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  • Nilsson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • The enigma of increased non-cancer mortality after weight loss in healthy men who are overweight or obese.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1365-2796. ; 252:1, s. 70-78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To study effects on non-cancer mortality of observational weight loss in middle-aged men stratified for body mass index (BMI), taking a wide range of possible confounders into account. Design. Prospective, population based study. Setting. Male population of Malmö, Sweden. Participants. In all 5722 men were screened twice with a mean time interval of 6 years in Malmö, southern Sweden. They were classified according to BMI category at baseline (<21, 22-25, overweight: 26-30, and obesity: 30+ kg m-2) and weight change category until second screening (weight stable men defined as having a baseline BMI ± 0.1 kg m-2 year-1 at follow-up re-screening). Main outcome measures. Non-cancer mortality calculated from national registers during 16 years of follow-up after the second screening. Data from the first year of follow-up were excluded to avoid bias by mortality caused by subclinical disease at re-screening. Results. The relative risk (RR; 95% CI) for non-cancer mortality during follow-up was higher in men with decreasing BMI in all subgroups: RR 2.64 (1.46-4.71, baseline BMI <21 kg m-2), 1.39 (0.98-1.95, baseline BMI 22-25 kg m-2), and 1.71 (1.18-2.47, baseline BMI 26+ kg m-2), using BMI-stable men as reference group. Correspondingly, the non-cancer mortality was also higher in men with increasing BMI, but only in the obese group (baseline BMI 26+ kg m-2) with RR 1.86 (1.31-2.65). In a subanalysis, nonsmoking obese (30+ kg m-2) men with decreased BMI had an increased non-cancer mortality compared with BMI-stable obese men (Fischer's test: P=0.001). The mortality risk for nonsmoking overweight men who increased their BMI compared with BMI-stable men was also significant (P=0.006), but not in corresponding obese men (P=0.094). Conclusions. Weight loss in self-reported healthy but overweight middle-aged men, without serious disease, is associated with an increased non-cancer mortality, which seems even more pronounced in obese, nonsmoking men, as compared with corresponding but weight-stable men. The explanation for these observational findings is still enigmatic but could hypothetically be because of premature ageing effects causing so-called weight loss of involution.
  • Lundberg, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Kvantifiering av leversteatos: diagnostisk utvärdering av protonmagnetresonansspektroskopi jämfört med histologiska metoder
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Bakgrund</p><p>Leversteatos är den vanligaste manifestationen av leversjukdom i västvärlden. Leverbiopsi med semikvantitativ histologisk gradering är referensmetod vid gradering av leversteatos. Med protonmagnetsresonansspektroskopi (1H-MRS), en metod som föreslagits ersätta leverbiopsi för värdering av steatos, kan leverns innehåll av triglycerider mätas icke-invasivt. Triglyceridinnehåll &gt;5,00 % används ofta som ett diagnostiskt kriterium för leversteatos vid undersökning med 1H-MRS. Syftet med studien var att jämföra 1H-MRS med semikvantitativ histologisk steatosgradering och kvantitativ histologisk steatosmätning.</p><p>Metod</p><p>Patienter remitterade för utredning av förhöjda leverenzymer in-kluderades i studien. Samtliga patienter genomgick klinisk undersökning, laboratorieprovtagning samt 1H-MRS direkt följd av leverbiopsi. För konventionell histologisk semikvantitativ gradering av steatos användes kriterierna utarbetade av Brunt och medarbetare. Kvantitativ mätning av fett i biopsierna utfördes genom att med hjälp av stereologisk punkträkning (SPC) mäta andelen av ytan som innehöll fettvakuoler.</p><p>Resultat</p><p>I studien inkluderades 94 patienter, varav 37 hade icke-alkoholor-sakad fettleversjukdom (NAFLD), 49 hade andra leversjukdomar och 8 hade normal leverbiopsi. En stark korrelation noterades mel-lan 1H-MRS och SPC (r=0,92, p&lt;0,0001; к=0.82). Korrelationen mellan 1H-MRS och Brunts kriterier (к=0.26) samt mellan SPC och Brunts kriterier (к=0.38) var betydligt sämre. När patologens gradering (Brunts kriterier) användes som referensmetod för diag-nos av leversteatos så hade alla patienter med triglyceridinnehåll &gt;5,00 % mätt med 1H-MRS steatos (specificitet 100 %). Emellertid hade 22 av 69 patienter med triglyceridinnehåll ≤5,00 % också le-versteatos enligt Brunts kriterier (sensitivitet 53 %). Motsvarande siffror när man använde gränsvärdet 3,02 % var sensitivitet 79 % och specificitet 100 %. Vid ytterligare reduktion av gränsvärdet för triglyceridinnehåll till 2,00 % ökade sensitiviteten till 87 % med upprätthållande av hög specificitet (94 %).</p><p>Slutsats</p><p>1H-MRS och SPC uppvisade en mycket hög korrelation vid kvantifiering av leversteatos. SPC borde därför föredras framför Brunts kriterier när noggrann histologisk kvantifiering av leversteatos är önskvärd. Många patienter kan ha histologisk leversteatos trots triglyceridinnehåll ≤5,00 % mätt med 1H-MRS. Gränsvärdet för diagnostisering av leversteatos med 1H-MRS bör därför reduceras.</p>
