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  • Lindqvist, A, et al. (författare)
  • Artery blood pressure oscillation after active standing up: an indicator of sympathetic function in diabetic patients
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Clinical Physiology. - Wiley Online Library. - 1365-2281. ; 17:2, s. 159-169
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dynamic artery blood pressure (Finapres) response to active standing up, normally consisting of initial rise, fall and recovery above the baseline (overshoot), was compared with the early steady-state artery blood pressure level to measure sympathetic vasomotor function in healthy subjects (n = 23, age 35 +/- 9 years; mean +/-SD) and in type I diabetic patients without autonomic neuropathy (AN) (group 1: n = 18, 38 +/- 13 years), with AN but no cardiovascular drugs (group 2a: n = 7, 44 +/- 11 years) and with both AN and cardiovascular drugs (group 2b: n = 10, 47 +/- 7 years). Systolic and diastolic overshoot were similar in the control (15 +/- 13/15 +/- 11 mmHg) and group 1 subjects. Systolic overshoot disappeared in 57% of patients in group 2a (-1 +/- 9 mmHg; P < 0.03), whereas artery blood pressure still overshot in diastole (8 +/- 7 mmHg; NS). Systolic overshoot disappeared in all patients in group 2b (-22 +/- 22 mmHg; P < 0.0006) and diastolic overshoot disappeared in 60% of these patients (-6 +/- 16 mmHg; P = 0.0006). Systolic early steady-state level was not lower in group 2a than in group 1 (NS), but it was impaired in group 2b (P < 0.006), in which six diabetic patients had a pathological response beyond the age-related reference values. There was a strong association between the overshoot and steady-state levels (P for chi 2 < 0.001, n = 58). Overshoot of the control subjects and patients in group 2b correlated to their respective steady-state blood pressure levels (r > or = 0.76; P < or = 0.001). In conclusion, baroreceptor reflex-dependent overshoot of the artery blood pressure after active standing up diminishes with the development of AN and it is associated with the early steady-state level of the artery blood pressure.
  • Torffvit, Ole, et al. (författare)
  • The association between diabetic nephropathy and autonomic nerve function in type 1 diabetic patients
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. - Informa Healthcare. - 1502-7686. ; 57:2, s. 183-191
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy increases the risk of deterioration in renal function and is associated with increased mortality in patients with renal failure. Type 1 diabetic patients with long diabetes duration, matched for age (38 +/- 9 years) and diabetes duration (28 +/- 8 years) were studied regarding the association between cardiovascular autonomic nerve function and different degrees of diabetic nephropathy. Eighteen patients were normo- (< 30 mg/l), six micro- (30-300 mg/l), and 13 macroalbuminuric (> 300 mg/l) based on urinary albumin concentrations in three separate morning samples. They were compared with 33 control subjects with similar age. Autonomic nerve function was evaluated by measuring the response of heart rate to deep breathing and active standing. Beat-to-beat finger artery blood pressure (Finapres) was tested during active standing. During deep breathing both change in heart rate (17 +/- 11, 9 +/- 7 and 4 +/- 3 beats/min) and ratio between expiratory and inspiratory R-R intervals (1.32 +/- 0.24, 1.14 +/- 0.15 and 1.05 +/- 0.04) decreased from normo- over micro- to macroalbuminuria (p < 0.05 vs normoalbuminuric and control subjects [17 +/- 5 beats/min and 1.28 +/- 0.10, respectively]). Similar results were obtained during active standing with respect to change in systolic arterial blood pressure (3 +/- 8, 2 +/- 13 and -6 +/- 11 mmHg; p < 0.05 vs control subjects [8 +/- 11 mmHg]). However, the response of diastolic arterial blood pressure or mean heart rate to standing up did not differ between any of the groups. The ratio of maximum to minimum R-R interval during the dynamic response of heart rate to active standing decreased with the degree of nephropathy (1.27 +/- 0.17, 1.11 +/- 0.11 and 1.05 +/- 0.06) with significantly higher values in patients with normo- compared with patients with macroalbuminuria (p < 0.05). All patients groups had significantly lower values than control subjects (1.46 +/- 0.22, p < 0.05). The overshoot of the blood pressure after an initial fall during active standing decreased with the degree of diabetic nephropathy. In conclusion, type 1 diabetic patients with long duration of diabetes have signs of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, the severity of which is related to the degree of nephropathy.
