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1.
  • Sundell, Anna Lena, 1970- (författare)
  • Children with orofacial clefts : dental caries and health-related quality of life
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background. The current understanding on caries and enamel developmental defects prevalence and frequency, caries risk, health-related quality life (HRQoL) and stress response in young children with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) are sparse. In this thesis these aspects were investigated in 5- and 10- year-old children with CL/P in comparison to non-cleft children in the same ages.Design. The studies in this thesis have a cross-sectional case-control design. Participants. The study group consisted of 139 children with CL/P (80 children aged 5 years and 59 aged 10 years) and 313 non-cleft controls (144 children aged 5 years and 169 aged 10 years).Method. Caries was scored according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) and developmental enamel defects were measured as presence and frequency of hypoplasia and hypomineralization. Oral hygiene was assessed using Quigley-Hein plaque index. Stimulated saliva samples were analyzed for mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, buffering capacity and secretion rates. Information regarding children’s oral hygiene routines, dietary habits and fluoride exposure were collected with questionnaires. Caries risk was evaluated with algorithm-based software, Cariogram while HRQoL was perceived with KIDSCREEN-52. Stress response was analyzed with cortisol concentration in saliva at three different time points using a commercial competitive radioimmunoassay.Results. Caries prevalence (36% versus 18%) and caries frequency (1.2 dmfs versus 0.9 dmfs) was significantly higher in 5-year-old children with CL/P in comparison to non-cleft controls. In 10-yearolds no significant difference was found between children with CL/P and non-cleft controls in caries prevalence (47% versus 38%) or in caries frequency (0.7 DMFS versus 0.5 DMFS). Children with CL/P had significantly higher prevalence of enamel defects, higher counts of salivary lactobacilli and less good oral hygiene. The odds of being categorized with high caries risk were elevated in children with CL/P. Children with CL/P had similar HRQoL and salivary cortisol concentrations as non-cleft controls. However, 10-year-old boys with CL/P had significantly higher cortisol concentrations in the evening than non-cleft boys.Conclusions. Preschool children with CL/P seem to have more caries in the primary dentition than non-cleft controls. Children with CL/P had increased odds of being categorized as high caries risk individuals compared to controls. Some of the contributing factors seem to be higher prevalence of enamel defects, impaired oral hygiene and elevated salivary lactobacilli. Furthermore, as measured with the help of cortisol concentrations in saliva, children with CL/P were not more stressed than noncleft controls and their HRQoL was comparable to a European norm population. It appears that regular comprehensive preventive oral care in children with CL/P is effective in preventing caries development in permanent teeth. However, children with CL/P are at risk of caries development and preventive oral care should be implemented and started earlier than today.
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2.
  • Fältström, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Functional Performance Among Active Female Soccer Players After Unilateral Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Compared With Knee-Healthy Controls
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Sports Medicine. - : Sage Publications. - 0363-5465 .- 1552-3365. ; 45:2, s. 377-385
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Good functional performance with limb symmetry is believed to be important to minimize the risk of injury after a return to pivoting and contact sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR).Purpose: This study aimed to investigate any side-to-side limb differences in functional performance and movement asymmetries in female soccer players with a primary unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)–reconstructed knee and to compare these players with knee-healthy controls from the same soccer teams.Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.Methods: This study included 77 active female soccer players at a median of 18 months after ACLR (interquartile range [IQR], 14.5 months; range, 7-39 months) and 77 knee-healthy female soccer players. The mean age was 20.1 ± 2.3 years for players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and 19.5 ± 2.2 years for controls. We used a battery of tests to assess postural control (Star Excursion Balance Test) and hop performance (1-legged hop for distance, 5-jump test, and side hop). Movement asymmetries in the lower limbs and trunk were assessed with the drop vertical jump and the tuck jump using 2-dimensional analyses.Results: The reconstructed and uninvolved limbs did not differ in any of the tests. In the 5-jump test, players with an ACL-reconstructed knee performed worse than controls (mean 8.75 ± 1.05 m vs 9.09 ± 0.89 m; P = .034). On the drop vertical jump test, the ACL-reconstructed limb had significantly less knee valgus motion in the frontal plane (median 0.028 m [IQR, 0.049 m] vs 0.045 m [IQR, 0.043 m]; P = .004) and a lower probability of a high knee abduction moment (pKAM) (median 69.2% [IQR, 44.4%] vs 79.8% [IQR, 44.8%]; P = .043) compared with the control players’ matched limb (for leg dominance). Results showed that 9% to 49% of players in both groups performed outside recommended guidelines on the different tests. Only 14 players with an ACL-reconstructed knee (18%) and 15 controls (19%) had results that met the recommended guidelines for all 5 tests (P = .837).Conclusion: The reconstructed and uninvolved limbs did not differ, and players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and controls differed only minimally on the functional performance tests, indicating similar function. It is worth noting that many players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and controls had movement asymmetries and a high pKAM pattern, which have previously been associated with an increased risk for both primary and secondary ACL injury in female athletes.
