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1.
  • Sundell, Anna Lena, 1970- (författare)
  • Children with orofacial clefts : dental caries and health-related quality of life
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background. The current understanding on caries and enamel developmental defects prevalence and frequency, caries risk, health-related quality life (HRQoL) and stress response in young children with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) are sparse. In this thesis these aspects were investigated in 5- and 10- year-old children with CL/P in comparison to non-cleft children in the same ages.Design. The studies in this thesis have a cross-sectional case-control design. Participants. The study group consisted of 139 children with CL/P (80 children aged 5 years and 59 aged 10 years) and 313 non-cleft controls (144 children aged 5 years and 169 aged 10 years).Method. Caries was scored according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) and developmental enamel defects were measured as presence and frequency of hypoplasia and hypomineralization. Oral hygiene was assessed using Quigley-Hein plaque index. Stimulated saliva samples were analyzed for mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, buffering capacity and secretion rates. Information regarding children’s oral hygiene routines, dietary habits and fluoride exposure were collected with questionnaires. Caries risk was evaluated with algorithm-based software, Cariogram while HRQoL was perceived with KIDSCREEN-52. Stress response was analyzed with cortisol concentration in saliva at three different time points using a commercial competitive radioimmunoassay.Results. Caries prevalence (36% versus 18%) and caries frequency (1.2 dmfs versus 0.9 dmfs) was significantly higher in 5-year-old children with CL/P in comparison to non-cleft controls. In 10-yearolds no significant difference was found between children with CL/P and non-cleft controls in caries prevalence (47% versus 38%) or in caries frequency (0.7 DMFS versus 0.5 DMFS). Children with CL/P had significantly higher prevalence of enamel defects, higher counts of salivary lactobacilli and less good oral hygiene. The odds of being categorized with high caries risk were elevated in children with CL/P. Children with CL/P had similar HRQoL and salivary cortisol concentrations as non-cleft controls. However, 10-year-old boys with CL/P had significantly higher cortisol concentrations in the evening than non-cleft boys.Conclusions. Preschool children with CL/P seem to have more caries in the primary dentition than non-cleft controls. Children with CL/P had increased odds of being categorized as high caries risk individuals compared to controls. Some of the contributing factors seem to be higher prevalence of enamel defects, impaired oral hygiene and elevated salivary lactobacilli. Furthermore, as measured with the help of cortisol concentrations in saliva, children with CL/P were not more stressed than noncleft controls and their HRQoL was comparable to a European norm population. It appears that regular comprehensive preventive oral care in children with CL/P is effective in preventing caries development in permanent teeth. However, children with CL/P are at risk of caries development and preventive oral care should be implemented and started earlier than today.
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2.
  • Fält, Elisabet, et al. (författare)
  • Agreement between mothers', fathers', and teachers' ratings of behavioural and emotional problems in 3-5-year-old children
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 13:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a valid and reliable instrument for measuring children's mental health, is available in parent- and teacher versions, making it an ideal tool for assessing behavioural and emotional problems in young children. However, few studies have evaluated inter-parent agreement on the SDQ, and in most studies on SDQ agreement, parent scores are either provided by only one parent or have been combined into one parent score. Furthermore, studies on SDQ inter-rater agreement usually only reflect degree of correlation, leaving the agreement between measurements unknown. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine both degree of correlation and agreement between parent and teacher SDQ reports, in a community sample of preschool-aged children in Sweden.Methods: Data were obtained from the Children and Parents in Focus trial. The sample comprised 4,46 children 3-5-years-old. Mothers, fathers and preschool teachers completed the SDQ as part of the routine health check-ups at Child Health Centres. Inter-rater agreement was measured using Pearson correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation (ICC).Results: Results revealed poor/fair agreement between parent and teacher ratings (ICC 0.25-0.54) and good/excellent agreement between mother and father ratings (ICC 0.66-0.76). The highest level of agreement between parents and teachers was found for the hyperactivity and peer problem subscales, whereas the strongest agreement between parents was found for the hyperactivity and conduct subscales.Conclusions: Low inter-rater agreement between parent and teacher ratings suggests that information from both teachers and parents is important when using the SDQ as a method to identify mental health problems in preschool children. Although mothers and fathers each provide unique information about their child's behaviour, good inter-parent agreement indicates that a single parent informant may be sufficient and simplify data collection.
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3.
  • Peny-Dahlstrand, M., et al. (författare)
  • Patterns of participation in school-related activities and settings in children with spina bifida
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Disability and Rehabilitation. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0963-8288 .- 1464-5165. ; 35:21, s. 1821-1827
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To evaluate how children with spina bifida (SB) participate in school-related activities and to explore if their motor and process skills in task performance were related to their level of active participation in school. Method: Fifty children from a geographical cohort of children with SB (aged 6-14 years) and their teachers rated the children's frequency of participation in school-related activities using a Swedish adaptation of the Availability and Participation Scale. The teachers also rated each child's level of active participation with the School Function Assessment, part one. Each child's motor and process skills were evaluated with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. The relation between levels of active participation and motor and process skills was subjected to binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The children participated very frequently in school activities, but their level of active participation was restricted, particularly in the recess/playground setting. There was a highly significant relation between full active participation in most school settings and the children's motor and process skills. Conclusion: Children with SB need support to become more actively involved, particularly in unstructured peer activities. The school staff need to be informed that not only the motor skills but also the process skills have an impact on the children's active participation.
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4.
