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1.
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2.
  • Venetsanos, Dimitrios (författare)
  • Improving management of STEMI patients treated with primary PCI Pharmacotherapy, renal function estimation and gender perspective
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis focused on the acute management of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in an effort to provide information that may improve outcome. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bivalirudin versus unfractionated heparin (UFH) in STEMI patients during primary PCI. Furthermore, to provide pharmacodynamic data of novel ways of ticagrelor administration compared to standard tivcagrelor. Additionally, to identify subgroups of patients, such as women who may derive greater benefit from specific antithrombotic strategies due to their risk/benefit profile. Finally, to evaluate current formulas for estimation of renal function in the acute phase of STEMI.In Paper I, all STEMI patients in Sweden between 2008 and 2014, treated with primary PCI and UFH or bivalirudin were included in our analysis. Of the total population of 23 800 patients, 8 783 (36.9%) were included in the UFH group and 15 017 (63.1%) in the bivalirudin group. Concomitant GPI administration was 68.5% in the UFH arm compared to 3.5% in the bivalirudin arm (p<0.01).The adjusted incidence of 30-day mortality was not significant different between the two groups (UFH vs bivalirudin, adjusted HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.82 -1.07). The adjusted risk for 1-year mortality, 30-day and 1-year stent thrombosis and re-infarction did not differ significantly between the two groups. In contrast, patients treated with UFH had a significantly higher incidence of major in-hospital bleeding (adjusted OR 1.62; 95%CI 1.30 -2.03).In Paper II pharmacodynamic data of chewed or crushed ticagrelor compared to standard ticagrelor loading dose (LD) was assessed in 99 patients with stable angina. Platelet reactivity (PR) was assessed with VerifyNow before, 20 and 60 minutes after LD. High Residual platelet reactivity (HRPR) was defined as > 208 P2Y12 reaction units (PRU). Chewed ticagrelor tablets resulted in significantly lower PRU values compared to crushed or integral tablets at 20 and 60 minutes. Crushed ticagrelor LD resulted in significantly lower PRU values compared to integral tablets at 20 minutes whereas no difference was observed at 60 minutes. At 20 minutes, no patients had HRPR with chewed ticagrelor compared to 68% with integral and 30% with crushed ticagrelor LD (p<0.01).In Paper III we presented a pre-specified gender analysis of the ATLANTIC trial including 1 862 STEMI patients that were randomly assigned to pre-hospital versus in-hospital administration of 180mg ticagrelor. Women were older and had higher TIMI risk score. Women had a 3-fold higher risk for all-cause mortality compared to men (5.7% vs 1.9%, HR 3.13, 95% CI 1.78 – 5.51). However, after adjustment for baseline characteristics, the difference was lesser and no longer significant (HR 1.98, 95% CI 0.97 – 4.04). Female gender was not an independent predictor of risk for bleeding after multivariable adjustments (BARC type 3-5 HR 1.52, 95% CI 0.74-3.09). There was no interaction between gender and efficacy or safety of randomised treatment.In Paper IV, forty patients with PCI- treated STEMI were included between November 2011 and February 2013. We validated the performance of the Cockcroft-Gault (CG), the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD-IDMS), the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) and the Grubb relative cystatin C (rGCystC) equations for estimation of GFR against measured GFR (mGFR) during the index hospitalisation for STEMI.MDRD-IDMS and CKD-EPI demonstrated a good performance to estimate GFR with accuracy within 30% (P30) 82.5% vs 82.5%, respectively. CKD was best classified by CKD-EPI (Kappa 0.83). CG showed the worst performance with the lowest P30. The rG-CystC equation had a marked bias of -17.8% and significantly underestimated mGFR (p=0.03).Conclusions – In STEMI patients treated with primary PCI, bivalirudin should be preferred in patient at high risk for bleeding. With crushed or chewed ticagrelor tablets a more rapid platelet inhibition may be achieved, compared with standard integral tablets. In STEMI patients, fast and potent platelet inhibition with chewed ticagrelor may reduce the risk of early stent thrombosis and patients treated with a less aggressive antithrombotic strategy, such as UFH or bivalirudin monotherapy, may derive a greater benefit. Although gender differences in adverse outcomes could mainly be explained by older age and clustering of comorbidities in women, a bleedreduction strategy in women with high risk characteristics is warranted in order to improve their outcome. Regardless the choice of antithrombotic strategy, dose adjustment of drugs cleared by kidneys based on GFR estimation is of crucial importance. MDRD and CKD-EPI should be the formulas used for estimation of GFR in STEMI patients
3.
