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Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinsk bioteknologi) hsv:(Medicinsk bioteknologi med inriktning mot cellbiologi inklusive stamcellsbiologi molekylärbiologi mikrobiologi biokemi eller biofarmaci)

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  • Orru, Anna Maria, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • AHA! festival 2015
  • 2015
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The AHA festival investigates the borders between art and science in a three-day event at the Chalmers University of Technology hosted by the Department of Architecture. An international festival intended to provide enlightening experiences, staging surprises, new thoughts and displaced perspectives that lead to alternative modes of thinking about the space between art and science. We invite scientists (physicists, historians, mathematicians, medical students), artists (dancers, musicians, painters, poets, chefs) and not least architects, who reside in these borderlands and wish to share their vision and work. The key intention is to celebrate both art and science as key knowledge building devices.
  • Jing, Yujia, 1985- (författare)
  • Hyperthermia-responsive liposomal systems
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Abstract Sophisticated liposomal systems are emerging at an increasing rate to meet the demands for multifunctional drug carriers in chemotherapies in combined with hyperthermia. For example, liposomal drug carriers for temperature-controlled drug release under hyperthermic conditions have recently been tested in clinical trials. More advanced designs of liposomes are expected to release encapsulated contents and activate hidden surface-functions in response to heat stimulus. Towards this aim, the present thesis is focused on formulating asymmetric lipid systems that can preserve functional moieties, and reactivate the targeted function as well as release the encapsulated compounds upon local heating. The design of the asymmetric liposomal systems utilizes the heat-activated transmembrane lipid diffusion during gel to liquid-crystalline phase transitions of the lipid membranes.Rational design of advanced liposomal drug-delivery systems will require understanding of the physicochemical properties of lipid membranes under, e.g., hyperthermic conditions. Here, supported lipid membranes on planar solid surfaces were used for model studies of lipid composition yielding a gel to liquid crystalline phase-transition temperature in the range 40 – 45 °C. It was found that the liposome-to-membrane formation process is not only size-dependent but also governed by temperature. Two methods of preparing supported asymmetric lipid membranes were investigated. As a proof-of-concept, the upper leaflets were either replaced or chemically transformed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The processes were monitored using surface sensitive techniques such as quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and dual polarization interferometry (DPI). The asymmetric structures were stable at a room temperature, while lipid flip-flop was induced upon increasing of the temperature. Transmembrane lipid exchange in the asymmetric structure under hyperthermic conditions was demonstrated by detecting, through streptavidin binding, biotinylated lipids appearing at the top leaflet which were first located in the lower leaflet. The protocols developed for the supported lipid systems were adapted for the preparation of asymmetric liposomes. Biotinylated asymmetric liposomes were used as a model system to demonstrate the principle of heat-activated targeting of asymmetric liposomes to streptavidin-coated surfaces. More biologically relevant interaction was utilized to replace the biotin-streptavidin function, where asymmetric cationic liposomes were binding to anionic supported membrane immobilized surfaces upon heating. The described strategies for assembly of asymmetric supported membranes provide a guide to the development of multifunctional drug carriers. The protocols used in experiments with supported membranes were readily adapted to the preparation of asymmetric liposomes. The ongoing study tests the asymmetric liposomes in vitro, which is designed to demonstrate hyperthermia treatment can enhance accumulation of liposomes in FaDu cells, and at the same time activate release of the encapsulated components. The results of in vitro tests can be used to analyze the feasibility of utilizing the asymmetric liposomes as a platform in vivo to explore further improvement in their functions upon microwave hyperthermia.
