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  • Abbas, Abdul-Karim, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term potentiation and insult conditioning in hippocampal slices from young rats: a role for protein synthesis under chemical stress?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The 10th Biennial Meeting of the Asia-Pacific Society for Neurochemistry (APSN), October 17-20, 2010, Phuket, Thailand.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We have previously demonstrated that in young rats (12-20-day-old) a sustained long-term potentiation (LTP) can still be induced under conditions of protein synthesis inhibition. It was therefore suggested that sufficient and necessary proteins were already available at the induction time to accomplish LTP maintenance for several hours. Against this background, we have questioned whether hippocampal slices subjected to certain insult conditions might be more sensitive to protein synthesis inhibitors. High K+ concentration has previously been reported to cause an amnesic effect in vivo as well as increasing protein turnover in vitro. We have here employed a K+ insult model under conditions when protein synthesis was inhibited. Recordings were obtained from hippocampal slices for up to 9 h, with or without a cocktail of protein synthesis inhibitors, containing cycloheximide (60 µM) and anisomycin (25 µM). High potassium (50 mM) was transiently applied (5-15 min) shortly after inducing LTP in one of two separate pathways stimulated alternatively. Additionally, an NMDA-receptor antagonist AP5 was supplied after LTP induction to minimize effects related to depolarization-induced glutamate release. Following elimination of all responses for about 30 min, both test and control responses partly recovered. The degree of remaining LTP, defined as test/control ratio, was reduced in both groups of slices (NMDA-independent depotentiation) but was significantly smaller in the drug-treated ones. We are also running an insult model based on oxidative stress, applying hydrogen peroxide (4-5 mM) before or after LTP induction; however, the results are still insufficient for a final conclusion. The potency of cycloheximide, anisomycin or cocktail of the drugs was verified by measurement of incorporation of [3H]-leucine into trichloracetic acid (TCA) precipitable macromolecules. Cycloheximide, anisomycin or cocktail, at concentrations used here caused 95%, 97% and 95% blocking effect, respectively. Our data confirm the idea that sufficient and necessary constitutive proteins are available in the young hippocampus to maintain LTP under conditions of protein synthesis inhibition. They also reveal that LTP in slices subjected to certain insult conditions early after the induction is sensitive to protein synthesis inhibition, probably due to increase in constitutive proteins turnover.
  • Eriksson, Leif A., 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Tetrazole derivatives as cytochrome p450 inhibitors
  • 2019
  • Patent (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • According to the invention there is provided a compound of formula I, wherein R1 and R2 have meanings given in the description, which compounds are useful in the treatment of skin disorders and other diseases.
  • Molinaro, Angela, et al. (författare)
  • Insulin-Driven PI3K-AKT Signaling in the Hepatocyte Is Mediated by Redundant PI3Kα and PI3Kβ Activities and Is Promoted by RAS.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cell Metabolism. - 1550-4131 .- 1932-7420. ; 29:6, s. 1400-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) activity is aberrant in tumors, and PI3K inhibitors are investigated as cancer therapeutics. PI3K signaling mediates insulin action in metabolism, but the role of PI3K isoforms in insulin signaling remains unresolved. Defining the role of PI3K isoforms in insulin signaling is necessary for a mechanistic understanding of insulin action and to develop PI3K inhibitors with optimal therapeutic index. We show that insulin-driven PI3K-AKT signaling depends on redundant PI3Kα and PI3Kβ activities, whereas PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ are largely dispensable. We have also found that RAS activity promotes AKT phosphorylation in insulin-stimulated hepatocytes and that promotion of insulin-driven AKT phosphorylation by RAS depends on PI3Kα. These findings reveal the detailed mechanism by which insulin activates AKT, providing an improved mechanistic understanding of insulin signaling. This improved model for insulin signaling predicts that isoform-selective PI3K inhibitors discriminating between PI3Kα and PI3Kβ should be dosed below their hyperglycemic threshold to achieve isoform selectivity.