  • Slind Olsen, Renate (författare)
  • Circulating and genetic factors in colorectal cancer Potential factors for establishing prognosis?
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Kolorektal cancer är en tumör i kolon eller rektum. I Sverige diagnosticerades år 2014 ca6300 individer med denna cancertyp och ca 2550 personer dör årligen till följd av kolorektalcancer. Operation är det huvudsakliga behandlingsalternativet för kolorektal cancer och vidfjärrmetastaser är överlevnaden < 10 %. Det är därför viktigt att hitta markörer somtillsammans med TNM-stadium kan ge tidig information om sjukdomens prognos och lämpliguppföljning av patienter.Utveckling av kolorektal cancer sker genom ackumulering av genetiska mutationer ochepigenetisk nedreglering av tumörsuppressorgener. Därutöver spelar interaktionen mellantumören och dess närmaste omgivning, innehållande tillväxt- och inflammatoriska faktorer,en viktig roll i tumörens utveckling och metastasering.Syftet med avhandlingen var att studera associationen mellan CD93, PLA2G4C, PDGF-D samtinflammatoriska cytokiner och kolorektal cancer progression.En prospektiv studie visade att CD93 och PLA2G4C SNP var potentiellt viktiga förbedömningav kolorektal cancer prognos. T/T genotypen av SNP rs2749817 i CD93 var associerad medhögre uttryck av CD93 i kolorektal cancer vävnad, främst bland patienter i stadium IV.Därutöver observerades fler återfall efter operation hos patienter med T/T genotypen. Aallelen hos PLA2G4C SNP rs1549637 är en möjligtvis bättre markör för cancerspecifiköverlevnad vid stadium II än faktorer som idag används för att selektera patienter tilladjuvant behandling. Sammantaget antyder detta att T/T genotypen av CD93 och A allelenav PLA2G4C kan vara genetiska markörer relaterade till allvarlig tumörsjukdom ochspridning. Därutöver kan de eventuellt selektera patienter som kräver tätare uppföljning ochadjuvant behandling.För att studera den förmodade inblandningen av PDGF-D i kolorektal cancer undersöktesdess effekt på PDGF-D signalering in vitro. PDGF-D signaleringen förändradegenexpressionen av gener involverade i tumörutveckling och spridning, vilken kundeblockeras av tyrosinkinashämmaren imatinib. Det antyder att PDGF-D signalering kan vara enviktig faktor vid kolorektal cancer progression och ett potentiellt mål för behandling. Analysen av ett flertal inflammatoriska cytokiner visade en korrelation mellan högacytokinnivåer och ökad cancerspecifik och total dödlighet två år efter operation. Höga CCL1och CCL24 nivåer var de enda faktorerna som förblev signifikant associerade medcancerspecifik mortalitet vid fördjupad statistisk analys och bör studeras vidare.Sammanfattningsvis presenterar denna avhandling cirkulerande och genetiska faktorersåsom CD93, PLA2G4C, PDGF-D, CCL1 and CCL24 som eventuellt är viktiga vid bedömning avkolorektal cancer progression tillsammans med TNM stadium.
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5.
