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1.
  • Johansson, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Reduced cerebrospinal fluid concentration of interleukin-12/23 subunit p40 in patients with cognitive impairment.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - 1932-6203. ; 12:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The role of inflammation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other cognitive disorders is unclear. In a well-defined mono-center population, we measured cytokines and chemokines in paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Methods Consecutive patients with AD (n = 30), stable mild cognitive impairment (SMCI, n = 11), other dementias (n = 11), and healthy controls (n = 18) were included. None of the subjects was treated with glucocorticoids, cholinesterase inhibitors, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Serum and CSF concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-12/23 p40, IL-15, IL-16, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), and three chemokines were measured using a multiplex panel. Results After correction for multiple comparisons, only CSF IL-12/23 p40 concentration differed significantly between the total patient group (n = 52) and controls (n = 18; p = 0.002). Further analyses showed that CSF IL-12/23 p40 concentration was decreased in all patient subgroups (AD, other dementias, and SMCI) compared to healthy controls (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, and p < 0.05, respectively). In the total study population (n = 70), CSF IL-12/23 p40 concentrations correlated positively with CSF concentrations of β-amyloid1-42 (Aβ1–42) and phosphorylated tau protein (P-tau) whereas in AD patients (n = 30), CSF IL-12/23 p40 only correlated positively with CSF P-Tau (r = 0.46, p = 0.01). Conclusions Most cytokines and chemokines were similar in patients and controls, but CSF IL-12/23 subunit p40 concentration was decreased in patients with cognitive impairment, and correlated with markers of AD disease status. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of CSF IL-12/23 p40 in other dementias and SMCI.
2.
  • Lundin, Anna-Carin (författare)
  • Tendinosis in Trigger Finger
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Trigger finger is one of the most common hand conditions, with a prevalence of almost 3%. The aetiology remains unclear even though many causes have been suggested. The prevailing paradigm is that the pathogenesis of trigger finger is ascribed to primary changes in the first fibrous condensation of the tendon sheath (A1-pulley). Several studies have investigated pathology in the pulley, but few have investigated the tendon. The general aim of this thesis was to find out if there is pathology in the trigger finger tendon and to define it.</p><p>We first looked at trigger finger tendon biopsies in a light microscope, and found that they were histologically different from healthy tendons. They showed signs of micro-ruptures, collagen degradation, increased amounts of ground substance, both hyper- and hypo-cellular areas, round active cell nuclei and absence of inflammatory cells, all similar to tendinosis. The histological picture was further assessed by using a scoring system for Achilles tendinosis. The trigger finger tendons scored high, suggesting a similar histopathology.</p><p>Next, we performed a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on trigger finger tendons. We assessed the mRNA expression of 10 genes, which have been described to be differently expressed in Achilles tendinosis (collagen 1 and 3, versican, decorin, biglycan, aggrecan, MMP-2, MMP-3, ADAMTS-5, and TIMP-3). The overall expression pattern agreed with previous studies on Achilles tendinosis, suggesting that the cellular function in trigger finger tendons is disturbed in a similar way as in Achilles tendinosis.</p><p>Recent experimental and observational research has suggested potential side effects of statin treatment on tendons, but firm evidence was lacking. We performed an epidemiological study on two large population-based cohorts. Statin use was found to increase the risk of both trigger finger and tendinosis in the shoulder and Achilles tendons, especially among men. This suggests a similar pathology in trigger finger and tendinosis.</p><p>We have also studied the time to treatment effect after a single injection of glucocorticoid in trigger finger. Our results suggest that 60-80% of patients can expect resolution of the triggering within 14 days, and half of them within seven days. This result allows correct information to be given to the patient and proper planning of follow-ups.</p><p>In conclusion, the pathology in trigger finger tendons is similar to tendinosis in other tendons.</p>
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3.