  • Munthe, Christian, 1962- (författare)
  • Will IVF ever be the norm?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Future of IVF - A Brave New World? ESHRE symposium, September 26-27, Stockholm.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Campbell, Kate, 1987-, et al. (författare)
  • Self-Establishing Communities: A Yeast Model to Study the Physiological Impact of Metabolic Cooperation in Eukaryotic Cells
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). ; 2049, s. 263-282
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • All biosynthetically active cells are able to export and import metabolites, the small molecule intermediaries of metabolism. In dense cell populations, this hallmark of cells results in the intercellular exchange of a wide spectrum of metabolites. Such metabolite exchange enables metabolic specialization of individual cells, leading to far reaching biological implications, as a consequence of the intrinsic connection between metabolism and cell physiology. In this chapter, we discuss methods on how to study metabolite exchange interactions by using self-establishing metabolically cooperating communities (SeMeCos) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SeMeCos exploit the stochastic segregation of episomes to progressively increase the number of essential metabolic interdependencies in a community that grows out from an initially prototrophic cell. By coupling genotype to metabotype, SeMeCos allow for the tracking of cells while they specialize metabolically and hence the opportunity to study their progressive change in physiology.
  • Khorshidi, Mohammad Ali, 1981- (författare)
  • Live Single Cell Imaging and Analysis Using Microfluidic Devices
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Today many cell biological techniques study large cell populations where an average estimate of individual cells’ behavior is observed. On the other hand, single cell analysis is required for studying functional heterogeneities between cells within populations. This thesis presents work that combines the use of microfluidic devices, optical microscopy and automated image analysis to design various cell biological assays with single cell resolution including cell proliferation, clonal expansion, cell migration, cell-cell interaction and cell viability tracking. In fact, automated high throughput single cell techniques enable new studies in cell biology which are not possible with conventional techniques.In order to automatically track dynamic behavior of single cells, we developed a microwell based device as well as a droplet microfluidic platform. These high throughput microfluidic assays allow automated time-lapse imaging of encapsulated single cells in micro droplets or confined cells inside microwells. Algorithms for automatic quantification of cells in individual microwells and micro droplets are developed and used for the analysis of cell viability and clonal expansion. The automatic counting protocols include several image analysis steps, e.g. segmentation, feature extraction and classification. The automatic quantification results were evaluated by comparing with manual counting and revealed a high success rate. In combination these automatic cell counting protocols and our microfluidic platforms can provide statistical information to better understand behavior of cells at the individual level under various conditions or treatments in vitro exemplified by the analysis of function and regulation of immune cells. Thus, together these tools can be used for developing new cellular imaging assays with resolution at the single cell level.To automatically characterize transient migration behavior of natural killer (NK) cells compartmentalized in microwells, we developed a method for single cell tracking. Time-lapse imaging showed that the NK cells often exhibited periods of high motility, interrupted with periods of slow migration or complete arrest. These transient migration arrest periods (TMAPs) often overlapped with periods of conjugations between NK cells and target cells. Such conjugation periods sometimes led to cell-mediated killing of target cells. Analysis of cytotoxic response of NK cells revealed that a small sub-class of NK cells called serial killers was able to kill several target cells. In order to determine a starting time point for cell-cell interaction, a novel technique based on ultrasound was developed to aggregate NK and target cells into the center of the microwells. Therefore, these assays can be used to automatically and rapidly assess functional and migration behavior of cells to detect differences between health and disease or the influence of drugs.The work presented in this thesis gives good examples of how microfluidic devices combined with automated imaging and image analysis can be helpful to address cell biological questions where single cell resolution is necessary. 
  • Borzacchiello, A, et al. (författare)
  • Rheological characterization of vocal folds after injection augmentation in a preliminary animal study
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of bioactive and compatible polymers (Print). - London : Sage Publications. - 0883-9115. ; 19:4, s. 331-341
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The investigation of vocal folds viscoelastic properties in an animal model (rabbit) after injection of various augmentation substances, 6 months after injection, is reported. The injected materials were: hyaluronan-based materials (Hylan B gel and Deflux(R)), cross-linked collagen (Zyplast(R)) and polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon(R)). Rheological properties of the augmentation substances were also evaluated. The results from these animal experiments indicate that the viscoelastic properties of the vocal folds injected with Deflux(R), Zyplast(R) and Hylan B gel are similar to the healthy vocal folds (non-injected samples) used as control, thus demonstrating that these materials are good candidates for further studies aimed at restoring/preserving the vibratory capacity of the vocal folds with injection treatment in glottal insufficiency.