  • Aljabery, Firas (författare)
  • Staging and tumor biological mechanisms of lymph node metastasis in invasive urinary bladder cancer
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aim: To study the possibility of detecting lymph node metastasis in locally advanced urinary bladder cancer (UBC) treated with radical cystectomy (RC) by using preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and peroperative sentinel node biopsy (SNB) technique. We also investigate the clinical significance of macrophage traits expression by cancer cells, M2-macrophage infiltration (MI) in tumor stroma and the immunohistochemical expression of biomarkers in cancer cells in relation to clinicopathologic data.Patients and Methods: We studied prospectively 122 patients with UBC, pathological stage pT1–pT4 treated with RC and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) during 2005–2011 at the Department of Urology, Linköping University Hospital. In the first study, we compared the results of preoperative PET/CT and conventional CT with the findings of postoperative histopathological evaluation of lymph nodes (LNs). In the second study we investigated the value of SNB technique for detecting pathological LNs during RC in patients with UBC. W also examined the significance of the primary tumor location in the bladder in predicting the site of LN metastases, and the prognostic significance of lympho-vascular invasion (LVI) and lymph node metastasis density (LNMD) on survival. In the third study, we investigate the clinical significance of macrophage infiltration (MI) in tumor stroma and macrophage-traits expression by tumor cells. In the fourth study, we investigate the cell cycle suppression proteins p53, p21, pRb, p16, p14 ARF as well as tumors proliferative protein Ki67 and DNA repair protein ERCC1 expression in cancer cells. The results were compared with clinical and pathological characteristics and outcome.Results: Prior to RC, PET/CT was used to detect LN metastasis in 54 patients. PET/CT had 41% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 58% PPV, and 76% NPV, whereas the corresponding figures for conventional CT were 41%, 89%, 64%, and 77%. SNB was performed during RC in 103 patients. A median number of 29 (range 7–68) nodes per patient were examined. SNs were detected in 83 out of 103 patients (81%). The sensitivity and specificity for detecting metastatic disease by SNB varied among LN stations, with average values of 67% -90%. LNMD or ≥8% and LVI were significantly related to shorter survival. In 103 patients, MI was high in 33% of cases, while moderate and low infiltration occurred in 42% and 25% of tumors respectively. Patients with tumors containing high and moderate compared to low MI had low rate of LN metastases (P=0.06) and improved survival (P=0.06), although not at significant level. The expression of different tumor suppression proteins was altered in 47-91% of the patients. There were no significant association between cancer specific survival (CSS) and any of the studied biomarkers. In case of altered p14ARF, ERCC1 or p21, CSS was low in case of low p53 immunostaining but increased in case of p53 accumulation, although not at a significant level, indicating a possible protective effect of p53 accumulation in these cases.Conclusion: PET/ CT provided no improvement over conventional CT in detection and localization of regional LN metastases in bladder cancer. It is possible to detect the SN but the technique is not a reliable for perioperative localization of LN metastases; however, LVI and LNMD at a cut-off level of 8% had significant prognostic values. MI in the tumor microenvironment but not CD163 expression in tumor cells seems to be synergistic with the immune response against urinary bladder cancer. Our results further indicate that altered p53 might have protective effect on survival in case of altered p14ARF, p21, or ERCC1 indicating an interaction between these biomarkers.
6.
  • Klaff, Rami, 1971- (författare)
  • Disease-Specific Survival in Prostate Cancer Patients Results from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group (SPCG) Trial No. 5 and Regional Cancer Register Data
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • IntroductionProstate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer among men in Sweden. The clinical course varies considerably, which makes it difficult to predict the prognosis in the individual case. In order to explore the early as well as the late course of the disease, large study groups and population-based cohorts are necessary.AimsTo explore factors that influence the long-term outcome of men with low-risk tumours in a population-based register, to predict the long-term course, and to assess the mortality rate for men with prostate cancer (Paper I)To analyse long-term outcome and to investigate factors associated with long-term survival in patients with metastases to the skeleton (Paper II)To analyse early androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) failure and to define clinical predictors associated with short survival due to early ADT failure in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases (Paper III)To analyse the prognostic significance of the extent of bone metastases in relation to other pretreatment variables in prostate cancer patients, and to explore the impact of bone metastases on quality-of-life (Paper IV)Material and methodsThe study groups were assembled from The South East Region Prostate Cancer Register (SERPCR), and The Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group (SPCG) Trial No. 5. In the first study, prognostic factors and long-term disease-specific mortality rates of low-risk prostate cancer patients from the early PSA era were analysed. In the second study, patient-related factors, quality-of-life (QoL) and long-term survival in 915 PCa patients with bone metastases (M1b) under ADT, were analysed. In Study III factors predicting primary failure to respond to ADT were identified. Study IV explored the impact of the extent of bone metastases on survival and QoL for these men.Result and conclusionsThe long-term disease-specific mortality of low-risk localised PCa is low, but the annual mortality rate gradually increases. This indicates that some tumours slowly develop into lethal cancer, particularly in men 70 years or older and with a PSA level ≥ 4 μg/L. From the SPCG Trial No. 5, a subgroup of patients with M1b disease and favourable set of predictive factors survived more than 10 years under ADT with an acceptable QoL. Independent predictors of long-term survival were identified as performance status (PS) < 2, limited extent of bone metastases, and a PSA level < 231 μg/L at the time of enrolment in the trial. However, four independent clinical predictors of early ADT failure could be defined. Men exhibiting these features should be considered for an alternative treatment. Patient grouping based on three categories of extent of bone metastases related to PS, haemoglobin, and QoL at presentation, as independent predictors of mortality, may provide improved accuracy of prognosis.
7.