  • Klaff, Rami, 1971- (författare)
  • Disease-Specific Survival in Prostate Cancer Patients Results from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group (SPCG) Trial No. 5 and Regional Cancer Register Data
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p><p>Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer among men in Sweden. The clinical course varies considerably, which makes it difficult to predict the prognosis in the individual case. In order to explore the early as well as the late course of the disease, large study groups and population-based cohorts are necessary.</p><p>Aims</p><ul><li>To explore factors that influence the long-term outcome of men with low-risk tumours in a population-based register, to predict the long-term course, and to assess the mortality rate for men with prostate cancer (Paper I)</li><li>To analyse long-term outcome and to investigate factors associated with long-term survival in patients with metastases to the skeleton (Paper II)</li><li>To analyse early androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) failure and to define clinical predictors associated with short survival due to early ADT failure in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases (Paper III)</li><li>To analyse the prognostic significance of the extent of bone metastases in relation to other pretreatment variables in prostate cancer patients, and to explore the impact of bone metastases on quality-of-life (Paper IV)</li></ul><p><strong>Material and methods</strong></p><p>The study groups were assembled from The South East Region Prostate Cancer Register (SERPCR), and The Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group (SPCG) Trial No. 5. In the first study, prognostic factors and long-term disease-specific mortality rates of low-risk prostate cancer patients from the early PSA era were analysed. In the second study, patient-related factors, quality-of-life (QoL) and long-term survival in 915 PCa patients with bone metastases (M1b) under ADT, were analysed. In Study III factors predicting primary failure to respond to ADT were identified. Study IV explored the impact of the extent of bone metastases on survival and QoL for these men.</p><p><strong>Result and conclusions</strong></p><p>The long-term disease-specific mortality of low-risk localised PCa is low, but the annual mortality rate gradually increases. This indicates that some tumours slowly develop into lethal cancer, particularly in men 70 years or older and with a PSA level ≥ 4 μg/L. From the SPCG Trial No. 5, a subgroup of patients with M1b disease and favourable set of predictive factors survived more than 10 years under ADT with an acceptable QoL. Independent predictors of long-term survival were identified as performance status (PS) &lt; 2, limited extent of bone metastases, and a PSA level &lt; 231 μg/L at the time of enrolment in the trial. However, four independent clinical predictors of early ADT failure could be defined. Men exhibiting these features should be considered for an alternative treatment. Patient grouping based on three categories of extent of bone metastases related to PS, haemoglobin, and QoL at presentation, as independent predictors of mortality, may provide improved accuracy of prognosis.</p>
  • Rosengren, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Inferior physical performance test results of 10,998 men in the MrOS Study is associated with high fracture risk.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Age and ageing. - 1468-2834. ; 41:3, s. 339-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: most fractures are preceded by falls.Objective: the aim of this study was to determine whether tests of physical performance are associated with fractures.Subjects: a total of 10,998 men aged 65 years or above were recruited.Methods: questionnaires evaluated falls sustained 12 months before administration of the grip strength test, the timed stand test, the six-metre walk test and the twenty-centimetre narrow walk test. Means with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) are reported. P < 0.05 is a statistically significant difference.Results: fallers with a fracture performed worse than non-fallers on all tests (all P < 0.001). Fallers with a fracture performed worse than fallers with no fractures both on the right-hand-grip strength test and on the six-metre walk test (P < 0.001). A score below -2 standard deviations in the right-hand-grip strength test was associated with an odds ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 2.1-7.4) for having had a fall with a fracture compared with having had no fall and with an odds ratio of 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2) for having had a fall with a fracture compared with having had a fall with no fracture.Conclusion: the right-hand-grip strength test and the six-metre walk test performed by old men help discriminate fallers with a fracture from both fallers with no fracture and non-fallers.
