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1.
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2.
  • Petridou, Eleni Th., et al. (författare)
  • In vitro fertilization and risk of childhood leukemia in Greece and Sweden
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Blood & Cancer. - 1545-5009 .- 1545-5017. ; 58:6, s. 930-936
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Cancer risk in children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF) remains largely unknown. We aimed to investigate risk of leukemia and lymphoma following IVF using two nationwide datasets. Methods. The hospital-based case-control study in Greece derived from the National Registry for Childhood Hematological Malignancies (1996-2008, 814 leukemia and 277 lymphoma incident cases with their 1: 1 matched controls). The Swedish casecontrol study was nested in the Swedish Medical Birth Register (MBR) (1995-2007, 520 leukemia and 71 lymphoma cases with their 5,200 and 710 matched controls) with ascertainment of incident cancer cases in the National Cancer Register. Study-specific and combined odds ratios (OR) were estimated using conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for possible risk factors. Results. Nationwide studies pointed to similar size excess risk of leukemia following IVF, but to a null association between IVF and lymphoma. The proportion of leukemia cases conceived through IVF was 3% in Greece and 2.7% in Sweden; prevalence of IVF in matched controls was 1.8% and 1.6%, respectively. In combined multivariable analyses, the increased risk of leukemia was confined to age below 3.8 years (OR 2.21; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.27-3.85) and to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.062.95) with no sufficient evidence of excess risk for other leukemias (OR 1.34; 95% CI: 0.38-4.69). Following IVF, OR for ALL was 2.58 (95% CI: 1.37-4.84) before age 3.8 and 4.29 (95% CI: 1.4912.37) before age 2 years. Conclusions. IVF seems to be associated with increased risk of early onset ALL in the offspring. 
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3.
  • Draycott, T., et al. (författare)
  • Reduction in resource use with the misoprostol vaginal insert vs the dinoprostone vaginal insert for labour induction: a model-based analysis from a United Kingdom healthcare perspective
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMC Health Services Research. - : BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 1472-6963 .- 1472-6963. ; 16:1, s. 49-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In view of the increasing pressure on the UKs maternity units, new methods of labour induction are required to alleviate the burden on the National Health Service, while maintaining the quality of care for women during delivery. A model was developed to evaluate the resource use associated with misoprostol vaginal inserts (MVIs) and dinoprostone vaginal inserts (DVIs) for the induction of labour at term. Methods: The one-year Markov model estimated clinical outcomes in a hypothetical cohort of 1397 pregnant women (parous and nulliparous) induced with either MVI or DVI at Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK. Efficacy and safety data were based on published and unpublished results from a phase III, double-blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Resource use was modelled using data from labour induction during antenatal admission to patient discharge from Southmead Hospital. The models sensitivity to key parameters was explored in deterministic multi-way and scenario-based analyses. Results: Over one year, the model results indicated MVI use could lead to a reduction of 10,201 h (28.9 %) in the time to vaginal delivery, and an increase of 121 % and 52 % in the proportion of women achieving vaginal delivery at 12 and 24 h, respectively, compared with DVI use. Inducing women with the MVI could lead to a 25.2 % reduction in the number of midwife shifts spent managing labour induction and 451 fewer hospital bed days. These resource utilisation reductions may equate to a potential 27.4 % increase in birthing capacity at Southmead Hospital, when using the MVI instead of the DVI. Conclusions: Resource use, in addition to clinical considerations, should be considered when making decisions about labour induction methods. Our model analysis suggests the MVI is an effective method for labour induction, and could lead to a considerable reduction in resource use compared with the DVI, thereby alleviating the increasing burden of labour induction in UK hospitals.
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4.