  • Loftås, Per, 1964- (författare)
  • Response to neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer surgery
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Rectal cancer is one of the three most common malignancies in Sweden with an annual incidence of about 2000 cases. Current treatment consists of surgical resection of the rectum including the loco-regional lymph nodes in the mesorectum. In advanced cases, neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) prior to the operative treatment reduces local recurrences and enables surgery. The neoadjuvant treatment can also eradicate the tumour completely, i.e. complete response. This research project was designed to investigate the effects of preoperative radiotherapy/ CRT and analyze methods to predict response to CRT.Study I investigated the expression of the FXYD-3 protein with immunohistochemistry in rectal cancer, with or without preoperative radiotherapy. The results from the total cohort showed that, strong FXYD-3 expression was correlated to infiltrative tumour growth (p = 0.02). In the radiotherapy group, strong FXYD-3 expression was related to an unfavourable prognosis (p = 0.02). Tumours with strong FXYD-3 expression had less tumour necrosis (p = 0.02) after radiotherapy. FXYD-3 expression in the primary tumour was increased compared to normal mucosa (p=0.008). We concluded that FXYD-3 expression was a prognostic factor in patients receiving preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer.Study II investigated FXYD-3 expression in tumours that developed local recurrences following surgery and compared this with expression in tumours that did not develop local recurrences. There was no difference in the expression of FXYD-3 between the group that developed local recurrences and the group that did not develop local recurrences. There was no difference in survival between those with strong or weak FXYD-3 expression. We concluded that this study could not confirm the findings from study 1 i.e. that FXYD-3 expression has prognostic significance in rectal cancer.Study III was a register-based study on the incidence and effects of complete response to neoadjuvant treatment. Eight per cent of the patients with adequate CRT to achieve complete response also had a complete histological response of the luminal tumor in the resected bowel. Sixteen per cent of that group had remaining lymph node metastases in the operative specimen. Chemotherapy together with radiotherapy doubled the chance of complete response in the luminal tumour. Patients with remaining lymph node metastases had a lower survival rate compared to those without. We concluded that residual nodal involvement after neoadjuvant treatment was an important factor for reduced survival after complete response in the luminal tumour.Study IV followed up the results from the previous study by re-evaluating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- images in patients with complete tumour response. Two experienced MRI radiologists performed blinded re-staging of post CRT MR- images from patients with complete response in the luminal tumour. One group with lymph node metastases and another one without were studied and the results compared with the pathology reports. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predicted values for correct staging of positive lymph nodes was 37%, 84%, 70% and 57%. The size of the largest lymph node (4.5 mm, p=0.04) seemed to indicate presence of a tumour positive lymph node. We concluded that MRI couldn’t correctly stage patients for lymph node metastases in patients with complete response to CRT in the luminal tumour.
8.
  • Huvila, J., et al. (författare)
  • Combined ASRGL1 and p53 immunohistochemistry as an independent predictor of survival in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Gynecologic Oncology. - Academic Press Inc.. - 0090-8258. ; 149:1, s. 173-180
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: In clinical practise, prognostication of endometrial cancer is based on clinicopathological risk factors. The use of immunohistochemistry-based markers as prognostic tools is generally not recommended and a systematic analysis of their utility as a panel is lacking. We evaluated whether an immunohistochemical marker panel could reliably assess endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) outcome independent of clinicopathological information. Methods: A cohort of 306 EEC specimens was profiled using tissue microarray (TMA). Cost- and time-efficient immunohistochemical analysis of well-established tissue biomarkers (ER, PR, HER2, Ki-67, MLH1 and p53) and two new biomarkers (L1CAM and ASRGL1) was carried out. Statistical modelling with embedded variable selection was applied on the staining results to identify minimal prognostic panels with maximal prognostic accuracy without compromising generalizability. Results: A panel including p53 and ASRGL1 immunohistochemistry was identified as the most accurate predictor of relapse-free and disease-specific survival. Within this panel, patients were allocated into high- (5.9%), intermediate- (29.5%) and low- (64.6%) risk groups where high-risk patients had a 30-fold risk (P < 0.001) of dying of EEC compared to the low-risk group. Conclusions: P53 and ASRGL1 immunoprofiling stratifies EEC patients into three risk groups with significantly different outcomes. This simple and easily applicable panel could provide a useful tool in EEC risk stratification and guiding the allocation of treatment modalities. 
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10.
  • Aydogdu, Özgu, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Urinary tract infection: Europe.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Guide to Pediatric Urology and Surgery in Clinical Practice. - 978-1-84996-366-4 ; s. 21-34
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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