  • Hansmann, Georg, et al. (författare)
  • 2019 updated consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric pulmonary hypertension: The European Pediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network (EPPVDN), endorsed by AEPC, ESPR and ISHLT
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. - 1053-2498. ; 38:9, s. 879-901
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019 The European Pediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network is a registered, non-profit organization that strives to define and develop effective, innovative diagnostic methods and treatment options in all forms of pediatric pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease, including pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, PH associated with congenital heart disease (CHD), persistent PH of the newborn, and related cardiac dysfunction. The executive writing group members conducted searches of the PubMed/MEDLINE bibliographic database (1990–2018) and held face-to-face and web-based meetings. Ten section task forces voted on the updated recommendations, based on the 2016 executive summary. Clinical trials, meta-analyses, guidelines, and other articles that include pediatric data were searched using the term “pulmonary hypertension” and other keywords. Class of recommendation (COR) and level of evidence (LOE) were assigned based on European Society of Cardiology/American Heart Association definitions and on pediatric data only, or on adult studies that included >10% children or studies that enrolled adults with CHD. New definitions by the World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension 2018 were included. We generated 10 tables with graded recommendations (COR/LOE). The topics include diagnosis/monitoring, genetics/biomarkers, cardiac catheterization, echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance/chest computed tomography, associated forms of PH, intensive care unit/lung transplantation, and treatment of pediatric PH. For the first time, a set of specific recommendations on the management of PH in middle- and low-income regions was developed. Taken together, these executive, up-to-date guidelines provide a specific, comprehensive, detailed but practical framework for the optimal clinical care of children and young adults with PH.
  • Johansson, Inger, 1953-, et al. (författare)
  • Lower incidence of CMV infection and acute rejections with valganciclovir
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Infectious Diseases. - 1471-2334. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common opportunistic infection following lung transplantation. CMV replication in the lung allograft is described as accelerating the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS).Finding a strategy to prevent CMV infection is an important issue. Methods We performed a retrospective, single-centre study of 114 lung transplant recipients (LTRs) who underwent lung transplantation from January 2001 to December 2006. In a smaller cohort of 88 CMV seropositive (R+) LTRs, three months of valganciclovir prophylaxis (2004-2006) was compared to three months of oral ganciclovir (2001-2003) with respect to the incidence of CMV infection/disease, the severity of CMV disease, acute rejection, BOS-free 4 year survival and 4 year survival. In the whole group of 114 LTRs the impact of CMV infection on long-term survival (BOS free 4 year survival and 6 year survival) was assessed. Results For the cohort of 88 CMV seropositive LTRs, the incidence of CMV infection/disease at one year was lower in the valganciclovir group compared to the ganciclovir group (24% vs. 54%, p = 0.003). There was a tendency towards reduced CMV disease, from 33% to 20% and a significant lower incidence of asymptomatic CMV infection (22% vs. 4%, p = 0.005). A lower incidence of acute rejection was observed in the valganciclovir group. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in BOS free 4 year survival and 4 year survival. For the entire group of 114 LTRs, BOS-free 4 year survival for recipients with CMV disease was (32%, p = 0.005) and among those with asymptomatic CMV infection (36%, p = 0.061) as compared with patients without CMV infection (69%). Six year survival was lower among patients with CMV disease, (64%, p = 0.042) and asymptomatic CMV infection (55%, p = 0.018) than patients without CMV infection (84%). Conclusions A lower incidence of CMV infection/disease and acute rejections was observed with valganciclovir (3 months) when compared to oral ganciclovir (3 months). The long-term impact of CMV infection/disease was significant for BOS-free survival and survival.
  • Steen, Stig, et al. (författare)
  • Transplantation of lungs from a non-heart-beating donor
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - Elsevier. - 1474-547X. ; 357:9259, s. 825-829
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In animals, we have previously done successful lung transplantations using organs from non-heart-beating donors. We have also developed an ex-vivo system of assessing the function of such organs before transplantation. The next stage was to try the technique in human beings. Bearing in mind the sensitive ethical issues involved, our first aim was to find out what procedures would be acceptable, and to use the results to guide a clinical lung transplantation from a non-heart-beating donor. METHODS: The ethical acceptability of the study was gauged from the results of a broad information programme directed at the general public in Sweden, and from discussions with professionals including doctors, nurses, hospital chaplains, and judges. The donor was a patient dying of acute myocardial infarction in a cardiac intensive-care unit after failed cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The next of kin gave permission to cool the lungs within the intact body, and intrapleural cooling was started 65 min after death. Blood samples were sent for virological testing and cross matching. The next of kin then had time to be alone with the deceased. After 3 h, the body was transported to the operating theatre and the heart-lung block removed. The lungs were assessed ex vivo, and the body was transported to the pathology department for necropsy. RESULTS: No contraindications to transplantation were found, and the right lung was transplanted successfully into a 54-year-old woman with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The donor lung showed excellent function only 5 min after reperfusion and ventilation, and during the first 5 months of follow-up, the function of the transplanted lung has been good. INTERPRETATION: About half the deaths in Sweden are caused by cardiac and cerebrovascular disease. This group could be a potential source of lung donors. When all hospitals and ambulance personnel in Sweden have received training in non-heart-beating lung donation, we hope that there will be enough donor lungs of good quality for all patients needing a lung transplant.