  • Nord, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Levodopa Pharmacokinetics in Brain after Both Oral and Intravenous Levodopa in One Patient with Advanced Parkinson’s Disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Advances in Parkinsons Disease. - Scientific Research Publishing Inc. - 2169-9712 .- 2169-9720. ; 6:2, s. 52-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Objective:</strong> One patient received oral levodopa during a study aiming for better understanding of the basal ganglia and of the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) with and without intravenous (IV) levodopa infusion in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The results from oral and IV levodopa treatment are presented.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> Five patients with advanced PD were included in the original study. During planned STN DBS surgery microdialysis probes were implanted in the right putamen and in the right and left globus pallidus interna (Gpi). During the study, microdialysis was performed continuously and STN DBS, with and without IV levodopa infusion, was performed according to a specific protocol. After DBS surgery, but before STN DBS was started, one patient received oral levodopa/ benserazide and entacapone tablets out of protocol due to distressing parkinsonism.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>The levodopa levels increased prompt in the central nervous system after the first PD medication intakes but declined after the last. Immediately the levodopa seemed to be metabolized to dopamine (DA) since the levels of DA correlated well with levodopa concentrations. Left STN DBS seemed to further increase DA levels in left Gpi while right STN DBS seemed to increase DA levels in the right putamen and right Gpi. There was no obvious effect on levodopa levels.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The results indicate that PD patients still have capacity to metabolize levodopa to DA despite advanced disease with on-off symptoms and probably pronounced nigral degeneration. STN DBS seems to increase DA levels with a more pronounced effect on ipsilateral structures in striatum.</p>
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4.
  • Strömland, Kerstin, 1934-, et al. (författare)
  • Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum: associated anomalies, functional deficits and possible developmental risk factors.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A. - 1552-4825. ; 143A:12, s. 1317-1325
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Swedish patients with the oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OAV) spectrum participated in a prospective multidisciplinary investigation. The aims of the study were to describe their systemic and functional defects, especially autism spectrum disorders, and to search for possible etiologic risk factors. Available medical records were studied and the mothers answered a questionnaire on history of prenatal events. A clinical examination evaluating systemic findings, vision, hearing, speech, oral and swallowing function, and neuropsychiatric function, especially autism, was made. Eighteen patients, (11 males, 7 females) aged 8 months to 17 years with OAV were studied. Most frequent systemic malformations included, ear abnormalities (100%), ocular malformations (72%), vertebral deformities (67%), cerebral anomalies (50%), and congenital heart defects (33%). Functional defects consisted of hearing impairment (83%), visual impairment (28%), both visual and hearing impairment (28%), difficulties in feeding/eating (50%), speech (53%), mental retardation (39%), and severe autistic symptoms (11%). Three children were born following assisted fertilization (two intracytoplasmatic sperm injection, one in vitro fertilization), two mothers reported early bleedings, and six (33%) mothers had smoked during pregnancy.
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5.
  • Björkman, Kristoffer, et al. (författare)
  • Genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with complex I deficiency due to mutations in NDUFS1 and NDUFV1
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Euromit 2014, 15-19 juni, Tampere, Finland.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objectives: To study genotype-phenotype correlations in genes encoding complex I electron input module subunits. Materials and methods: We studied five patients with isolated complex I deficiency, three with NDUFS1 mutations and two with NDUFV1 mutations. A literature review of all reported cases of mutations in the affected genes was performed. Results: The literature review revealed pathological mutations in NDUFS1 for 18 patients in 17 families and correspondingly in NDUFV1 for 26 patients in 19 families. Unpublished clinical data for our five patients were added. Our study showed quite variable clinical courses; death before two years of age was seen in 41% of patients while 18% were alive at seven years. There was a significant difference between the NDUFS1 and NDUFV1 groups for clinical onset and life-span. Mutations in NDUFS1 were linked to a worse clinical course with earlier onset and earlier death. Conclusions: Genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with mutations affecting the genes that encode the electron input module of complex I vary, but patients with NDUFS1 mutation tend to have a worse clinical course than patients with NDUFV1 mutation. Identifying the mutations is of importance for accurate prognostic information and genetic counseling.