  • Wätterbjörk, Inger, 1955-, et al. (författare)
  • Reasons for declining extended information visit on prenatal screening among pregnant women and their partners
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Prenatal Diagnosis. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0197-3851 .- 1097-0223. ; 35:12, s. 1232-1237
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: A two-step model on information on prenatal screening consists of brief information at the first visit at the Maternal Health Care Centre and an offer of extended information at a separate visit. There is a lack of knowledge why some pregnant women and their partners refrain from the extended information visit. The aim of this study was to explore their reasonsMethod: Eight qualitative interviews were analysed using Interpretive Description.Results: In the first theme “From an individual view”, the interviewees saw the invitation from their own points of view. They refrained because they did not want to receive any more information or had taken an individual position against chromosomal testing. In the theme, “From a societal view”, the interviewees perceived the offer as part of a societal view on prenatal screening that they could not support.Conclusion: The findings shows that these interviewees' reasons of declining an extended information visit are multidimensional and influenced by different views, from both an individual perspective and a more societal one. Health care professionals should be aware that some persons could have a different view on health care services and could be reluctant to accept offered services.
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5.
  • Linge, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • The Antibacterial Chemokine MIG/CXCL9 Is Constitutively Expressed in Epithelial Cells of the Male Urogenital Tract and Is Present in Seminal Plasma.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research. - : Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.. - 1079-9907. ; 28:3, s. 190-196
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT The integrity of the urogenital tract against potentially invasive pathogens is important for the health of the individual, fertilization, and continuance of species. Antibiotic peptides with broad antimicrobial activity, among them chemokines, are part of the innate immune system. We investigated the presence of the antibacterial interferon (IFN)-dependent CXC chemokines, MIG/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10, and I-TAC/CXCL11, in the human male reproductive system. MIG/CXCL9 was detected at 25.0 nM (range 8.1-40.6 nM; n = 14), whereas IP-10/CXCL10 and I-TAC/CXCL11 were detected at lower levels (mean 1.8 nM, range 0.3-5.8 nM and mean 0.6, 0.2-1.6 nM, respectively) in seminal plasma of fertile donors. The levels of MIG/CXCL9 are more than 300-fold higher than those previously reported in blood plasma. In vasectomized donors, significantly lower levels of MIG/CXCL9 (mean 14.7 nM, range 6.6-21.8) were found, suggesting that the testis and epididymis, in addition to the prostate, significantly contribute to the MIG/CXCL9 content of seminal plasma. Strong expression of MIG/CXCL9 was found in the epithelium of testis, epididymis, and prostate, as detected by immunohistochemistry. MIG/CXCL9 at concentrations in the order of those found in seminal plasma possessed antibacterial activity against the urogenital pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The relatively high levels of MIG/CXCL9 in seminal plasma point to roles for this chemokine in both host defense of the male urogenital tract and during fertilization.
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6.
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7.
  • Håkansson, Stellan, et al. (författare)
  • Reduced incidence of neonatal early-onset group B streptococcal infection after promulgation of guidelines for risk-based intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in Sweden : Analysis of a national population-based cohort
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6349 .- 1600-0412. ; 96:12, s. 1475-1483
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: To investigate the incidence of neonatal early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) infection in Sweden after promulgation of guidelines (2008) for risk factor-based intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, and evaluate the presence of risk factors and obstetric management in mothers. Material and methods: National registers were searched for infants with early-onset GBS infection during 2006-2011. Medical records of cases and case mothers were abstracted. Verified cases of sepsis/meningitis and cases with clinical sepsis/pneumonia were documented, as well as risk factors in case mothers and timeliness of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis administration. Results: There were 227 cases with verified infection, with an incidence of 0.34‰ of live births during the whole period. There was a significant decrease after promulgation of guidelines, from 0.40 to 0.30‰ [odds ratio (OR) 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57-0.99]. A significant decrease in the number of cases with clinical GBS sepsis/pneumonia was also observed. In parturients with one or more risk factors, the incidence of any GBS infection was reduced by approximately 50% (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.35-0.64), although there were many cases where the opportunity for timely administration of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis was missed. In infants of mothers without risk factor(s) there was no reduction in early-onset GBS morbidity. The mortality in verified cases was 4.8% (95% CI 2.1-7.6). Conclusions: The introduction of national guidelines for risk-based intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis coincided with a significant 50% risk reduction of neonatal early-onset GBS infection in infants of parturients presenting with one or more risk factors. A stricter adherence to guidelines could probably have reduced the infant morbidity further.
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8.