  • Saetrum Opgaard, Ole, et al. (författare)
  • Endocardial expression and functional characterization of endothelin-1
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. - Springer. - 0300-8177. ; 224:1-2, s. 151-158
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a 21 amino acid peptide exerts a wide range of biological activities including vasoconstriction, mitogenesis and inotropic effects on the heart. In this study, we examined whether endocardial endothelial cells express ET-1 and evaluated its functional properties. Using immunofluorescence localization method, we demonstrated cytoplasmic staining of ET-1 in the human endocardial endothelial cells from the right atrium and left ventricle. Employing reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) expression of ET-1 mRNA and its receptors ET(A) and ET(B) mRNAs were found in human myocardial as well as in endocardial endothelial cells. Biological activity of endocardial endothelial cells derived ET-1 was established as the conditioned media obtained from cultured porcine endocardial endothelial cells induced a slowly developing, strong and long-lasting contraction of circular rat aortic segments, with similar characteristics to that obtained with exogenous ET-1. Furthermore, the selective endothelin-A receptor antagonist, FR 139317, blocked the conditioned media induced contractions. Our results suggest that endocardial endothelial cells express and release biologically active ET-1 which could play a pivotal role in the regulation of myocardial contractility as well as a circulatory peptide may further act in other peripheral target organs.
  • Balcan, Baran, et al. (författare)
  • Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment and Depression in Adults with Coronary Artery Disease and Nonsleepy Obstructive Sleep Apnea. A Secondary Analysis of the RICCADSA Trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of the American Thoracic Society. - American Thoracic Society. - 2325-6621. ; 16:1, s. 62-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • RATIONALE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and depression are common among adults with coronary artery disease (CAD). OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on depression in adults with CAD and nonsleepy OSA. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the RICCADSA (Randomized Intervention with CPAP in CAD and Sleep Apnea) trial, conducted in Sweden between 2005 and 2013. Adults with CAD and nonsleepy OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥15/h, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale <10 at baseline) and complete Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) questionnaires at baseline, after 3 and 12 months, were included. Participants analyzed in their randomized arm were CPAP (n = 99) or no-CPAP (n = 104). Depression was defined as a Zung SDS score of 50 or greater. The primary outcome was the between-group difference in the absolute change in the SDS score from baseline. RESULTS: No significant between-group differences were observed in SDS scores during follow-up in the entire study sample. Among the 56 participants with an SDS of 50 or greater at baseline (27.6%), the mean (±SD) baseline SDS was 55.0 (±5.5) in the CPAP group, and 53.9 (±4.0) in the no-CPAP group. In the CPAP group, SDS scores decreased at 3 months (47.2 ± 8.2) and 12 months (45.8 ± 7.6), but remained stable in the no-CPAP group at 3 months (53.1 ± 8.0) and 12 months (52.6 ± 8.1) (P = 0.01). The proportion with depression decreased from 30.3% at baseline to 16.2% after 3 months, and to 13.1% after 12 months in the CPAP group, from 25.0% at baseline to 23.1% after 3 months, and to 24.0% after 12 months in the no-CPAP group (P = 0.001). Moreover, there was an association between the duration of CPAP usage (h/night) and the longitudinal decline in SDS score (r = 0.46; P < 0.001). CPAP usage categories (3, 4, and 5 h/night) were significantly associated with improvement in SDS (odds ratio = 3.92, 4.45, and 4.89, respectively) in multivariate analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, left ventricular ejection fraction, apnea-hypopnea index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Among adults with depression, nonsleepy OSA, and CAD, 3 months of CPAP treatment improved depression scores. The improvement in mood persisted up to 12 months. An on-treatment adjusted analysis confirmed these findings. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00519597).