  • Liu, Yawei, et al. (författare)
  • Neuron-mediated generation of regulatory T cells from encephalitogenic T cells suppresses EAE.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-170X. ; 12:5, s. 518-525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurons have been neglected as cells with a major immune-regulatory function because they do not express major histocompatibility complex class II. Our data show that neurons are highly immune regulatory, having a crucial role in governing T-cell response and central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. Neurons induce the proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells through B7-CD28 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1–TGF-beta receptor signaling pathways, resulting in amplification of T-cell receptor signaling through phosphorylated ZAP-70, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-9. The interaction between neurons and T cells results in the conversion of encephalitogenic T cells to CD25+TGF-beta1+CTLA-4+FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells that suppress encephalitogenic T cells and inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Suppression is dependent on cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 but not TGF-beta1. Autocrine action of TGF-beta1, however, is important for the proliferative arrest of Treg cells. Blocking the B7 and TGF-beta pathways prevents the CNS-specific generation of Treg cells. These findings show that generation of neuron-dependent Treg cells in the CNS is instrumental in regulating CNS inflammation.
  • Lai, Kuei-Hung (författare)
  • Studies on anti-leukemic terpenoids from medicinal mushrooms and marine sponges with ChemGPS-NP-based targets investigation of lead compounds
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis investigates the anti-leukemic activity of terpenoids isolated from medicinal mushrooms and marine sponges, as well as their possible targets and mechanisms of action.In the first section, we focused on studying the triterpenoidal components of three triterpenoid-enriched medicinal mushrooms Antrodia cinnamomea, Ganoderma lucidum, and Poria cocos, which have been used in folk medicine for centuries and also developed into several contemporary marketed products. We isolated the major and characteristic triterpenoids from these mushrooms, together with six new lanostanoids (II-1–II-6). The anti-leukemic activity of the isolates was evaluated in vitro using MTT proliferative assay and seven of them exhibited potential anti-leukemic effect. The active lead compounds were further subjected to computational analyses utilizing the ChemGPS-NP tool. We established a database for the anti-leukemic relevant chemical space of triterpenoids isolated from these three medicinal mushrooms, which could be used as a reference database for further research on anti-leukemic triterpenoids. Our results indicated that the anti-leukemic effect of the active lead compounds was mediated not only through topoisomerases inhibition but also through inhibiting DNA polymerases.The second and third sections focused on isolation of anti-leukemic sesterterpenoids from sponges. The investigation of Carteriospongia sp. led to the isolation of two new scalarane-type sesterterpenoids (III-1 and III-2) and one known tetraprenyltoluquinol-related metabolite (III-3). All isolates exhibit an apoptotic mechanism of action against Molt 4 cells, found to be mediated through the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and inhibition of topoisomerase IIα expression. Detailed investigation of the apoptotic mechanism of action using molecular docking analysis revealed that compound III-1 might target Hsp90 protein. The apoptotic-inducing effect of III-3 was supported by in vivo experiment by suppressing the volume of xenograft tumor growth (47.58%) compared with the control.In the final section of this thesis we studied manoalide and its derivatives, sesterterpenoids isolated from the sponge Luffariella sp.. Manoalide has been studied as a potential anti-inflammatory agent for the last thirty years with more than 200 publications and 40 patents. However, the configurations at positions 24 and 25 were never revealed. In the current study, ten manoalide-type sesterterpenoids (IV-1–IV-10) were isolated from Luffariella sp. and their stereoisomers at positions 24 and 25 were identified and separated for the first time. The configuration at positions 24 and 25 showed to have a significant effect on the anti-leukemic activity of manoalide derivatives, with the 24R,25S-isomer exhibiting the most potent anti-leukemic activity. The apoptotic mechanism of action of compound IV-7 against Molt 4 cells was investigated, and the compound was found to trigger MMP disruption and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Compound IV-7 also inhibited activity against both human topoisomerases, I and II. The in vivo experiment further supported the anti-leukemic effect of IV-7 with a 66.11% tumor volume suppression compared to the control.