  • Karlsson, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • 5-Hydroxytryptamine contracts human uterine artery smooth muscle predominantly via 5-HT2 receptors
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Human Reproduction. - : Oxford University Press. - 0268-1161. ; 12:2, s. 361-367
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Serotonergic receptors were classified in the isolated human uterine artery with intact endothelium, using agonists and antagonists for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors. The efficacy for different agonists rated: alpha-methyl-5-HT (5-HT2) = 5-HT (non-selective) = 2-methyl-5-HT (5-HT3) >> sumatriptan (5-HT1), and the potency as: sumatriptan = 5-HT > 5-HT > alpha-methyl-5-HT > 2-methyl-5-HT. The contractile effects of 5-HT and alpha-methyl-5-HT were antagonized by the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserin and the non-selective antagonist methiothepin. The efficacy of sumatriptan was comparatively low. No interaction was encountered between 2-methyl-5-HT and MDL72222, suggesting an absence of 5-HT3 receptors. The results indicate that the contractile serotonergic receptor population in the human uterine artery mainly comprises 5-HT2 receptors, although a minor contribution of contractile 5-HT1 receptors cannot be excluded.
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9.
  • Karlsson, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors mediating circular smooth muscle contraction in the human umbilical artery
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. - : Karger. - 1423-002X. ; 47:2, s. 102-107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The study was performed to characterize pharmacologically the contractile 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors in the circular smooth muscle of the isolated human umbilical artery. Effects of agonists and antagonists for different 5-HT receptor subtypes were studied in intact endothelium vessel segments. All agonists induced concentration-dependent circular smooth muscle contractions. The potency was in declining order 5-HT > alpha-methyl-5-HT > sumatriptan >/= 2-methyl-5-HT. The effects of 5-HT and alpha-methyl-5-HT were antagonized by ketanserin, as well as methiothepin. The contractile effect of sumatriptan was antagonized by methiothepin but not by ketanserin. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, MDL 72222, did not affect the contraction by any of the agonists, including 2-methyl-5-HT. It is concluded that the 5-HT-induced contraction in the circular smooth muscle of the human umbilical artery seems to be mediated by a mixed population of 5-HT1-like receptors and 5-HT2 receptors.
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10.
  • Kernell, Kristina (författare)
  • Cardiac disease in pregnancy and consequences for reproductive outcomes, comorbidity and survival
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • BackgroundAdvances in medical treatment during the last 50 years have resulted in more individuals with congenital heart disease (CHD) and Marfan syndrome reaching childbearing age. The substantial physiological changes during pregnancy result in a high-risk situation, and pregnancy is a major concern in women with these conditions.AimsTo describe the socio-demographic characteristics, birth characteristics and reproductive patterns of individuals with CHD and women with Marfan syndrome.To investigate obstetric and neonatal outcomes in the firstborn children of individuals with CHD and women with Marfan syndrome.To study long-term cardiovascular outcomes after childbirth in women with Marfan´syndrome.MethodsThe studies are population-based register studies. The study population in the first paper included all women born between 1973 and 1983 who were alive and resident in Sweden at the age of 13 (494 692 women, of whom 2 216 were women with CHD). In the second paper, the same definition of the study population was chosen, except that it involved all men born between 1973 and 1983 (522 216 men, of whom 2 689 men with CHD). The third and fourth papers involved a study population of all Swedish women born between 1973 and 1993 who were still living in Sweden at age 13. This population consisted of 1 017 538 women, 273 of whom had been diagnosed with Marfan syndrome.Results and conclusionsThe individuals studied were more often born preterm, and were small-for-gestational age babies. They were more likely to have been born by cesarean section. In women with CHD, these characteristics were repeated in their firstborn children. No increased risks were found in children of men with CHD or in children of women with Marfan syndrome. There was no increased risk of aortic dissection in women with Marfan syndrome during pregnancy compared to women with Marfan syndrome who did not give birth. Higher frequencies of cardiac arrhythmia and valvular heart disease were found after childbirth in women with Marfan syndrome. Pregnancy in women with CHD is a high-risk situation associated with increased risk of adverse neonatal outcomes for the expected child. Pregnancy in women without CHD, but where the father has CHD is not so associated with increased risk of adverse obstetric or neonatal outcomes. Pregnancy in women with Marfan syndrome is not associated with adverse outcomes for the expected child.
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