnehåll ≤5,00 % mätt med 1H-MRS. Gränsvärdet för diagnostisering av leversteatos med 1H-MRS bör därför reduceras.</p>
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10.
  • Magnéli, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Telemetric intracranial pressure monitoring : a noninvasive method to follow up children with complex craniosynostoses. A case report
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Child's nervous system (Print). - 0256-7040 .- 1433-0350. ; 32:7, s. 1311-1315
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> There are no reliable noninvasive methods of monitoring ICP. Most assessments are made by indirect measures and are difficult to follow over time. Invasive studies can be used but up until now have required in-hospital transcutaneous measurements. Accurate ICP recordings over longer periods of time can be very valuable in timing different surgical procedures in syndromal cases. This case shows that telemetric ICP monitoring can be used for long-term follow-up in patients that may need repeated surgeries related to their craniosynostosis condition.</p><p><strong>CASE REPORT:</strong> In this report, the telemetric ICP probe (Raumedic Neurovent-P-tel) was implanted before surgery and was used for repeated "noninvasive" ICP recordings pre- and postoperatively in a patient with craniosynostosis. The patient was an eight-year-old girl with pansynostosis with only the right lambdoid suture open. A telemetric ICP probe was implanted the day before cranial vault remodeling and the ICP was monitored pre- and postoperatively. The ICP was above 15 mmHg 72.2 % of the monitoring time before surgery, and the amplitude of the curve was greater than normal suggesting impaired compliance. Direct postoperative ICP was normal, and the amplitude was lower. The ICP was then monitored both in out-patient clinic and in four longer hospital stays. Both the values and the curves were analyzed, and the time with ICP above 15 mmHg decreased over time, and the waveform amplitude of the curves improved.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> This "noninvasive" way of recording ICP is a feasible and helpful tool in decision-making and intervening in patients with craniosynostosis.</p>
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