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5.
  • Hedbrant, Johan, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Ny mätmetod för käkmuskulaturen kan finna orsaken till tinnitus : Slutrapport Nutek 92-11904
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Nutek 92-11904. - Stockholm : Nutek - Närings- och teknikutvecklingsverket.
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Tinnitus är en åkomma som i lindrigare eller allvarligare former drabbar 17% av västvärldens befolkning. Ca 85 000 svenskar har tinnitus på invalidiserande nivå. Förutom mänskligt lidande orsakar tinnitus samhällskostnader på ca 1.5 miljard kr årligen. Orsaken är till största delen okänd.Vissa tecken tyder på ett samband mellan tinnitus och funktionsstörning i en käkmuskel. Några olika icke–invasiva metoder för mätning av muskelstörning i M Pterygoideus Lateralis har utvärderas. Två av dessa är intressanta för fortsatta studier.Termografi användes för att diagnosticera muskelstörningar på ytligt liggande muskler. Vi såg åtskilliga varma områden på ytliga käk– och nackmuskler på de patienter som hade käkledsstörningar, samt möjligen tecken på onormal värme från M Pterygoideus Lateralis. Mätförhållandena var dock ej ideala.En metod att mäta EMG med adaptiv noise cancelling provades. EMG från en ryggmuskel, stört av en “EKG–signal” från hjärtat användes. Metoden fungerade bra. Fortsatt metodutveckling på t.ex. ryggmuskler borde göras.
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6.
  • Ellis, Rachel, et al. (författare)
  • Predicting Speech-in-Noise Recognition from Performance on the Trail Making Test: Results from a Large-Scale Internet Study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Ear and Hearing. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0196-0202 .- 1538-4667. ; 37:1, s. 73-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of an internet-based version of the trail making test (TMT) to predict performance on a speech-in-noise perception task.Design: Data were taken from a sample of 1509 listeners aged between 18 and 91 years old. Participants completed computerized versions of the TMT and an adaptive speech-in-noise recognition test. All testing was conducted via the internet.Results: The results indicate that better performance on both the simple and complex subtests of the TMT are associated with better speech-in-noise recognition scores. Thirty-eight percent of the participants had scores on the speech-in-noise test that indicated the presence of a hearing loss.Conclusions: The findings suggest that the TMT may be a useful tool in the assessment, and possibly the treatment, of speech-recognition difficulties. The results indicate that the relation between speech-in-noise recognition and TMT performance relates both to the capacity of the TMT to index processing speed and to the more complex cognitive abilities also implicated in TMT performance.
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7.
  • Hua, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • The impact of different background noises : effects on cognitive performance and perceived disturbance in employees with aided hearing impairment and normal hearing
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology. - : American Academy of Audiology. - 1050-0545 .- 2157-3107. ; 25:9, s. 859-868
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Health care professionals frequently meet employees with hearing impairment (HI) who experience difficulties at work. There are indications that the majority of these difficulties might be related to the presence of background noise. Moreover, research has also shown that high-level noise has a more detrimental effect on cognitive performance and self-rated disturbance in individuals with HI than low-level noise.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of different types of background noise on cognitive performance and perceived disturbance (PD) in employees with aided HI and normal hearing.Research Design: A mixed factorial design was conducted to examine the effect of noise in four experimental conditions.Study Sample: A total of 40 participants (21 men and 19 women) were recruited to take part in the study. The study sample consisted of employees with HI (n = 20) and normal hearing (n = 20). The group with HI had a mild-moderate sensorineural HI, and they were all frequent hearing-aid users.Intervention: The current study was conducted by using four general work-related tasks (mental arithmetic, orthographic decoding, phonological decoding, and serial recall) in four different background conditions: (1) quiet, (2) office noise at 56 dBA, (3) daycare noise at 73.5 dBA, and (4) traffic noise at 72.5 dBA. Reaction time and the proportion of correct answers in the working tasks were used as outcome measures of cognitive performance. The Borg CR-10 scale was used to assess PD.Data Collection and Analysis: Data collection occurred on two separate sessions, completed within 4 wk of each other. All tasks and experimental conditions were used in a counterbalanced order. Two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was performed to analyze the results. To examine interaction effects, pairwise t-tests were used. Pearson correlation coefficients between reaction time and proportion of correct answers, and cognitive performance and PD were also calculated to examine the possible correlation between the different variables.Results: No significant between-group or within-group differences in cognitive performance were observed across the four background conditions. Ratings of PD showed that both groups rated PD according to noise level, where higher noise level generated a higher PD. The present findings also demonstrated that the group with HI was more disturbed by higher than lower levels of noise (i.e., traffic and daycare setting compared with office setting). This pattern was observed consistently throughout four working tasks where the group with HI reported a significantly greater PD in the daycare and traffic settings compared with office noise.Conclusions: The present results demonstrate that background noise does not impair cognitive performance in nonauditory tasks in employees with HI and normal hearing, but that PD is affected to a greater extent in employees with HI during higher levels of background noise exposure. In addition, this study also supports previous studies regarding the detrimental effects that high-level noise has on employees with HI. Therefore, we emphasize the need of both self-rated and cognitive measurements in hearing care and occupational health services for both employees with normal hearing and HI.
