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  • Lewerin, C., et al. (författare)
  • Low holotranscobalamin and cobalamins predict incident fractures in elderly men: the MrOS Sweden.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. - 1433-2965. ; 25:1, s. 131-140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • SummaryIn a population-based study on cobalamin status and incident fractures in elderly men (n  = 790) with an average follow-up of 5.9 years, we found that low levels of metabolically active and total cobalamins predict incident fractures, independently of body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), and cystatin C.IntroductionCobalamin deficiency in elderlies may affect bone metabolism. This study aims to determine whether serum cobalamins or holotranscobalamin (holoTC; the metabolic active cobalamin) predict incident fractures in old men.MethodsMen participating in the Gothenburg part of the population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Sweden cohort and without ongoing vitamin B medication were included in the present study (n = 790; age range, 70–81 years).ResultsDuring an average follow-up of 5.9 years, 110 men sustained X-ray-verified fractures including 45 men with clinical vertebral fractures. The risk of fracture (adjusted for age, smoking, BMI, BMD, falls, prevalent fracture, tHcy, cystatin C, 25-OH-vitamin D, intake of calcium, and physical activity (fully adjusted)), increased per each standard deviation decrease in cobalamins (hazard ratio (HR), 1.38; 95 % confidence intervals (CI), 1.11–1.72) and holoTC (HR, 1.26; 95 % CI, 1.03–1.54), respectively. Men in the lowest quartile of cobalamins and holoTC (fully adjusted) had an increased risk of all fracture (cobalamins, HR = 1.67 (95 % CI, 1.06–2.62); holoTC, HR = 1.74 (95 % CI, 1.12–2.69)) compared with quartiles 2–4. No associations between folate or tHcy and incident fractures were seen.ConclusionsWe present novel data showing that low levels of holoTC and cobalamins predicting incident fracture in elderly men. This association remained after adjustment for BMI, BMD, tHcy, and cystatin C. However, any causal relationship between low cobalamin status and fractures should be explored in a prospective treatment study.
  • Sundell, Anna Lena, 1970- (författare)
  • Children with orofacial clefts dental caries and health-related quality of life
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background. The current understanding on caries and enamel developmental defects prevalence and frequency, caries risk, health-related quality life (HRQoL) and stress response in young children with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) are sparse. In this thesis these aspects were investigated in 5- and 10- year-old children with CL/P in comparison to non-cleft children in the same ages.Design. The studies in this thesis have a cross-sectional case-control design. Participants. The study group consisted of 139 children with CL/P (80 children aged 5 years and 59 aged 10 years) and 313 non-cleft controls (144 children aged 5 years and 169 aged 10 years).Method. Caries was scored according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) and developmental enamel defects were measured as presence and frequency of hypoplasia and hypomineralization. Oral hygiene was assessed using Quigley-Hein plaque index. Stimulated saliva samples were analyzed for mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, buffering capacity and secretion rates. Information regarding children’s oral hygiene routines, dietary habits and fluoride exposure were collected with questionnaires. Caries risk was evaluated with algorithm-based software, Cariogram while HRQoL was perceived with KIDSCREEN-52. Stress response was analyzed with cortisol concentration in saliva at three different time points using a commercial competitive radioimmunoassay.Results. Caries prevalence (36% versus 18%) and caries frequency (1.2 dmfs versus 0.9 dmfs) was significantly higher in 5-year-old children with CL/P in comparison to non-cleft controls. In 10-yearolds no significant difference was found between children with CL/P and non-cleft controls in caries prevalence (47% versus 38%) or in caries frequency (0.7 DMFS versus 0.5 DMFS). Children with CL/P had significantly higher prevalence of enamel defects, higher counts of salivary lactobacilli and less good oral hygiene. The odds of being categorized with high caries risk were elevated in children with CL/P. Children with CL/P had similar HRQoL and salivary cortisol concentrations as non-cleft controls. However, 10-year-old boys with CL/P had significantly higher cortisol concentrations in the evening than non-cleft boys.Conclusions. Preschool children with CL/P seem to have more caries in the primary dentition than non-cleft controls. Children with CL/P had increased odds of being categorized as high caries risk individuals compared to controls. Some of the contributing factors seem to be higher prevalence of enamel defects, impaired oral hygiene and elevated salivary lactobacilli. Furthermore, as measured with the help of cortisol concentrations in saliva, children with CL/P were not more stressed than noncleft controls and their HRQoL was comparable to a European norm population. It appears that regular comprehensive preventive oral care in children with CL/P is effective in preventing caries development in permanent teeth. However, children with CL/P are at risk of caries development and preventive oral care should be implemented and started earlier than today.