  • Cepeda, D., et al. (författare)
  • CDK-mediated activation of the SCFFBXO28 ubiquitin ligase promotes MYC-driven transcription and tumourigenesis and predicts poor survival in breast cancer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: EMBO Molecular Medicine. - Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1757-4684. ; 5:7, s. 1067-1086
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • SCF (Skp1/Cul1/F-box) ubiquitin ligases act as master regulators of cellular homeostasis by targeting key proteins for ubiquitylation. Here, we identified a hitherto uncharacterized F-box protein, FBXO28 that controls MYC-dependent transcription by non-proteolytic ubiquitylation. SCFFBXO28 activity and stability are regulated during the cell cycle by CDK1/2-mediated phosphorylation of FBXO28, which is required for its efficient ubiquitylation of MYC and downsteam enhancement of the MYC pathway. Depletion of FBXO28 or overexpression of an F-box mutant unable to support MYC ubiquitylation results in an impairment of MYC-driven transcription, transformation and tumourigenesis. Finally, in human breast cancer, high FBXO28 expression and phosphorylation are strong and independent predictors of poor outcome. In conclusion, our data suggest that SCFFBXO28 plays an important role in transmitting CDK activity to MYC function during the cell cycle, emphasizing the CDK-FBXO28-MYC axis as a potential molecular drug target in MYC-driven cancers, including breast cancer.
  • Darmanis, Spyros, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of Candidate Serum Proteins for Classifying Well-Differentiated Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 8:11, s. e81712
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundPatients with well-differentiated small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (WD-SI-NET) are most often diagnosed at a metastatic stage of disease, which reduces possibilities for a curative treatment. Thus new approaches for earlier detection and improved monitoring of the disease are required.Materials and methodsSuspension bead arrays targeting 124 unique proteins with antibodies from the Human Protein Atlas were used to profile biotinylated serum samples. Discoveries from a cohort of 77 individuals were followed up in a cohort of 132 individuals both including healthy controls as well as patients with untreated primary WD-SI-NETs, lymph node metastases and liver metastases.Results A set of 20 antibodies suggested promising proteins for further verification based on technically verified statistical significance. Proceeding, we assessed the classification performance in an independent cohort of patient serum, achieving, classification accuracy of up to 85% with different subsets of antibodies in respective pairwise group comparisons. The protein profiles of nine targets, namely IGFBP2, IGF1, SHKBP1, ETS1, IL1α, STX2, MAML3, EGR3 and XIAP were verified as significant contributors to tumor classification.ConclusionsWe propose new potential protein biomarker candidates for classifying WD-SI-NET at different stage of disease. Further evaluation of these proteins in larger sample sets and with alternative approaches is needed in order to further improve our understanding of their functional relation to WD-SI-NET and their eventual use in diagnostics.
  • Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso, et al. (författare)
  • In vitro generation of motor neuron precursors from mouse embryonic stem cells using mesoporous nanoparticles
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nanomedicine. - 1743-5889 .- 1748-6963. ; 9:16, s. 2457-2466
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: Stem cell-derived motor neurons (MNs) are utilized to develop replacement strategies for spinal cord disorders. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells into MN precursors involves factors and their repeated administration. We investigated if delivery of factors loaded into mesoporous nanoparticles could be effective for stem cell differentiation in vitro.Materials & methods: We used a mouse embryonic stem cell line expressing green fluorescent protein under the promoter for the MN-specific gene Hb9 to visualize the level of MN differentiation. The differentiation of stem cells was evaluated by expression of MN-specific transcription factors monitored by quantitative real-time PCR reactions and immunocytochemistry.Results: Mesoporous nanoparticles have strong affiliation to the embryoid bodies, penetrate inside the embryoid bodies and come in contact with differentiating cells.Conclusion: Repeated administration of soluble factors into a culture medium can be avoided due to a sustained release effect using mesoporous silica.
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