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1.
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2.
  • Klaff, Rami, 1971- (författare)
  • Disease-Specific Survival in Prostate Cancer Patients : Results from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group (SPCG) Trial No. 5 and Regional Cancer Register Data
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • IntroductionProstate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer among men in Sweden. The clinical course varies considerably, which makes it difficult to predict the prognosis in the individual case. In order to explore the early as well as the late course of the disease, large study groups and population-based cohorts are necessary.AimsTo explore factors that influence the long-term outcome of men with low-risk tumours in a population-based register, to predict the long-term course, and to assess the mortality rate for men with prostate cancer (Paper I)To analyse long-term outcome and to investigate factors associated with long-term survival in patients with metastases to the skeleton (Paper II)To analyse early androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) failure and to define clinical predictors associated with short survival due to early ADT failure in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases (Paper III)To analyse the prognostic significance of the extent of bone metastases in relation to other pretreatment variables in prostate cancer patients, and to explore the impact of bone metastases on quality-of-life (Paper IV)Material and methodsThe study groups were assembled from The South East Region Prostate Cancer Register (SERPCR), and The Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group (SPCG) Trial No. 5. In the first study, prognostic factors and long-term disease-specific mortality rates of low-risk prostate cancer patients from the early PSA era were analysed. In the second study, patient-related factors, quality-of-life (QoL) and long-term survival in 915 PCa patients with bone metastases (M1b) under ADT, were analysed. In Study III factors predicting primary failure to respond to ADT were identified. Study IV explored the impact of the extent of bone metastases on survival and QoL for these men.Result and conclusionsThe long-term disease-specific mortality of low-risk localised PCa is low, but the annual mortality rate gradually increases. This indicates that some tumours slowly develop into lethal cancer, particularly in men 70 years or older and with a PSA level ≥ 4 μg/L. From the SPCG Trial No. 5, a subgroup of patients with M1b disease and favourable set of predictive factors survived more than 10 years under ADT with an acceptable QoL. Independent predictors of long-term survival were identified as performance status (PS) < 2, limited extent of bone metastases, and a PSA level < 231 μg/L at the time of enrolment in the trial. However, four independent clinical predictors of early ADT failure could be defined. Men exhibiting these features should be considered for an alternative treatment. Patient grouping based on three categories of extent of bone metastases related to PS, haemoglobin, and QoL at presentation, as independent predictors of mortality, may provide improved accuracy of prognosis.
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3.
  • Lundberg, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Kvantifiering av leversteatos: diagnostisk utvärdering av protonmagnetresonansspektroskopi jämfört med histologiska metoder
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BakgrundLeversteatos är den vanligaste manifestationen av leversjukdom i västvärlden. Leverbiopsi med semikvantitativ histologisk gradering är referensmetod vid gradering av leversteatos. Med protonmagnetsresonansspektroskopi (1H-MRS), en metod som föreslagits ersätta leverbiopsi för värdering av steatos, kan leverns innehåll av triglycerider mätas icke-invasivt. Triglyceridinnehåll >5,00 % används ofta som ett diagnostiskt kriterium för leversteatos vid undersökning med 1H-MRS. Syftet med studien var att jämföra 1H-MRS med semikvantitativ histologisk steatosgradering och kvantitativ histologisk steatosmätning.MetodPatienter remitterade för utredning av förhöjda leverenzymer in-kluderades i studien. Samtliga patienter genomgick klinisk undersökning, laboratorieprovtagning samt 1H-MRS direkt följd av leverbiopsi. För konventionell histologisk semikvantitativ gradering av steatos användes kriterierna utarbetade av Brunt och medarbetare. Kvantitativ mätning av fett i biopsierna utfördes genom att med hjälp av stereologisk punkträkning (SPC) mäta andelen av ytan som innehöll fettvakuoler.ResultatI studien inkluderades 94 patienter, varav 37 hade icke-alkoholor-sakad fettleversjukdom (NAFLD), 49 hade andra leversjukdomar och 8 hade normal leverbiopsi. En stark korrelation noterades mel-lan 1H-MRS och SPC (r=0,92, p<0,0001; к=0.82). Korrelationen mellan 1H-MRS och Brunts kriterier (к=0.26) samt mellan SPC och Brunts kriterier (к=0.38) var betydligt sämre. När patologens gradering (Brunts kriterier) användes som referensmetod för diag-nos av leversteatos så hade alla patienter med triglyceridinnehåll >5,00 % mätt med 1H-MRS steatos (specificitet 100 %). Emellertid hade 22 av 69 patienter med triglyceridinnehåll ≤5,00 % också le-versteatos enligt Brunts kriterier (sensitivitet 53 %). Motsvarande siffror när man använde gränsvärdet 3,02 % var sensitivitet 79 % och specificitet 100 %. Vid ytterligare reduktion av gränsvärdet för triglyceridinnehåll till 2,00 % ökade sensitiviteten till 87 % med upprätthållande av hög specificitet (94 %).Slutsats1H-MRS och SPC uppvisade en mycket hög korrelation vid kvantifiering av leversteatos. SPC borde därför föredras framför Brunts kriterier när noggrann histologisk kvantifiering av leversteatos är önskvärd. Många patienter kan ha histologisk leversteatos trots triglyceridinnehåll ≤5,00 % mätt med 1H-MRS. Gränsvärdet för diagnostisering av leversteatos med 1H-MRS bör därför reduceras.