  • Brandt, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Myelography in the late postoperative period in patients subjected to anterior cervical decompression and fusion
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Acta Neurochirurgica. - Springer. - 0001-6268. ; 122:1-2, s. 97-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During a 13 year period, 286 patients with cervical disc herniation and/or spondylotic spurs, were subjected to anterior decompression and vertebral interbody fusion with autologous bone. Twenty patients were re-admitted in the late postoperative period due to recurrent radicular symptoms and/or signs of myelopathy. In these patients myelography was performed again. In 14 patients spinal cord compression and/or nerve root involvement at a new level was visualized. At the operated level, however, the myelograms demonstrated a smooth anterior wall in the spinal canal. The series confirms the safety, effectiveness and reliability of the Cloward procedure in achieving long term spinal cord and nerve root decompression, and a solid vertebral interbody fusion.
  • Hedbrant, Johan, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Ny mätmetod för käkmuskulaturen kan finna orsaken till tinnitus Slutrapport Nutek 92-11904
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Nutek 92-11904. - Stockholm : Nutek - Närings- och teknikutvecklingsverket.
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Tinnitus är en åkomma som i lindrigare eller allvarligare former drabbar 17% av västvärldens befolkning. Ca 85 000 svenskar har tinnitus på invalidiserande nivå. Förutom mänskligt lidande orsakar tinnitus samhällskostnader på ca 1.5 miljard kr årligen. Orsaken är till största delen okänd.</p><p>Vissa tecken tyder på ett samband mellan tinnitus och funktionsstörning i en käkmuskel. Några olika icke–invasiva metoder för mätning av muskelstörning i M Pterygoideus Lateralis har utvärderas. Två av dessa är intressanta för fortsatta studier.</p><p>Termografi användes för att diagnosticera muskelstörningar på ytligt liggande muskler. Vi såg åtskilliga varma områden på ytliga käk– och nackmuskler på de patienter som hade käkledsstörningar, samt möjligen tecken på onormal värme från M Pterygoideus Lateralis. Mätförhållandena var dock ej ideala.</p><p>En metod att mäta EMG med adaptiv noise cancelling provades. EMG från en ryggmuskel, stört av en “EKG–signal” från hjärtat användes. Metoden fungerade bra. Fortsatt metodutveckling på t.ex. ryggmuskler borde göras.</p>
  • Reinke, M, et al. (författare)
  • Brown-Séquard syndrome caused by a high velocity gunshot injury: a case report.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Spinal cord. - 1362-4393. ; 45:8, s. 579-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Case report.To present an unusual traumatic neurologic pathology caused by gunshot injury.Spine unit of Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, University Medical School, Charité - Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany.A 35-year-old male sustained a gunshot injury from a machine gun. The projectile caused a fracture of the left pedicle of Th10. The spinal cord was indirectly damaged by cavitation that caused a Brown-Séquard syndrome (BSS). After a microscopically assisted posterior revision at T9/10 with removal of bullet and bone fragments from the spinal canal and debridement of the bullet cavity via extended fenestrectomy the patient gained his motor function back. The sensory deficit remained unchanged.BSS can be caused by bullet-related injury of the spinal canal with no direct damage of neural structures. The initial treatment is always based on the total injury pattern. Possible spinal cord injuries are only clarified after restitution of vital functions. Decompression of neural structures in shotgun injury is indicated in incomplete paraplegia, injury of intra-abdominal hollow organs or high velocity bullet wounds. Through debridement and decompression of neural structures and chronic damage caused by foreign body granulomas can be prevented. Secondary destabilization of the spine should be avoided.
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