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  • Warkentin, S, et al. (författare)
  • rCBF pathology in Alzheimer's disease is associated with slow processing speed
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychologia. - Elsevier. - 1873-3514. ; 46:5, s. 1193-1200
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Decreased information processing speed (mental slowing) is a known sequelae of many brain disorders, and can be assessed by continuous naming tasks. Functional imaging studies have shown that pause and articulation times in continuous speech are normally associated with different brain regions, but knowledge about such association in dementia is lacking. We therefore tested the hypothesis that perfusion deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not only associated with slower processing, but also with these speech measures. Using regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements during the performance of a continuous colour and form-naming task, we found that naming speed was substantially slower in AD patients than in controls. This slower naming was exclusively determined by an increase in mean pause time, and only to a limited extent by articulation time. The increased pause time was uniquely associated with temporo-parietal rCBF reductions of the patients, while articulation was not. By contrast, the rCBF of healthy elderly control subjects was consistently accompanied by substantially shorter articulation and pause times, although the naming measures were not statistically associated with rCBF. These findings suggest that pause time (in contrast to articulation time) may serve as a sensitive measure in the assessment of information processing speed deficits in dementia, by virtue of its close association with brain pathology. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Hellström Ängerud, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in symptoms in relation to myocardial infarction.
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: In myocardial infarction (MI) rapid diagnosis and treatment is crucial for the prognosis. Previous research has found that symptom presentation influence pre hospital delay times but studies about differences in MI symptoms between patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) are sparse and inconclusive. To enhance the understanding of symptom presentation in regard to MI type, we aimed to describe symptoms in relation to MI type and to find predictors of STEMI versus NSTEMI in patients with MI.Methods: Patients with MI (n=694) from the SymTime study were included. SymTime was a multicentre cross-sectional study of symptoms and actions in the prehospital phase of MI and data were collected using a previously validated questionnaire administered to MI patients within 24 h of admission to hospital.Results: Patients with STEMI were younger, more often men and smokers. Patients with NSTEMI were more likely to have a history of hypertension, MI and stroke. Chest pain was the most common symptom in both groups. Pain, discomfort, or pressure located in the jaw or teeth, vertigo/pre-syncope, cold sweat and nausea/vomiting were significantly more frequent in patients with STEMI (Table 1). In a multivariate logistic regression model patients with STEMI were more likely to present with cold sweat (OR 4.13, 95% CI 2.71–6.29) jaw pain (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.02–4.50), and nausea (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.20–3.33), and less likely to have a history of stroke (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.15–0.84), fluctuating symptoms (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.36–0.83) and anxiety (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32–0.92) compared to patients with NSTEMI.Conclusion: Patients with STEMI differed significantly from those with NSTEMI regarding symptom presentation. This knowledge is important for health care personnel to recognize symptoms alarming for STEMI when evaluating patients with MI symptoms.
  • Wirestam, Lina, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • Osteopontin is associated with disease severity and antiphospholipid syndrome in well characterised Swedish cases of SLE
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lupus Science and Medicine. - BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2053-8790 .- 1625-9823. ; 4:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective The variety of disease phenotypes among patients with SLE challenges the identification of new biomarkers reflecting disease activity and/or organ damage. Osteopontin (OPN) is an extracellular matrix protein with immunomodulating properties. Although raised levels have been reported, the pathogenic implications and clinical utility of OPN as a biomarker in SLE are far from clear. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise OPN in SLE.Methods Sera from 240 well-characterised adult SLE cases classified according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and/or the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria, and 240 population-based controls were immunoassayed for OPN. The SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) was used to evaluate disease activity and the SLICC/ACR Damage Index (SDI) to detect damage accrual.Results Serum OPN levels were in average raised fourfold in SLE cases compared with the controls (p<0.0001). OPN correlated with SLEDAI-2K, especially in patients with a disease duration of <12 months (r=0.666, p=0.028). OPN was highly associated with SDI (p<0.0001), especially in the renal (p<0.0001), cardiovascular (p<0.0001) and malignancy (p=0.012) domains. Finally, OPN associated with coherent antiphospholipid syndrome (APS; p=0.009), and both clinical and laboratory criteria of APS had significant positive impact on OPN levels.Conclusions In this cross-sectional study, circulating OPN correlates with disease activity in recent-onset SLE, reflects global organ damage and associates with APS. Longitudinal studies to dissect whether serum OPN also precedes and predicts future organ damage are most warranted.
