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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinsk bioteknologi) "

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinsk bioteknologi)

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  • Orru, Anna Maria, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • AHA! festival 2015
  • 2015
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The AHA festival investigates the borders between art and science in a three-day event at the Chalmers University of Technology hosted by the Department of Architecture. An international festival intended to provide enlightening experiences, staging surprises, new thoughts and displaced perspectives that lead to alternative modes of thinking about the space between art and science. We invite scientists (physicists, historians, mathematicians, medical students), artists (dancers, musicians, painters, poets, chefs) and not least architects, who reside in these borderlands and wish to share their vision and work. The key intention is to celebrate both art and science as key knowledge building devices.
  • Jing, Yujia, 1985- (författare)
  • Hyperthermia-responsive liposomal systems
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Abstract Sophisticated liposomal systems are emerging at an increasing rate to meet the demands for multifunctional drug carriers in chemotherapies in combined with hyperthermia. For example, liposomal drug carriers for temperature-controlled drug release under hyperthermic conditions have recently been tested in clinical trials. More advanced designs of liposomes are expected to release encapsulated contents and activate hidden surface-functions in response to heat stimulus. Towards this aim, the present thesis is focused on formulating asymmetric lipid systems that can preserve functional moieties, and reactivate the targeted function as well as release the encapsulated compounds upon local heating. The design of the asymmetric liposomal systems utilizes the heat-activated transmembrane lipid diffusion during gel to liquid-crystalline phase transitions of the lipid membranes.Rational design of advanced liposomal drug-delivery systems will require understanding of the physicochemical properties of lipid membranes under, e.g., hyperthermic conditions. Here, supported lipid membranes on planar solid surfaces were used for model studies of lipid composition yielding a gel to liquid crystalline phase-transition temperature in the range 40 – 45 °C. It was found that the liposome-to-membrane formation process is not only size-dependent but also governed by temperature. Two methods of preparing supported asymmetric lipid membranes were investigated. As a proof-of-concept, the upper leaflets were either replaced or chemically transformed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The processes were monitored using surface sensitive techniques such as quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and dual polarization interferometry (DPI). The asymmetric structures were stable at a room temperature, while lipid flip-flop was induced upon increasing of the temperature. Transmembrane lipid exchange in the asymmetric structure under hyperthermic conditions was demonstrated by detecting, through streptavidin binding, biotinylated lipids appearing at the top leaflet which were first located in the lower leaflet. The protocols developed for the supported lipid systems were adapted for the preparation of asymmetric liposomes. Biotinylated asymmetric liposomes were used as a model system to demonstrate the principle of heat-activated targeting of asymmetric liposomes to streptavidin-coated surfaces. More biologically relevant interaction was utilized to replace the biotin-streptavidin function, where asymmetric cationic liposomes were binding to anionic supported membrane immobilized surfaces upon heating. The described strategies for assembly of asymmetric supported membranes provide a guide to the development of multifunctional drug carriers. The protocols used in experiments with supported membranes were readily adapted to the preparation of asymmetric liposomes. The ongoing study tests the asymmetric liposomes in vitro, which is designed to demonstrate hyperthermia treatment can enhance accumulation of liposomes in FaDu cells, and at the same time activate release of the encapsulated components. The results of in vitro tests can be used to analyze the feasibility of utilizing the asymmetric liposomes as a platform in vivo to explore further improvement in their functions upon microwave hyperthermia.
  • Enroth, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Long-Term Storage Time and Original Sampling Month on Biobank Plasma Protein Concentrations
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: EBioMedicine. - 2352-3964. ; 12, s. 309-314
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The quality of clinical biobank samples is crucial to their value for life sciences research. A number of factors related to the collection and storage of samples may affect the biomolecular composition. We have studied the effect of long-time freezer storage, chronological age at sampling, season and month of the year and on the abundance levels of 108 proteins in 380 plasma samples collected from 106 Swedish women. Storage time affected 18 proteins and explained 4.8–34.9% of the observed variance. Chronological age at sample collection after adjustment for storage-time affected 70 proteins and explained 1.1–33.5% of the variance. Seasonal variation had an effect on 15 proteins and month (number of sun hours) affected 36 proteins and explained up to 4.5% of the variance after adjustment for storage-time and age. The results show that freezer storage time and collection date (month and season) exerted similar effect sizes as age on the protein abundance levels. This implies that information on the sample handling history, in particular storage time, should be regarded as equally prominent covariates as age or gender and need to be included in epidemiological studies involving protein levels.</p>
  • Matar, Amal (författare)
  • Considering a Baby? Responsible Screening for the Future Ethical and social implications for implementation and use of preconception expanded carrier screening in Sweden