  • Abtahi, Jahan, et al. (författare)
  • Bisphosphonate coating might improve fixation of dental implants in the maxilla: : A pilot study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. - Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. - 0901-5027. ; 39:7, s. 673-677
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This pilot study evaluates the clinical stability of bisphosphonate-coated dental implants placed using a two-stage surgical procedure in five patients. Each patient received seven regular Branemark implants, one of which was coated with bisphosphonate in a fibrinogen matrix. The coated implant was inserted where the bone was expected to have the least favourable quality. The level of the marginal bone around each implant was measured by intraoral periapical radiographs and implant stability was recorded using resonance frequency measurements. Frequency values (ISQ) were obtained peroperatively before flap closure and after 6 months at abutment connection. At abutment connection the bisphosphonate-coated implants were removed en bloc in two patients for histological examination. An animal experiment had previously confirmed that gamma-sterilization did not reduce bioactivity of the bisphosphonate coating. In each patient, the bisphosphonate-coated implant showed the largest improvement in ISQ level of all implants. Their values at the start tended to be lower, and the absolute value at 6 months did not differ. No complications occurred with the coated implants. Histology showed no abnormalities. Improvement in ISQ values was an expected effect of the bisphosphonate coating, but could be due to the choice of insertion site. This finding warrants a randomized blinded study.
  • Hammarfjord, Oscar, et al. (författare)
  • Surgical treatment of recurring ameloblastoma, are there options?
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: The British journal of oral & maxillofacial surgery. - 1532-1940. ; 51:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Our aim was to evaluate the treatment given to patients with intraosseus ameloblastomas with special emphasis on recurrence and the outcomes of primary and secondary resection. Forty-eight patients who were treated for intraosseous ameloblastoma at 8 centres across Sweden met the inclusion criteria. They showed typical distribution of age, sex, site of lesion, and characteristic presenting features. Eleven of the 48 were initially treated with radical resection and none recurred. Twenty-two of the remaining 37 who were initially treated by conservative resection presented with recurrences. Sixteen of the 22 then had conservative secondary resections, which resulted in further recurrence in 6 patients. Initial radical resection is therefore superior to conservative management as far as recurrences are concerned. We argue, however, that a conservative surgical approach is adequate for many intraosseous ameloblastomas with limited extension, because relapse can be followed by radical resection if clinically indicated in selected cases.
  • Nyberg, Jan, 1960-, et al. (författare)
  • Osseointegration of implants in irradiated bone with and without hyperbaric oxygen treatment : an experimental study in rat tibiae
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants. - Quintessence Publishing Co., Inc.. - 0882-2786. ; 28:3, s. 739-746
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been recommended to enhance implant osseointegration in irradiated bone. The aim of this study was to further investigate the effects of HBO on implant integration in irradiated bone tissue.Materials and Methods: The present study was an experimental intraindividual study in 16 rats. A single fraction of 20 Gy external irradiation was applied to one rat hind leg, while the other served as a nonirradiated control. Three days after radiation, two implants were inserted in each tibial tuberosity. The rats were divided into two groups: non-HBO treated (group 1) and HBO treated (group 2). Five weeks after radiation, removal torque tests were performed. Implants with surrounding tissue were processed to undecalcified cut and ground sections for histomorphometric evaluations of bone-to-implant contact and bone area. Retrieved bones were also investigated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.Results: The non-HBO treated rats (group 1) demonstrated higher, but not statistically significantly higher, values in the nonirradiated leg for all investigated parameters compared to the HBO-treated rats (group 2). However, the mean value for bone area was significantly higher in the irradiated sides compared to the nonirradiated control sides.Conclusions: In the present study, HBO treatment did not have a significant impact on osseointegration of implants in irradiated bone.
  • Blomqvist, My, et al. (författare)
  • Experiences of dental care and dental anxiety in adults with autism spectrum disorder
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Autism Research and Treatment. - New York, USA : Hindawi Publishing Corporation. - 2090-1925. ; 2014
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dental anxiety is associated with previous distressing dental experiences, such as lack of understanding of the dentist intentions, perceptions of uncontrollability and experiences of pain during dental treatment. People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are impaired in building flexible predictions and expectations, which is very much needed during a dental visit. The aims of the study were to investigate if people with ASD have more negative dental experiences and a higher level of dental anxiety compared to a matched control group. Forty-seven adults with ASD and of normal intellectual performance, and 69 age- and sex-matched typically developing controls completed questionnaires on previous dental experiences and dental anxiety, the Dental Anxiety Scale, and the Dental Beliefs Survey. The ASD group experienced pain during dental treatments more often than the controls and 22% had repeatedly experienced being forced to dental treatment they were not prepared for, compared to 3% of the controls. A higher level of dental anxiety was reported by the ASD group. Dental treatment and methods for supporting the communication with patients with ASD need to be developed, in order to reduce the negative dental experiences and dental anxiety in people with ASD.