  • Lundberg, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Kvantifiering av leversteatos: diagnostisk utvärdering av protonmagnetresonansspektroskopi jämfört med histologiska metoder
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BakgrundLeversteatos är den vanligaste manifestationen av leversjukdom i västvärlden. Leverbiopsi med semikvantitativ histologisk gradering är referensmetod vid gradering av leversteatos. Med protonmagnetsresonansspektroskopi (1H-MRS), en metod som föreslagits ersätta leverbiopsi för värdering av steatos, kan leverns innehåll av triglycerider mätas icke-invasivt. Triglyceridinnehåll >5,00 % används ofta som ett diagnostiskt kriterium för leversteatos vid undersökning med 1H-MRS. Syftet med studien var att jämföra 1H-MRS med semikvantitativ histologisk steatosgradering och kvantitativ histologisk steatosmätning.MetodPatienter remitterade för utredning av förhöjda leverenzymer in-kluderades i studien. Samtliga patienter genomgick klinisk undersökning, laboratorieprovtagning samt 1H-MRS direkt följd av leverbiopsi. För konventionell histologisk semikvantitativ gradering av steatos användes kriterierna utarbetade av Brunt och medarbetare. Kvantitativ mätning av fett i biopsierna utfördes genom att med hjälp av stereologisk punkträkning (SPC) mäta andelen av ytan som innehöll fettvakuoler.ResultatI studien inkluderades 94 patienter, varav 37 hade icke-alkoholor-sakad fettleversjukdom (NAFLD), 49 hade andra leversjukdomar och 8 hade normal leverbiopsi. En stark korrelation noterades mel-lan 1H-MRS och SPC (r=0,92, p<0,0001; к=0.82). Korrelationen mellan 1H-MRS och Brunts kriterier (к=0.26) samt mellan SPC och Brunts kriterier (к=0.38) var betydligt sämre. När patologens gradering (Brunts kriterier) användes som referensmetod för diag-nos av leversteatos så hade alla patienter med triglyceridinnehåll >5,00 % mätt med 1H-MRS steatos (specificitet 100 %). Emellertid hade 22 av 69 patienter med triglyceridinnehåll ≤5,00 % också le-versteatos enligt Brunts kriterier (sensitivitet 53 %). Motsvarande siffror när man använde gränsvärdet 3,02 % var sensitivitet 79 % och specificitet 100 %. Vid ytterligare reduktion av gränsvärdet för triglyceridinnehåll till 2,00 % ökade sensitiviteten till 87 % med upprätthållande av hög specificitet (94 %).Slutsats1H-MRS och SPC uppvisade en mycket hög korrelation vid kvantifiering av leversteatos. SPC borde därför föredras framför Brunts kriterier när noggrann histologisk kvantifiering av leversteatos är önskvärd. Många patienter kan ha histologisk leversteatos trots triglyceridinnehåll ≤5,00 % mätt med 1H-MRS. Gränsvärdet för diagnostisering av leversteatos med 1H-MRS bör därför reduceras.
  • Åkerman, Linda, 1983- (författare)
  • Aspects of the Pre-Diabetic Period in Type 1 Diabetes
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by insulin deficiency, due to immune-mediated destruction of beta cells. Current knowledge regarding the period preceding disease onset comes, to a large extent, from studying risk cohorts based on relatives of T1D-patients, as they have an increased disease risk. Among T1D patients in general, however, few have the disease in their immediate family. It is therefore important to study risk cohorts from the general population as well. An ongoing autoimmune reaction can often be seen in the blood long before disease onset, by detection of autoantibodies directed towards beta cell antigens. By autoantibody screening among participants in the ABIS (All Babies in the South-east of Sweden) cohort, we could identify a group of children from the general population with increased risk for T1D, positive for multiple autoantibodies. They were enrolled in a 2-year prospective follow-up aiming to characterize the prediabetic period and to identify factors indicative of progression/non-progression to T1D. We assessed glucose homeostasis and autoantibody titers over time, and searched for risk-biomarkers by analyzing the expression of immune-related genes (Th1-Th2-Th3) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from these children, in comparison to healthy children and newly diagnosed T1D patients. In the same groups we also compared serum micro RNA (miRNA) profiles, knowing that miRNA molecules have desirable biomarker properties. We found that two specific autoantibodies, IA2A and ZnT8A, were detected at higher concentrations in risk-individuals who progressed to overt T1D during or after the follow-up period, compared to those who still have not. We also observed disturbed glucose homeostasis long before onset in the progressors, but it was seen among those who remain symptom free as well. Further, we found support for the possible role of insulin resistance as an accelerator of the disease process. For gene expression and serum miRNA, few differences were observed between risk-individuals and healthy children overall. However, for PBMC gene expression and serum miRNA both, there were associations to beta cell function and glucose homeostasis, and for miRNA also to islet autoantibodies. Although specific profiles for prediction of disease onset or identification of risk-individuals could not be found, these results are interesting and deserve to be evaluated further. As part of another sub-study within ABIS, the effects of physical activity on glucose homeostasis were assessed in healthy schoolchildren. The level of physical activity, measured by pedometers, was related to insulin resistance and beta cell-stress, and decreased physical activity was associated with increased insulin resistance and load on the insulin-producing beta cells, already at school-age.