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4.
  • Fältström, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Functional Performance Among Active Female Soccer Players After Unilateral Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Compared With Knee-Healthy Controls
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Sports Medicine. - : Sage Publications. - 0363-5465 .- 1552-3365. ; 45:2, s. 377-385
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Good functional performance with limb symmetry is believed to be important to minimize the risk of injury after a return to pivoting and contact sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR).Purpose: This study aimed to investigate any side-to-side limb differences in functional performance and movement asymmetries in female soccer players with a primary unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)–reconstructed knee and to compare these players with knee-healthy controls from the same soccer teams.Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.Methods: This study included 77 active female soccer players at a median of 18 months after ACLR (interquartile range [IQR], 14.5 months; range, 7-39 months) and 77 knee-healthy female soccer players. The mean age was 20.1 ± 2.3 years for players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and 19.5 ± 2.2 years for controls. We used a battery of tests to assess postural control (Star Excursion Balance Test) and hop performance (1-legged hop for distance, 5-jump test, and side hop). Movement asymmetries in the lower limbs and trunk were assessed with the drop vertical jump and the tuck jump using 2-dimensional analyses.Results: The reconstructed and uninvolved limbs did not differ in any of the tests. In the 5-jump test, players with an ACL-reconstructed knee performed worse than controls (mean 8.75 ± 1.05 m vs 9.09 ± 0.89 m; P = .034). On the drop vertical jump test, the ACL-reconstructed limb had significantly less knee valgus motion in the frontal plane (median 0.028 m [IQR, 0.049 m] vs 0.045 m [IQR, 0.043 m]; P = .004) and a lower probability of a high knee abduction moment (pKAM) (median 69.2% [IQR, 44.4%] vs 79.8% [IQR, 44.8%]; P = .043) compared with the control players’ matched limb (for leg dominance). Results showed that 9% to 49% of players in both groups performed outside recommended guidelines on the different tests. Only 14 players with an ACL-reconstructed knee (18%) and 15 controls (19%) had results that met the recommended guidelines for all 5 tests (P = .837).Conclusion: The reconstructed and uninvolved limbs did not differ, and players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and controls differed only minimally on the functional performance tests, indicating similar function. It is worth noting that many players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and controls had movement asymmetries and a high pKAM pattern, which have previously been associated with an increased risk for both primary and secondary ACL injury in female athletes.
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7.
  • Gustavsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Neuropsychopharmacology. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 0924-977X .- 1873-7862. ; 21:10, s. 718-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The spectrum of disorders of the brain is large, covering hundreds of disorders that are listed in either the mental or neurological disorder chapters of the established international diagnostic classification systems. These disorders have a high prevalence as well as short- and long-term impairments and disabilities. Therefore they are an emotional, financial and social burden to the patients, their families and their social network. In a 2005 landmark study, we estimated for the first time the annual cost of 12 major groups of disorders of the brain in Europe and gave a conservative estimate of €386 billion for the year 2004. This estimate was limited in scope and conservative due to the lack of sufficiently comprehensive epidemiological and/or economic data on several important diagnostic groups. We are now in a position to substantially improve and revise the 2004 estimates. In the present report we cover 19 major groups of disorders, 7 more than previously, of an increased range of age groups and more cost items. We therefore present much improved cost estimates. Our revised estimates also now include the new EU member states, and hence a population of 514 million people.AIMS: To estimate the number of persons with defined disorders of the brain in Europe in 2010, the total cost per person related to each disease in terms of direct and indirect costs, and an estimate of the total cost per disorder and country.METHODS: The best available estimates of the prevalence and cost per person for 19 groups of disorders of the brain (covering well over 100 specific disorders) were identified via a systematic review of the published literature. Together with the twelve disorders included in 2004, the following range of mental and neurologic groups of disorders is covered: addictive disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, brain tumor, childhood and adolescent disorders (developmental disorders), dementia, eating disorders, epilepsy, mental retardation, migraine, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disorders, Parkinson's disease, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, sleep disorders, somatoform disorders, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Epidemiologic panels were charged to complete the literature review for each disorder in order to estimate the 12-month prevalence, and health economic panels were charged to estimate best cost-estimates. A cost model was developed to combine the epidemiologic and economic data and estimate the total cost of each disorder in each of 30 European countries (EU27+Iceland, Norway and Switzerland). The cost model was populated with national statistics from Eurostat to adjust all costs to 2010 values, converting all local currencies to Euro, imputing costs for countries where no data were available, and aggregating country estimates to purchasing power parity adjusted estimates for the total cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.RESULTS: The total cost of disorders of the brain was estimated at €798 billion in 2010. Direct costs constitute the majority of costs (37% direct healthcare costs and 23% direct non-medical costs) whereas the remaining 40% were indirect costs associated with patients' production losses. On average, the estimated cost per person with a disorder of the brain in Europe ranged between €285 for headache and €30,000 for neuromuscular disorders. The European per capita cost of disorders of the brain was €1550 on average but varied by country. The cost (in billion €PPP 2010) of the disorders of the brain included in this study was as follows: addiction: €65.7; anxiety disorders: €74.4; brain tumor: €5.2; child/adolescent disorders: €21.3; dementia: €105.2; eating disorders: €0.8; epilepsy: €13.8; headache: €43.5; mental retardation: €43.3; mood disorders: €113.4; multiple sclerosis: €14.6; neuromuscular disorders: €7.7; Parkinson's disease: €13.9; personality disorders: €27.3; psychotic disorders: €93.9; sleep disorders: €35.4; somatoform disorder: €21.2; stroke: €64.1; traumatic brain injury: €33.0. It should be noted that the revised estimate of those disorders included in the previous 2004 report constituted €477 billion, by and large confirming our previous study results after considering the inflation and population increase since 2004. Further, our results were consistent with administrative data on the health care expenditure in Europe, and comparable to previous studies on the cost of specific disorders in Europe. Our estimates were lower than comparable estimates from the US.DISCUSSION: This study was based on the best currently available data in Europe and our model enabled extrapolation to countries where no data could be found. Still, the scarcity of data is an important source of uncertainty in our estimates and may imply over- or underestimations in some disorders and countries. Even though this review included many disorders, diagnoses, age groups and cost items that were omitted in 2004, there are still remaining disorders that could not be included due to limitations in the available data. We therefore consider our estimate of the total cost of the disorders of the brain in Europe to be conservative. In terms of the health economic burden outlined in this report, disorders of the brain likely constitute the number one economic challenge for European health care, now and in the future. Data presented in this report should be considered by all stakeholder groups, including policy makers, industry and patient advocacy groups, to reconsider the current science, research and public health agenda and define a coordinated plan of action of various levels to address the associated challenges.RECOMMENDATIONS: Political action is required in light of the present high cost of disorders of the brain. Funding of brain research must be increased; care for patients with brain disorders as well as teaching at medical schools and other health related educations must be quantitatively and qualitatively improved, including psychological treatments. The current move of the pharmaceutical industry away from brain related indications must be halted and reversed. Continued research into the cost of the many disorders not included in the present study is warranted. It is essential that not only the EU but also the national governments forcefully support these initiatives.
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9.
  • Brandt, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Myelography in the late postoperative period in patients subjected to anterior cervical decompression and fusion
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Acta Neurochirurgica. - : Springer. - 0001-6268. ; 122:1-2, s. 97-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During a 13 year period, 286 patients with cervical disc herniation and/or spondylotic spurs, were subjected to anterior decompression and vertebral interbody fusion with autologous bone. Twenty patients were re-admitted in the late postoperative period due to recurrent radicular symptoms and/or signs of myelopathy. In these patients myelography was performed again. In 14 patients spinal cord compression and/or nerve root involvement at a new level was visualized. At the operated level, however, the myelograms demonstrated a smooth anterior wall in the spinal canal. The series confirms the safety, effectiveness and reliability of the Cloward procedure in achieving long term spinal cord and nerve root decompression, and a solid vertebral interbody fusion.
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10.
  • Elmståhl, Sölve, et al. (författare)
  • No association between inhaled corticosteroids and whole body DXA in postmenopausal women.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1053-8569. ; 15:May 22, s. 527-535
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Postmenopausal women treated with corticosteroids are regarded as a high-risk group due to the effect of both natural bone loss and possible adverse effects of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (IC). Objective To compare bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women exposed only to IC (IC group, n = 106) with that of BMD in women not exposed to corticosteroids (n = 124) and women exposed to oral and/or intra-articular injections in addition to inhaled corticosteroids (OC group, n = 3 1). The women were recruited from a population-based prospective cohort study. Methods Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique was used to measure BMD in whole body, spine, pelvis and lower extremities. A health questionnaire and an interview about past and present medication use were used. Results The mean duration and dose of IC were 9.5 +/- 4.5 years and 615 mu g daily. Whole body BMD did not significantly differ between the IC group (1.103 g/cm(2)) and the unexposed group (1.087 g/cm(2)). Within the IC group, BMD stratified for cumulative dose of IC, duration or current dose above or below 800 jig did not differ. Z-score BMD for tertiles did not differ when comparing the IC and OC groups. Conclusion No difference in BMD was noted between postmenopausal women exposed to inhaled corticosteroids and unexposed controls nor was there any dose response relationship between inhaled corticosteroid therapy and BMD. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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