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8.
  • Ibertsson, Tina, et al. (författare)
  • Deaf teenagers with cochlear implants in conversation with hearing peers.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1460-6984 .- 1368-2822. ; 44, s. 319-337
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: This study investigates the use of requests for clarification in conversations between teenagers with a cochlear implant (CI) and hearing peers. So far very few studies have focused on conversational abilities in children with CI. Aims: The aim was to explore co-construction of dialogue in a referential communication task and the participation of the teenagers with CI in comparison with individually matched hearing children and teenagers (HC) by studying the use of requests for clarification. Methods & Procedures: Sixteen conversational pairs participated: eight pairs consisting of a child with CI and his/her hearing conversational partner (CIP); and eight pairs consisting of an HC and a conversational partner (HCP). The conversational pairs were videotaped while carrying out a referential communication task requiring the description of two sets of pictures depicting faces. The dialogues were transcribed and analysed with respect to the number of words and turns, the time it took for each pair to complete the tasks, and the occurrence and different types of requests for clarification that were used in each type of conversational pair and in each type of dialogue. Outcomes & Results: The main finding was that the teenagers with CI produced significantly more requests for clarification than the HCs. The most frequently used type of request for clarification in all dialogues was request for confirmation of new information. Furthermore, there was a trend for the teenagers with CI to use this type of request more often than the HC. In contrast, the teenagers with CI used significantly fewer requests for confirmation of already given information and fewer requests for elaboration than the HC. Conclusions & Implications: The deaf teenagers with CI in the study seem to be equally collaborative and responsible conversational partners as the hearing teenagers. The interpretation is that certain conditions in this study facilitate their participation in conversation. Such conditions might be a calm environment, a task that is structured and without time limits and that the partner is well known to the teenager with CI.
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10.
  • Karlsson, Fredrik, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Automatic acquisition of jitter and shimmer measurements across large sets of sustained vowel productions
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: En kontrastiv och longitudinell studie gällande effekten av djup hjärnstimulering på Parkinsons-patienters artikulatoriska förmåga.. - Cork.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Measurements of jitter and shimmer are frequently employed to quantify laryngeal control and stability during voice production in patients(1-3). Accurate estimates of jitter and shimmer may be obtained from acoustic recordings of sustained vowels produced by patients using computer software implementing algorithms for their extraction (e.g. Praat(4) or MDVP(5)). The jitter and shimmer algorithms do not, in themselves, exclude non-stable productions and are influenced by the inclusion of silence in the analysed intervals. As a consequence, reliable measurements of jitter and shimmer are made by manually opening each sound file and selecting an interval for the computations. The current paper proposes an alternative approach to afford a more efficient estimation of jitter and shimmer across a large set of sustained vowel recordings. Using information readily available in the acoustic signal and a combination of algorithms already available within the Praat program, a reliable method for automatic processing of only the sustained vowel in each recording of a large corpus is outlined. The method further affords the acquisition of multiple, repeatable, measurements of jitter and shimmer for sub-intervals of the vowel’s duration (applying more than one algorithm), which additionally provides information concerning the reliability of the jitter or shimmer estimates for a specific vowel  production. Comparisons with manually obtained measurements are made for the purpose of validation of the segmentation method.
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