  • Jonsson, Åsa, 1969- (författare)
  • How to create and analyze a Heart Failure Registry with emphasis on Anemia and Quality of Life
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background and aimsHeart failure (HF) is a major cause of serious morbidity and death in the population and one of the leading medical causes of hospitalization among people older than 60 years. The aim of this thesis was to describe how to create and how to analyze a Heart Failure Registry with emphasis on Anemia and Quality of Life. (Paper I) We described the creation of the Swedish Heart Failure Registry (SwedeHF) as an instrument, which may help to optimize the handling of HF patients and show how the registry can be used to improve the management of patients with HF. (Paper II) In order to show how to analyze a HF registry we investigated the prevalence of anemia, its predictors, and its association with mortality and morbidity in a large cohort of unselected patients with HFrEF included in the SwedeHF, and to explore if there are subgroups of HF patients identifying high--‐risk patients in need of treatment. (Paper III) In order to show another way of analyzing a HF registry we assessed the prevalence of, associations with, and prognostic impact of anemia in patients with HFmrEF and HFpEF. (Paper IV) Finally we examined the usefulness of EQ--‐ 5D as a measure of patient--‐reported outcomes among HF patients using different analytical models and data from the SwedeHF, and comparing results about HRQoL for patients with HFpEF and HFrEF.Methods An observational study based on the SwedeHF database, consisting of about 70 variables, was undertaken to describe how a registry is created and can be used (Paper I). One comorbidity (anemia) was applied to different types of HF patients, HFrEF (EF <40%) (II) and HFmrEF (EF 40--‐49% ) or HFpEF (> 50%) (III) analyzing the data with different statistical methods. The usefulness of EQ--‐5D as measure of patient--‐ reported outcomes was studied and the results about HRQoL were compared for patients with HFpEF and HFrEF (IV).ResultsIn the first paper (Paper I) we showed how to create a HF registry and presented some characteristics of the patients included, however not adjusted since this was not the purpose of the study. In the second paper (Paper II) we studied anemia in patients with HFrEF and found that the prevalence of anemia in HFrEF were 34 % and the most important independent predictors were higher age, male gender and renal dysfunction. One--‐year survival was 75 % with anemia vs. 81 % without (p<0,001). In the matched cohort after propensity score the hazard ratio associated with anemia was for all--‐cause death 1.34. Anemia was associated with greater risk with lower age, male gender, EF 30--‐39%, and NYHA--‐class I--‐II. In the third paper (Paper III) we studied anemia in other types of HF patients and found that the prevalence in the overall cohort in patients with EF > 40% was 42 %, in HFmrEF 38 % and in HFpEF (45%). Independent associations with anemia were HFpEF, male sex, higher age, worse New York Heart Association class and renal function, systolic blood pressure <100 mmHg, heart rate ≥70 bpm, diabetes, and absence of atrial fibrillation. One--‐year survival with vs. without anemia was 74% vs. 89% in HFmrEF and 71% vs. 84% in HFpEF (p<0.001 for all). Thus very similar results in paper II and III but in different types of HF patients. In the fourth paper (Paper IV) we studied the usefulness of EQ--‐5D in two groups of patients with HF (HFpEF and HFrEF)) and found that the mean EQ--‐5D index showed small reductions in both groups at follow--‐up. The patients in the HFpEF group reported worsening in all five dimensions, while those in the HFrEF group reported worsening in only three. The Paretian classification showed that 24% of the patients in the HFpEF group and 34% of those in the HFrEF group reported overall improvement while 43% and 39% reported overall worsening. Multiple logistic regressions showed that treatment in a cardiology clinic affected outcome in the HFrEF group but not in the HFpEF group (Paper IV).Conclusions The SwedeHF is a valuable tool for improving the management of patients with HF, since it enables participating centers to focus on their own potential for improving diagnoses and medical treatment, through the online reports (Paper I). Anemia is associated with higher age, male gender and renal dysfunction and increased risk of mortality and morbidity (II, III). The influence of anemia on mortality was significantly greater in younger patients in men and in those with more stable HF (Paper II, III). The usefulness of EQ--‐5D is dependent on the analytical method used. While the index showed minor differences between groups, analyses of specific dimensions showed different patterns of change in the two groups of patients (HFpEF and HFrEF). The Paretian classification identified subgroups that improved or worsened, and can therefore help to identify needs for improvement in health services (Paper IV).