  • Barman, Malin, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the FADS Gene Cluster but not the ELOVL2 Gene are Associated with Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition and Development of Allergy (in a Swedish Birth Cohort).
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nutrients. - 2072-6643. ; 7:12, s. 10100-10115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influences immune function and may affect the risk of allergy development. Long chain PUFAs are produced from dietary precursors catalyzed by desaturases and elongases encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes. In 211 subjects, we investigated whether polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL2 gene were associated with allergy or PUFA composition in serum phospholipids in a Swedish birth-cohort sampled at birth and at 13 years of age; allergy was diagnosed at 13 years of age. Minor allele carriers of rs102275 and rs174448 (FADS gene cluster) had decreased proportions of 20:4 n-6 in cord and adolescent serum and increased proportions of 20:3 n-6 in cord serum as well as a nominally reduced risk of developing atopic eczema, but not respiratory allergy, at 13 years of age. Minor allele carriers of rs17606561 in the ELOVL2 gene had nominally decreased proportions of 20:4 n-6 in cord serum but ELOVL polymorphisms (rs2236212 and rs17606561) were not associated with allergy development. Thus, reduced capacity to desaturase n-6 PUFAs due to FADS polymorphisms was nominally associated with reduced risk for eczema development, which could indicate a pathogenic role for long-chain PUFAs in allergy development.
  • Hagman, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Club cell secretory protein (CC16) in gastric fluid at birth and subsequent lung disease in preterm infants
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Pulmonology. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 8755-6863. ; 53:10, s. 1399-1406
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Club cell secretory protein (CC16) probably has a role in protecting the lung from inflammation. Aim: To evaluate if low levels of CC16 in gastric fluid at birth, reflecting low levels of CC16 in the lung, would be associated with lung inflammation and respiratory morbidity. Methods: A study of 64 infants with mean gestational age 26.1 weeks. CC16 was analyzed in gastric fluid at birth. CC16, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and MMP-9 were analyzed in tracheal aspirate within 24 h from birth. Results: CC16 in gastric fluid increased with gestational age (P = 0.033). Lower concentrations of CC16 in gastric fluid at birth were associated with higher concentrations of IL-1β (P = 0.028), TNF-α (P = 0.034), and MMP-9 (P = 0.015) in tracheal aspirate. Infants who needed mechanical ventilation at 24 and 72 h of age had lower CC16 in gastric fluid than those not ventilated at these ages (P = 0.011 and P = 0.024, respectively). Lower CC16 in gastric fluid was associated with higher FiO2 at 6 h (P = 0.009), higher PaCO2 at 24 h (P = 0.03), more ventilator days (P = 0.012) and more days with supplemental oxygen (P = 0.03). Infants who had either died or were still treated with supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks postmenstrual age had lower CC16 in gastric fluid than infants with none of these outcomes (P = 0.049). Conclusion: A low CC16 concentration in gastric fluid at birth was associated with increased inflammation in the trachea within the first 24 h of life and with more need for respiratory support in the neonatal period.
  • Ekelund, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of the combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonist PD145065 on arteries, arterioles, and veins in the cat hindlimb
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1533-4023. ; 26:Suppl. 3, s. 211-213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to describe in quantitative terms the effects of ETA and ETB receptor blockade on vascular tone (resistance) in large-bore arterial resistance vessels (> 25 microns), small arterioles (< 25 microns), and veins in the cat gastrocnemius muscle in vivo. In the muscle vascular bed, the combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonist PD145065 (1 mg/kg/min, intra-arterially) abolished the biphasic vascular responses (dilatation followed by constriction) to both ET-1 (0.4 microgram/kg/min, intra-arterially) and to the selective ETB receptor agonist IRL1620 (3.2 micrograms/kg/min, intra-arterially). In the cat femoral artery and vein in vitro, PD145065 competitively inhibited the contractile responses to both ET-1 and IRL1620. The contractile response to the latter agonist could be evoked only after long-term incubation of the vessels (37 degrees C for 5 days). These results indicate that PD145065 is a potent antagonist at both ETA and ETB receptors in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, this antagonist may prove useful for elucidating the possible physiologic and/or pathophysiologic roles of the endothelins. For example, it was shown that PD145065 had no effect on vascular tone in the resting state, indicating no role for the endothelins in the regulation of basal vascular tone in cat skeletal muscle.
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