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6.
  • Paterson, R. W., et al. (författare)
  • A targeted proteomic multiplex CSF assay identifies increased malate dehydrogenase and other neurodegenerative biomarkers in individuals with Alzheimer's disease pathology.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Translational psychiatry. - 2158-3188. ; 6:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Biomarkers are required to identify individuals in the preclinical phase, explain phenotypic diversity, measure progression and estimate prognosis. The development of assays to validate candidate biomarkers is costly and time-consuming. Targeted proteomics is an attractive means of quantifying novel proteins in cerebrospinal and other fluids, and has potential to help overcome this bottleneck in biomarker development. We used a previously validated multiplexed 10-min, targeted proteomic assay to assess 54 candidate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in two independent cohorts comprising individuals with neurodegenerative dementias and healthy controls. Individuals were classified as 'AD' or 'non-AD' on the basis of their CSF T-tau and amyloid Aβ1-42 profile measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; biomarkers of interest were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. In all, 35/31 individuals in Cohort 1 and 46/36 in Cohort 2 fulfilled criteria for AD/non-AD profile CSF, respectively. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, five proteins were elevated significantly in AD CSF compared with non-AD CSF in both cohorts: malate dehydrogenase; total APOE; chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40); osteopontin and cystatin C. In an independent multivariate orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), these proteins were also identified as major contributors to the separation between AD and non-AD in both cohorts. Independent of CSF Aβ1-42 and tau, a combination of these biomarkers differentiated AD and non-AD with an area under curve (AUC)=0.88. This targeted proteomic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based assay can simultaneously and rapidly measure multiple candidate CSF biomarkers. Applying this technique to AD we demonstrate differences in proteins involved in glucose metabolism and neuroinflammation that collectively have potential clinical diagnostic utility.
7.
  • Warkentin, Siegbert, et al. (författare)
  • rCBF pathology in Alzheimer's disease is associated with slow processing speed
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychologia. - Elsevier. - 1873-3514. ; 46:5, s. 1193-1200
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Decreased information processing speed (mental slowing) is a known sequelae of many brain disorders, and can be assessed by continuous naming tasks. Functional imaging studies have shown that pause and articulation times in continuous speech are normally associated with different brain regions, but knowledge about such association in dementia is lacking. We therefore tested the hypothesis that perfusion deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not only associated with slower processing, but also with these speech measures. Using regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements during the performance of a continuous colour and form-naming task, we found that naming speed was substantially slower in AD patients than in controls. This slower naming was exclusively determined by an increase in mean pause time, and only to a limited extent by articulation time. The increased pause time was uniquely associated with temporo-parietal rCBF reductions of the patients, while articulation was not. By contrast, the rCBF of healthy elderly control subjects was consistently accompanied by substantially shorter articulation and pause times, although the naming measures were not statistically associated with rCBF. These findings suggest that pause time (in contrast to articulation time) may serve as a sensitive measure in the assessment of information processing speed deficits in dementia, by virtue of its close association with brain pathology. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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8.
  • Gustafson, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • A factor analytic approach to symptom patterns in dementia.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - Hindawi Publishing Corporation. - 2090-0252.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous publications have shown a high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of three short clinical rating scales for Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and vascular dementia (VaD) validated against neuropathological (NP) diagnoses. In this study, the aim was to perform an exploratory factor analysis of the items in these clinical rating scales. The study included 190 patients with postmortem diagnoses of AD (n = 74), VaD (n = 33), mixed AD/VaD (n = 31), or FTD (n = 52). The factor analysis produced three strong factors. Factor 1 contained items describing cerebrovascular disease, similar to the Hachinski Ischemic Score. Factor 2 enclosed major clinical characteristics of FTD, and factor 3 showed a striking similarity to the AD scale. A fourth symptom cluster was described by perception and expression of emotions. The factor analyses strongly support the construct validity of the diagnostic rating scales.