  • Åkerman, Linda, 1983- (författare)
  • Aspects of the Pre-Diabetic Period in Type 1 Diabetes
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by insulin deficiency, due to immune-mediated destruction of beta cells. Current knowledge regarding the period preceding disease onset comes, to a large extent, from studying risk cohorts based on relatives of T1D-patients, as they have an increased disease risk. Among T1D patients in general, however, few have the disease in their immediate family. It is therefore important to study risk cohorts from the general population as well. An ongoing autoimmune reaction can often be seen in the blood long before disease onset, by detection of autoantibodies directed towards beta cell antigens. By autoantibody screening among participants in the ABIS (All Babies in the South-east of Sweden) cohort, we could identify a group of children from the general population with increased risk for T1D, positive for multiple autoantibodies. They were enrolled in a 2-year prospective follow-up aiming to characterize the prediabetic period and to identify factors indicative of progression/non-progression to T1D. We assessed glucose homeostasis and autoantibody titers over time, and searched for risk-biomarkers by analyzing the expression of immune-related genes (Th1-Th2-Th3) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from these children, in comparison to healthy children and newly diagnosed T1D patients. In the same groups we also compared serum micro RNA (miRNA) profiles, knowing that miRNA molecules have desirable biomarker properties. We found that two specific autoantibodies, IA2A and ZnT8A, were detected at higher concentrations in risk-individuals who progressed to overt T1D during or after the follow-up period, compared to those who still have not. We also observed disturbed glucose homeostasis long before onset in the progressors, but it was seen among those who remain symptom free as well. Further, we found support for the possible role of insulin resistance as an accelerator of the disease process. For gene expression and serum miRNA, few differences were observed between risk-individuals and healthy children overall. However, for PBMC gene expression and serum miRNA both, there were associations to beta cell function and glucose homeostasis, and for miRNA also to islet autoantibodies. Although specific profiles for prediction of disease onset or identification of risk-individuals could not be found, these results are interesting and deserve to be evaluated further. As part of another sub-study within ABIS, the effects of physical activity on glucose homeostasis were assessed in healthy schoolchildren. The level of physical activity, measured by pedometers, was related to insulin resistance and beta cell-stress, and decreased physical activity was associated with increased insulin resistance and load on the insulin-producing beta cells, already at school-age.
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5.
  • Belfrage, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Dispersion of viable pig liver cells with collagenase
  • 1975
  • Ingår i: Life Sciences. - : Elsevier. - 1879-0631. ; 17:8, s. 1219-1225
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Viable suspended hepatocytes were prepared from surgical biopsy specimens of pig and human liver by digestion with collagenase. Initial perfusion of the tissue through cannulated blood vessels with 0.5 mM EGTA followed by 0.2% collagenase gave the best results. 20−870 × 106 cells of which 60–95 % excluded trypan blue were obtained from 5–30 g pig liver pieces, while results with human liver specimens were usually less satisfactory. In some experiments, however, viable cells, as judged by vital stain exclusion and ability to synthesize lipids were obtained in sufficient yield. In the pig hepatocytes glycerolipid synthesis from [3H] glycerol and oxidation and esterification of [14C] oleic acid had the same characteristics as those observed earlier in rat hepatocytes.
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8.
  • Axelsson, Anna Karin, et al. (författare)
  • A Swedish cultural adaptation of the participation questionnaire Functional Scale of the Disability Evaluation System - Child version
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Disability and Rehabilitation. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0963-8288 .- 1464-5165.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose The aim was to culturally validate a questionnaire about children's/youth's participation to be used in a Swedish context.MethodsFUNDES-Child, based on the well-established CASP, was chosen. Questions about engagement and hindering factors were added to the existing questions about frequency and independence in 20 activity areas. Using a qualitative, explorative design, 16 interviews with children/youths/caregivers were made to explore opinions about the questionnaire. Follow-up interviews confirmed the result of the revised questionnaire. Qualitative content analysis was performed.ResultsThe interviews provided support for the questionnaire's relevance by being a tool to assess important aspects of participation, to gain insights into one's own/the child's participation, and to promote ideas about what causes the degree of participation. To achieve comprehensiveness, no activity area was found to be missing nor superfluous. However, some examples were needed to be modified where "parades" are unusual in Sweden and therefore removed, while "singing in choir" was added. In search for comprehensibility, opinions about the layout of the first version were raised and a varying degree of understanding of wording and concepts were found and thus taken into account.ConclusionsThe questionnaire can be used for establishing meaningful goals and to potentially increase children's participation.Implications for rehabilitationParticipation is of great importance for children's functioning, well-being, and development.Cultural validation of well-established participation questionnaires is a priority and questions about important aspects of participation need to be included.Interviews with children/youth and caregivers guided revisions to reach relevance, comprehensiveness, and comprehensibility of the Swedish FUNDES-Child (FUNDES II-SE).Children/youths, caregivers, and others may increase their awareness concerning the child's/youth's participation by responding to the questionnaire.
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9.
  • Hansson, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Language impairment in children with CI : An investigation of Swedish
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Lingua. - : Elsevier. - 0024-3841. ; 213, s. 63-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In spite of earlier implantation, bilateral implants and advances in the care of deaf children with cochlear implants (CI) within-group variation in language skills is large. We use three tasks with predictive value of language impairment in Swedish to identify children with CI most at risk for persistent difficulties in language development, in need of language intervention. The clinical markers investigated are nonword repetition and past tense inflection. We also assessed language comprehension, a predictor of severe language impairment associated with poorer prognosis. Fifteen Swedish-speaking deaf children with CI and 15 controls aged 5–8 years participated. Most children with CI had bilateral implants and had been fitted with CIs before 12 months. At least 70% in the group with CI performed >1.25 and 47% >2 SD below controls on more than one measure, showing risk for persistent language impairment. Speech perception was more crucial in the nonword repetition and language comprehension tasks. No time factor was significantly related to outcome. We conclude that it is important to allocate resources for continuous follow-up and language intervention. Research and care of children with CI will profit from better integration of knowledge from the fields of audiology, speech-language pathology and linguistics.
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