  • Ek, Kristina, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Healthcare providers’ experiences of assessing and performing oral care in older adults
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Older People Nursing. - 1748-3735. ; 13:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims and objectivesThe purpose of this study was to describe healthcare providers’ experiences, knowledge and attitudes in relation to the assessment of oral health in older adults.BackgroundOral health is an important element in the care of older adults. An increasing proportion of older people need the help and support of community‐based healthcare services, which are responsible for providing oral health assessment for this group. Although oral care is an important part of nursing care, studies show that it is often an overlooked area in the care of older people.DesignAn inductive qualitative description design was used.MethodsThe participating healthcare providers were selected from a municipality in western Sweden. Purposeful sampling was employed and data were collected through focus‐group interviews and were analysed with content analysis.ResultsThe analysis resulted in four categories: healthcare providers’ knowledge and attitudes to oral health; routines affect flexibility; challenges in assessing and performing oral care and ethical dilemmas. The results showed that oral health was neglected because of several factors. Lack of knowledge, inadequate procedures and time constraints were most prominent. The healthcare providers’ own attitudes affected the performing of oral health assessments. Ethical dilemmas related to the attitudes of those people in receipt of care and their relatives, and their integrity and autonomy, could be seen as complicating factors.ConclusionsThe healthcare providers expressed that they did not have the necessary knowledge of oral health that was required in their area of responsibility. In addition, they described their own attitudes as being important when attending to the patients’ oral health.Implications for practiceThe healthcare providers themselves identified lack of knowledge and their own attitudes as being especially important factors in the oral care of older adults, and further research in this area is needed.
  • Klingspor, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Epidemiology of fungaemia in Sweden : A nationwide retrospective observational survey
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Mycoses (Berlin). - John Wiley & Sons. - 0933-7407 .- 1439-0507. ; 61:10, s. 777-785
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectivesTo identify the epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida spp. among blood culture isolates to identify the epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida spp. among blood culture isolates in Sweden. MethodsThe study was a retrospective, observational nationwide laboratory-based surveillance for fungaemia and fungal meningitis and was conducted from September 2015 to August 2016. ResultsIn total, 488 Candida blood culture isolates were obtained from 471 patients (58% males). Compared to our previous study, the incidence of candidaemia has increased from 4.2/100000 (2005-2006) to 4.7/100000 population/year (2015-2016). The three most common Candida spp. isolated from blood cultures were Candida albicans (54.7%), Candida glabrata (19.7%) and species in the Candida parapsilosis complex (9.4%). Candida resistance to fluconazole was 2% in C.albicans and between 0% and 100%, in non-albicans species other than C.glabrata and C.krusei. Resistance to voriconazole was rare, except for C.glabrata, C.krusei and C.tropicalis. Resistance to anidulafungin was 3.8% while no Candida isolate was resistant to amphotericin B. ConclusionsWe report an overall increase in candidaemia but a minor decrease of C.albicans while C.glabrata and C.parapsilosis remain constant over this 10-year period.
  • Jonasson, Grethe, 1945-, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of clinical and radiographic indices as predictors of osteoporotic fractures: a 10-year longitudinal study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology and oral radiology. - 2212-4411. ; 125:5, s. 487-494
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the study was to evaluate 2 radiographic and 3 clinical indices as predictors of future osteoporotic fractures.In a prospective, longitudinal study with a 10-year fracture follow-up, the 2 radiographic indices mandibular cortical erosion (normal, mild/moderate erosion, and severe erosion of the inferior cortex) and cortex thickness were assessed using panoramic radiographs of 411 women, age 62 to 78 years. The clinical indices were the fracture assessment tool FRAX, the osteoporosis index of risk (OSIRIS), and the osteoporosis self-assessment tool (OST).The relative risks (RRs) for future fracture were significant for FRAX greater than 15%, 4.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4-7.2), and for severely eroded cortices, 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.8). Cortical thickness less than 3 mm, OSIRIS, and OST were not significant fracture predictors (RR 1.1, 1.4, and 1.5, respectively). For the 5 tested fracture predictors, Fisher's exact test gave the following P values for differences between fracture and nonfracture groups: FRAX <.001, cortical erosion 0.023, OST 0.078, OSIRIS 0.206, and cortical thickness 0.678. The area under the curve was 0.69 for FRAX less than 15%, 0.58 for cortical erosion, and 0.52 for cortical thickness. Adding OSIRIS and OST did not change the area under the curve significantly.FRAX and severely eroded cortices predicted fracture but cortical thickness, OSIRIS, and OST did not.
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