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Preconception expanded carrier screening is a novel technology that involves the offer of a screening test for many recessive diseases (via an expanded screening panel) to prospective parents, with no priori risk. Test positive couples have a number of reproductive choices; prenatal diagnosis and aborting affected fetus, IVF and preimplantation genetic diagnosis, sperm or ovum donation or simply accept the risk. The test had been piloted in studies and can potentially be implemented in Europe. Therefore, it seemed pertinent to evaluate stakeholders’ perspectives on ethical and social implications of implementing and using preconception ECS in Sweden.</p><p>Two main stakeholders were examined; healthcare professionals and health policymaking experts, via a mix of qualitative methods for data collection and data analysis. In Study I, we employed in-depth interviews to collect data and content analysis to analyze it. In Studies III and IV, expert interviews were used to gather data while thematic analysis was utilized to interpret it. Furthermore, in Study II, an ethical concept namely; reproductive autonomy, was critically discussed within a setting that expects a couple to make a conjoint reproductive decision about preconception ECS, while each partner still upholds his or her individual autonomy.</p><p>The main findings of the empirical studies (Studies I, III and IV) echo to a great extent the prevailing ethical and social debates associated with the novel technology. Respondents expressed concerns with reproductive autonomy, medicalization, prioritization of health resources, discrimination and long term societal changes. Furthermore, respondents emphasized the importance to observe Swedish values, such as human dignity, equality and solidarity, when assessing a preconception ECS program. In addition, they described practicalities of implementation and political considerations that are pertinent to the Swedish context. Finally, some respondents recognized the advantages of reduced suffering and decrease in fetal anomalies and abortion as a consequence of preconception ECS.</p><p>Study II, proposed a notion of couple autonomy, where certain demands if met, a couple’s reproductive decision can be accepted by healthcare staff as autonomous.</p><p>The findings, in this thesis, steer towards non implementation of preconception ECS in its current status within the publicly-funded healthcare system in Sweden. This is because healthcare providers and experts were of the opinion that it would not solve a medical need, threaten Swedish values and use up resources extensively.</p>
  • Bondesson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Definition of Tubular Anatomic Structures from Arbitrary Stereo Lithographic Surface
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Engineering Health, Nov. 8, 2017, Chalmers.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An accurate description of anatomies and dynamics of vessels is crucial to understand their characteristics and improve surgical techniques, thus it is the basis, in addition to surgeon experience, on which stent design and operation procedures rely. The process of producing this description is user intensive, and recent improvement in image processing of medical3D imaging allows for a more automated workflow. However, there is a need to bridge the gap from a processed geometry to a robust mathematical computational grid.By sequentially segmenting a tubular anatomic structure, here defined by a stereo lithographic (STL) surface, an initial centerline is formed by connecting centroids of orthogonal cross-sectional contours along the length of the structure. Relying on the initial centerline, a set of non-overlapping 2D cross sectional contours are defined along the centerline, a centerline which is updated after the 2D contours are produced. After a second iteration of producing 2D contours and updating the centerline, a full description of the structure is created.Our method for describing vessel geometry shows good coherence to existing method. The main advantages of our method include the possibility of having arbitrary triangulated STL surface input, automated centerline definition, safety against intersecting cross-sectional contours and automatic clean-up of local kinks and wrinkles.
  • Munthe, Christian, 1962- (författare)
  • Will IVF ever be the norm?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Future of IVF - A Brave New World? ESHRE symposium, September 26-27, Stockholm.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Rasmusson, Lars, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Autogena stamceller för benrekonstruktion av defekter i käkarna
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Tandläkartidningen. - 0039-6982. ; 109:11, s. 104-108
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fallbeskrivning av 2 patienter som efter misslyckad rekonstruktion av underkäken med autologa bentransplantat rekonstruerades med ben utvunnet ur stamceller från patientens egen fettvävnad. Differentiering och cellvitalitet kunde bekräftas före re-implantation. Moget ben kunde konstateras kliniskt, histologiskt och radiologiskt efter 1 år.
  • Mladenović, Živko, et al. (författare)
  • Soluble silica inhibits osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Acta Biomaterialia. - Elsevier. - 1742-7061 .- 1878-7568. ; 10:1, s. 406-418
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Several studies have suggested that silicon (Si) may be essential for normal development of connective tissue and the skeleton. Positive effects of Si from the diet as well as from Si-containing biomaterials, such as Bioactive glass 45S5 (BG), have been demonstrated. Studies have reported that Si stimulates osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. However, effects of Si on osteoclasts have not been directly addressed earlier. The purpose of the present in vitro study was to clarify if Si has regulatory effects on osteoclasts formation and bone resorption. Effects of BG, BG dissolution extracts and Si containing cell culture medium were investigated in a mouse calvarial bone resorption assay and osteoclast formation assays (mouse bone marrow cultures and RAW264.7 cell cultures). We conclude from our results that Si causes significant inhibition of osteoclast phenotypic gene expressions, osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. In conclusion, the present study suggests that Si has a dual nature in bone metabolism with stimulatory effects on osteoblasts and inhibitory effects on osteoclasts. This suggested property of Si might be interesting to further explore in future biomaterials for treatments of bone defects in patients.</p>
  • Petzold, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Towards an Ambient Assisted Living User Interaction Taxonomy
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: CHI '13 Extended Abstracts of the ACM International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. - New York : ACM Press. - 978-1-4503-1899-0 ; s. 49-54
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Extensive research in the field of ambient assisted living (AAL) provides profound knowledge about the design of AAL systems. However, more generic design characteristics for user interaction have not been formalized for this domain yet. Thus, we propose to develop a domain specific taxonomy for the design of user interaction in AAL systems. We adopted a systematic taxonomy development approach that combines an empirical and a pseudo-conceptual strategy. Six co-researchers from different disciplines conduct the iterative research process. Next to AAL systems existing taxonomies in the field of human-computer interaction are analyzed following the Delphi method. In this paper we present our research process and preliminary results from the first iteration. The final taxonomy allows classification and should support the analysis of user interaction utilized in AAL systems. Furthermore, it can deal as a practical design guideline.</p>
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