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1.
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2.
  • Deshpande, J, et al. (författare)
  • Ultrastructural changes in the hippocampal CA1 region following transient cerebral ischemia: evidence against programmed cell death.
  • 1992
  • Ingår i: Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. - 0014-4819. ; 88:1, s. 91-105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ultrastructural changes in the pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus were studied 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h following a transient 10 min period of cerebral ischemia induced by common carotid occlusion combined with hypotension. The pyramidal neurons showed delayed neuronal death (DND), i.e. at 24 h and 48 h postischemia few structural alterations were noted in the light microscope, while at 72 h extensive neuronal degeneration was apparent. The most prominent early ultrastructural changes were polysome disaggregation, and the appearance of electron-dense fluffy dark material associated with tubular saccules. Mitochondria and nuclear elements appeared intact until frank neuronal degeneration. The dark material accumulated with extended periods of recirculation in soma and in the main trunks of proximal dendrites, often beneath the plasma membrane, less frequently in the distal dendrites and seldom in spines. Protein synthesis inhibitors (anisomycin, cycloheximide) and an RNA synthesis inhibitor (actinomycin D), administered by intrahippocampal injections or subcutanously, did not mitigate neuronal damage. Therefore, DND is probably not apoptosis or a form of programmed cell death. We propose that the dark material accumulating in the postischemic period represents protein complexes, possibly aggregates of proteins or internalized plasma membrane fragments, which may disrupt vital cellular structure and functions, leading to cell death.
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6.
  • Lai, Kuei-Hung (författare)
  • Studies on anti-leukemic terpenoids from medicinal mushrooms and marine sponges with ChemGPS-NP-based targets investigation of lead compounds
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This thesis investigates the anti-leukemic activity of terpenoids isolated from medicinal mushrooms and marine sponges, as well as their possible targets and mechanisms of action.</p><p>In the first section, we focused on studying the triterpenoidal components of three triterpenoid-enriched medicinal mushrooms <em>Antrodia cinnamomea</em>, <em>Ganoderma lucidum</em>, and <em>Poria cocos</em>, which have been used in folk medicine for centuries and also developed into several contemporary marketed products. We isolated the major and characteristic triterpenoids from these mushrooms, together with six new lanostanoids (<strong>II-1</strong>–<strong>II-6</strong>). The anti-leukemic activity of the isolates was evaluated <em>in vitro</em> using MTT proliferative assay and seven of them exhibited potential anti-leukemic effect. The active lead compounds were further subjected to computational analyses utilizing the ChemGPS-NP tool. We established a database for the anti-leukemic relevant chemical space of triterpenoids isolated from these three medicinal mushrooms, which could be used as a reference database for further research on anti-leukemic triterpenoids. Our results indicated that the anti-leukemic effect of the active lead compounds was mediated not only through topoisomerases inhibition but also through inhibiting DNA polymerases.</p><p>The second and third sections focused on isolation of anti-leukemic sesterterpenoids from sponges. The investigation of<em> Carteriospongia</em><em> </em>sp. led to the isolation of two new scalarane-type sesterterpenoids (<strong>III-1 </strong>and<strong> III-2</strong>) and one known tetraprenyltoluquinol-related metabolite (<strong>III-</strong><strong>3</strong>). All isolates exhibit an apoptotic mechanism of action against Molt 4 cells, found to be mediated through the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and inhibition of topoisomerase IIα expression. Detailed investigation of the apoptotic mechanism of action using molecular docking analysis revealed that compound <strong>III-1 </strong>might target<strong> </strong>Hsp90 protein. The apoptotic-inducing effect of <strong>III-3</strong> was supported by <em>in vivo</em> experiment by suppressing the volume of xenograft tumor growth (47.58%) compared with the control.</p><p>In the final section of this thesis we studied manoalide and its derivatives, sesterterpenoids isolated from the sponge <em>Luffariella</em> sp.. Manoalide has been studied as a potential anti-inflammatory agent for the last thirty years with more than 200 publications and 40 patents. However, the configurations at positions 24 and 25 were never revealed. In the current study, ten manoalide-type sesterterpenoids (<strong>IV-1</strong>–<strong>IV-10</strong>) were isolated from <em>Luffariella </em>sp. and their stereoisomers at positions 24 and 25 were identified and separated for the first time. The configuration at positions 24 and 25 showed to have a significant effect on the anti-leukemic activity of manoalide derivatives, with the 24<em>R</em>,25<em>S</em>-isomer exhibiting the most potent anti-leukemic activity. The apoptotic mechanism of action of compound <strong>IV-7</strong> against Molt 4 cells was investigated, and the compound was found to trigger MMP disruption and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Compound <strong>IV-7 </strong>also inhibited activity against both human topoisomerases, I and II. The <em>in vivo</em> experiment further supported the anti-leukemic effect of <strong>IV-7</strong> with a 66.11% tumor volume suppression compared to the control.</p>
7.