  • Norgren, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Immune response to collagen impregnated Dacron double velour grafts for aortic and aorto-femoral reconstructions
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Vascular Surgery. - Elsevier. - 0950-821X. ; 4:4, s. 379-384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study presents 20 patients, randomised to receive either a collagen-treated or an ordinary Dacron graft for aortic reconstructions, and the results of a skin-prick test, blood parameters and ELISA for anti-collagen antibodies as well as NMR pictures during a 6 week follow-up period. Forty per cent (4/11) of those receiving a collagen impregnated graft had a significantly increased titre of antibodies and NMR revealed in two out of 11 patients either a slightly increased amount of fluid or fibrosis around the graft, both collagen impregnated. No differences were found between the graft groups concerning body temperature and leucocyte or platelet counts. The skin-prick test for collagen was negative in all cases.
  • Eriksson, D, et al. (författare)
  • Extended exome sequencing identifies BACH2 as a novel major risk locus for Addison's disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 286:6, s. 595-608
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundAutoimmune disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Addison's disease, the adrenal glands are targeted by destructive autoimmunity. Despite being the most common cause of primary adrenal failure, little is known about its aetiology. MethodsTo understand the genetic background of Addison's disease, we utilized the extensively characterized patients of the Swedish Addison Registry. We developed an extended exome capture array comprising a selected set of 1853 genes and their potential regulatory elements, for the purpose of sequencing 479 patients with Addison's disease and 1394 controls. ResultsWe identified BACH2 (rs62408233-A, OR = 2.01 (1.71-2.37), P = 1.66 x 10(-15), MAF 0.46/0.29 in cases/controls) as a novel gene associated with Addison's disease development. We also confirmed the previously known associations with the HLA complex. ConclusionWhilst BACH2 has been previously reported to associate with organ-specific autoimmune diseases co-inherited with Addison's disease, we have identified BACH2 as a major risk locus in Addison's disease, independent of concomitant autoimmune diseases. Our results may enable future research towards preventive disease treatment.
  • Hartel, Bas P., et al. (författare)
  • A combination of two truncating mutations in USH2A causes more severe and progressive hearing impairment in Usher syndrome type IIa
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Hearing Research. - Amsterdam, Netherlands : Elsevier. - 0378-5955. ; 339, s. 60-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Usher syndrome is an inherited disorder that is characterized by hearing impairment (HI), retinitis pigmentosa, and in some cases vestibular dysfunction. Usher syndrome type IIa is caused by mutations in USH2A. HI in these patients is highly heterogeneous and the present study evaluates the effects of different types of USH2A mutations on the audiometric phenotype. Data from two large centres of expertise on Usher Syndrome in the Netherlands and Sweden were combined in order to create a large combined sample of patients to identify possible genotype-phenotype correlations.Design: A retrospective study on HI in 110 patients (65 Dutch and 45 Swedish) genetically diagnosed with Usher syndrome type IIa. We used methods especially designed for characterizing and testing differences in audiological phenotype between patient subgroups. These methods included Age Related Typical Audiograms (ARTA) and a method to evaluate the difference in the degree of HI developed throughout life between subgroups.Results: Cross-sectional linear regression analysis of last-visit audiograms for the best hearing ear demonstrated a gradual decline of hearing over decades. The congenital level of HI was in the range of 16-33 dB at 0.25-0.5 kHz, and in the range of 51-60 dB at 1-8 kHz. The annual threshold deterioration was in the range of 0.4-0.5 dB/year at 0.25-2 kHz and in the range of 0.7-0.8 dB/year at 4-8 kHz. Patients with two truncating mutations, including homozygotes for the common c.2299delG mutation, developed significantly more severe HI throughout life than patients with one truncating mutation combined with one nontruncating mutation, and patients with two nontruncating mutations.Conclusions: The results have direct implications for patient counselling in terms of prognosis of hearing and may serve as baseline measures for future (genetic) therapeutic interventions.
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