9.
  • Nord, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Is Levodopa Pharmacokinetics in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Depending on Gastric Emptying?
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Advances in Parkinsons Disease. - Scientific Research Publishing. - 2169-9712. ; 06:01
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Levodopa uptake from the gastrointestinal tract in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be affected by delayed gastric emptying (GE). This might lead to fluctuating levodopa levels resulting in increased motor fluctuations. Continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS) improves motor fluctuations and could be a result of smoothening in levodopa uptake. In this study we wanted to study the levodopa pharmacokinetics peripherally in PD patients with motor fluctuations and investigate the relation between levodopa uptake and GE and the effect of CDS. PD patients with wearing off (group 1) and on-off syndrome (group 2) were included. Breath tests were performed to evaluate the half time (T1/2) of GE. Concomitantly 1 tablet of Madopark® was given and the levodopa concentrations in blood and subcutaneous (SC) tissue were analyzed for both groups. Group 2 was then given a 10-d continuous intravenous levodopa treatment and the tests were repeated. Higher levels of levodopa in group 1 compared to group 2 in blood (p = 0.014) were seen. The GE was delayed in both group 1 (p &lt; 0.001) and group 2 (p &lt; 0.05) compared to a reference group with healthy volunteers with T1/2 median values 105 and 78 min vs. 72 min. There was no difference in GE between the two PD groups (p = 0.220) or in group 2 before and after infusion period (p = 0.861). CDS resulted in lower levodopa levels in blood (p &lt; 0.001) and SC tissue (p &lt; 0.01). In conclusion, PD patients in early complication phase have a more favourable levodopa uptake than patients later in disease. We found delayed GE in PD patients with motor fluctuations but no obvious relation between GE and levodopa uptake or GE and PD stage. The effect of CDS indicates no effect of CDS on the mechanisms of GE but on the mechanisms of levodopa uptake.</p>
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10.
  • Palmqvist, Sebastian, et al. (författare)
  • Detailed comparison of amyloid PET and CSF biomarkers for identifying early Alzheimer disease
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - American Academy of Neurology. - 1526-632X. ; 85:14, s. 1240-1249
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective:To compare the diagnostic accuracy of CSF biomarkers and amyloid PET for diagnosing early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD).Methods:From the prospective, longitudinal BioFINDER study, we included 122 healthy elderly and 34 patients with mild cognitive impairment who developed AD dementia within 3 years (MCI-AD). -Amyloid (A) deposition in 9 brain regions was examined with [F-18]-flutemetamol PET. CSF was analyzed with INNOTEST and EUROIMMUN ELISAs. The results were replicated in 146 controls and 64 patients with MCI-AD from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study.Results:The best CSF measures for identifying MCI-AD were A42/total tau (t-tau) and A42/hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) (area under the curve [AUC] 0.93-0.94). The best PET measures performed similarly (AUC 0.92-0.93; anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate/precuneus, and global neocortical uptake). CSF A42/t-tau and A42/p-tau performed better than CSF A42 and A42/40 (AUC difference 0.03-0.12, p < 0.05). Using nonoptimized cutoffs, CSF A42/t-tau had the highest accuracy of all CSF/PET biomarkers (sensitivity 97%, specificity 83%). The combination of CSF and PET was not better than using either biomarker separately.Conclusions:Amyloid PET and CSF biomarkers can identify early AD with high accuracy. There were no differences between the best CSF and PET measures and no improvement when combining them. Regional PET measures were not better than assessing the global A deposition. The results were replicated in an independent cohort using another CSF assay and PET tracer. The choice between CSF and amyloid PET biomarkers for identifying early AD can be based on availability, costs, and doctor/patient preferences since both have equally high diagnostic accuracy.Classification of evidence:This study provides Class III evidence that amyloid PET and CSF biomarkers identify early-stage AD equally accurately.
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