  • Birnir, Bryndis, et al. (författare)
  • The impact of sub-cellular location and intracellular neuronal proteins on properties of GABA(A) receptors
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Current Pharmaceutical Design. - Bentham Science Publishers. - 1381-6128. ; 13:31, s. 3169-3177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most studies of GABA(A) receptor accessory proteins have focused on trafficking, clustering and phosphorylation state of the channel-forming subunits and as a result a number of proteins and mechanisms have been identified that can influence the GABA(A) channel expression and function in the cell plasma membrane. In the light of a growing list of intracellular and transmembrane neuronal proteins shown to affect the fate, function and pharmacology of the GABA(A) receptors in neurons, the concept of what constitutes the native GABA(A) receptor complex may need to be re-examined. It is perhaps more appropriate to consider the associated proteins or some of them to be parts of the receptor channel complex in the capacity of ancillary proteins. Here we highlight some of the effects the intracellular environment has on the GABA-activated channel function and pharmacology. The studies demonstrate the need for co-expression of accessory proteins with the GABA(A) channel-forming subunits in heterologous expression systems in order to obtain the full repertoire of GABA(A) receptors characteristics recorded in the native neuronal environment. Further studies e.g. on gene-modified animal models are needed for most of the accessory proteins to establish their significance in normal physiology and in pathophysiology of neurological and psychiatric diseases. The challenge remains to elucidate the effects that the accessory proteins and processes (e.g. phosphorylation) plus the sub-cellular location have on the "fine-tuning" of the functional and pharmacological properties of the GABA(A) receptor channels.
  • Curmi, J P, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of membrane potential on chloride channels activated by GABA in rat cultured hippocampal neurons
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Journal of Membrane Biology. - Springer. - 0022-2631. ; 136:3, s. 273-280
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chloride currents were activated by a low concentration of GABA (0.5 microM) in neonatal rat hippocampal neurons cultured for up to 14 days. Currents elicited by 0.5 microM GABA in neurons, voltage-clamped using the whole-cell technique with pipettes containing 149 mM Cl-, reversed close to 0 mV whether pipettes contained 144 mM Na+ or 140 mM Cs+, and were blocked by 100 microM bicuculline. Current-voltage curves showed outward rectification. Single channel currents appeared in cell-attached patches when the pipette tip was perfused with pipette solution containing 0.5 microM GABA and disappeared when a solution containing 100 microM bicuculline plus 0.5 microM GABA was injected into the pipette tip. The channels showed outward rectification and, in some patches, had a much lower probability of opening at hyperpolarized potentials. The average chord conductance in 10 patches hyperpolarized by 80 mV was 7.8 +/- 1.6 pS (SEM) compared with a chord conductance of 34.1 +/- 3.5 pS (SEM) in the same patches depolarized by 80 mV. Similar single channel currents were also activated in cell-free, inside-out patches in symmetrical chloride solutions when 0.5 microM GABA was injected into the pipette tip. The channels showed outward rectification similar to that seen in cell-attached patches, and some channels had a lower probability of opening at hyperpolarized potentials. The average chord conductance in 13 patches hyperpolarized by 80 mV was 11.8 +/- 2.3 pS (SEM) compared with 42.1 +/- 3.1 pS (SEM) in the same patches depolarized by 80 mV.
  • Eghbali, M, et al. (författare)
  • Hippocampal GABA(A) channel conductance increased by diazepam
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 388:6637, s. 71-75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Benzodiazepines, which are widely used clinically for relief of anxiety and for sedation, are thought to enhance synaptic inhibition in the central nervous system by increasing the open probability of chloride channels activated by the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Here we show that the benzodiazepine diazepam can also increase the conductance of GABAA channels activated by low concentrations of GABA (0.5 or 5 microM) in rat cultured hippocampal neurons. Before exposure to diazepam, chloride channels activated by GABA had conductances of 8 to 53pS. Diazepam caused a concentration-dependent and reversible increase in the conductance of these channels towards a maximum conductance of 70-80 pS and the effect was as great as 7-fold in channels of lowest initial conductance. Increasing the conductance of GABAA channels tonically activated by low ambient concentrations of GABA in the extracellular environment may be an important way in which these drugs depress excitation in the central nervous system. That any drug has such a large effect on single channel conductance has not been reported previously and has implications for models of channel structure and conductance.
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