  • Fritz, Michael, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Interferon-ɣ mediated signaling in the brain endothelium is critical for inflammation-induced aversion
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Brain, behavior, and immunity. - Maryland Heights : Academic Press. - 0889-1591 .- 1090-2139. ; 67, s. 54-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Systemic inflammation elicits malaise and a negative affective state. The mechanism underpinning the aversive component of inflammation include cerebral prostaglandin synthesis and modulation of dopaminergic reward circuits, but the messengers that mediate the signaling between the peripheral inflammation and the brain have not been sufficiently characterized. Here we investigated the role of interferon-ɣ (IFN-ɣ) in the aversive response to systemic inflammation induced by a low dose (10μg/kg) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. LPS induced IFN-ɣ expression in the blood and deletion of IFN-ɣ or its receptor prevented the development of conditioned place aversion to LPS. LPS induced expression of the chemokine Cxcl10 in the striatum of normal mice, but this induction was absent in mice lacking IFN-ɣ receptors or Myd88 in blood brain barrier endothelial cells. Furthermore, inflammation-induced aversion was blocked in mice lacking Cxcl10 or its receptor Cxcr3. Finally, mice with a selective deletion of the IFN-ɣ receptor in brain endothelial cells did not develop inflammation-induced aversion, demonstrating that the brain endothelium is the critical site of IFN-ɣ action. Collectively, these findings show that circulating IFN-ɣ that binds to receptors on brain endothelial cells and induces Cxcl10, is a central link in the signaling chain eliciting inflammation-induced aversion.</p>
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8.
  • Greiff, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of topical platelet activating factor on the guinea-pig tracheobronchial mucosa in vivo
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6772. ; 160:4, s. 387-391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Platelet activating factor (PAF) has been reported to produce a variety of airway effects including epithelial damage and increased airway-lung absorption of hydrophilic tracers. The present study examines effects of PAF on the guinea-pig tracheobronchial mucosa in vivo. Vehicle with and without PAF (4.0 and 8.0 nmol) was superfused onto the tracheobronchial mucosa. The levels of 125I-albumin, previously given intravenously, were determined in tracheobronchial lavage fluids as an index of mucosal exudation of plasma. The mucosa was also examined by scanning electron microscopy. In separate animals, 99mTc-DTPA (a low molecular weight, 492 Da, hydrophilic tracer) was superfused onto the mucosal surface through an oro-tracheal catheter, together with vehicle or PAF (8.0 nmol). A gamma camera determined the disappearance rate of 99mTc-DTPA from the airways as an index of mucosal absorption. PAF produced dose-dependent mucosal exudation of plasma up to 20-fold greater than control (P < 0.001). However, PAF did not damage the epithelium and the absorption ability of the airway mucosa was unaffected. The results, in contrast to previous reports, suggest that PAF may not readily damage the airway mucosa even at large exudative doses of the agent. The present finding support the view that the plasticity of the epithelial junctions allows the creation of valve-like paracellular pathways for unidirectional clearance of extravasated plasma into the airway lumen. We suggest that endogenous PAF may participate in first line respiratory defence reactions by causing lumenal entry of bulk plasma without harming the epithelium.
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9.
  • Klawonn, Anna, 1985- (författare)
  • Molecular Mechanisms of Reward and Aversion
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Various molecular pathways in the brain shape our understanding of good and bad, as well as our motivation to seek and avoid such stimuli. This work evolves around how systemic inflammation causes aversion; and why general unpleasant states such as sickness, stress, pain and nausea are encoded by our brain as undesirable; and contrary to these questions, how drugs of abuse can subjugate the motivational neurocircuitry of the brain. A common feature of these various disease states is involvement of the motivational neurocircuitry - from mesolimbic to striatonigral pathways. Having an intact motivational system is what helps us evade negative outcomes and approach natural positive reinforcers, which is essential for our survival. During disease-states the motivational neurocircuitry may be overthrown by the molecular mechanisms that originally were meant to aid us.</p><p>In <strong>study I</strong>, to investigate how inflammation is perceived as aversive, we used a behavioral test based on Pavlovian place conditioning with the aversive inflammatory stimulus<em> E. coli </em>lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Using a combination of cell-type specific gene deletions, pharmacology, and chemogenetics, we uncovered that systemic inflammation triggered aversion by MyD88-dependent activation of the brain endothelium followed by COX1-mediated cerebral prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. Moreover, we showed that inflammation-induced PGE2 targeted EP1 receptors on striatal dopamine D1 receptor–expressing neurons and that this signaling sequence induced aversion through GABA-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic cells. Finally, inflammation-induced aversion was not an indirect consequence of fever or anorexia but constituted an independent inflammatory symptom triggered by a unique molecular mechanism. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that PGE2-mediated modulation of the dopaminergic circuitry is a key mechanism underlying inflammation-induced aversion.</p><p>In <strong>study II</strong>, we investigate the role of peripheral IFN-γ in LPS induced conditioned place aversion by employing a strategy based on global and cell-type specific gene deletions, combined with measures of gene-expression. LPS induced IFN-ɣ expression in the blood, and deletion of IFN-ɣ or its receptor prevented conditioned place aversion (CPA) to LPS. LPS increased the expression of chemokine Cxcl10 in the striatum of normal mice. This induction was absent in mice lacking IFN-ɣ receptors or Myd88 in blood brain barrier endothelial cells. Furthermore, inflammation-induced aversion was blocked in mice lacking Cxcl10 or its receptor Cxcr3. Finally, mice with a selective deletion of the IFN-ɣ receptor in brain endothelial cells did not develop inflammation-induced aversion. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that circulating IFN-ɣ binding to receptors on brain endothelial cells which induces Cxcl10, is a central link in the signaling chain eliciting inflammation-induced aversion.</p><p>In <strong>study III</strong>, we explored the role of melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4Rs) in aversive processing using genetically modified mice in CPA to various stimuli. In normal mice, robust aversions were induced by systemic inflammation, nausea, pain and kappa opioid receptor-induced dysphoria. In sharp contrast, mice lacking MC4Rs displayed preference towards most of the aversive stimuli, but were indifferent to pain. The unusual flip from aversion to reward in mice lacking MC4Rs was dopamine-dependent and associated with a change from decreased to increased activity of the dopamine system. The responses to aversive stimuli were normalized when MC4Rs were re-expressed on dopamine D1 receptor-expressing cells or in the striatum of mice otherwise lacking MC4Rs. Furthermore, activation of arcuate nucleus proopiomelanocortin neurons projecting to the ventral striatum increased the activity of striatal neurons in a MC4R-dependent manner and elicited aversion. Our findings demonstrate that melanocortin signaling through striatal MC4Rs is critical for assigning negative motivational valence to harmful stimuli.</p><p>The neurotransmitter acetylcholine has been implied in reward learning and drug addiction. However, the role of cholinergic receptor subtypes in such processes remains elusive. In <strong>study IV</strong> we investigated the function of muscarinic M4Rs on dopamine D1R expressing neurons and acetylcholinergic neurons, using transgenic mice in various reward-enforced behaviors and in a “waiting”-impulsivity test. Mice lacking M4-receptors from D1-receptor expressing neurons exhibited an escalated reward seeking phenotype towards cocaine and natural reward, in Pavlovian conditioning and an operant self-administration task, respectively. In addition, the M4-D1RCre mice showed impaired waiting impulsivity in the 5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task. On the contrary, mice without M4Rs in acetylcholinergic neurons were unable to learn positive reinforcement to natural reward and cocaine, in an operant runway paradigm and in Pavlovian conditioning.  Immediate early gene expression mirrored the behavioral findings arising from M4R-D1R knockout, as cocaine induced cFos and FosB was significantly increased in the forebrain of M4-D1RCre mice, whereas it remained normal in the M4R-ChatCre mice. Our study illustrates that muscarinic M4Rs on specific neural populations, either cholinergic or D1R-expressing, are pivotal for learning processes related to both natural reward and drugs of abuse, with opposing functionality.</p>
10.
  • Korsgren, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Allergic eosinophil-rich inflammation develops in lungs and airways of B cell-deficient mice
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Medicine. - Rockefeller University Press. - 1540-9538. ; 185:5, s. 885-892
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Immunoglobulins (Ig), particularly IgE, are believed to be crucially involved in the pathogenesis of asthma and, equally, in allergic models of the disease. To validate this paradigm we examined homozygous mutant C57BL/6 mice, which are B cell deficient, lacking all Ig. Mice were immunized intraperitoneally with 10 micrograms ovalbumin (OVA) plus alum, followed by daily (day 14-20) 30 min exposures to OVA aerosol (OVA/OVA group). Three control groups were run: OVA intraperitoneally plus saline (SAL) aerosol (OVA/SAL group); saline intraperitoneally plus saline aerosol; saline intraperitoneally plus OVA aerosol (n = 6-7). Lung and large airway tissues obtained 24 h after the last OVA or SAL exposure were examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Ig-deficient mice receiving OVA/ OVA treatment had swollen and discolored lungs and exhibited marked eosinophilia both in large airway subepithelial tissue (49.2 +/- 12.0 cells/mm basement membrane [BM] versus OVA/ SAL control 1.2 +/- 0.3 cells/mm BM; P < 0.001), and perivascularly and peribronchially in the lung (49.3 +/- 9.0 cells/unit area versus OVA/SAL control 2.6 +/- 0.6 cells/unit area; P < 0.001). The eosinophilia extended to the regional lymph nodes. TEM confirmed the subepithelial and perivascular localization of eosinophils. Mucus cells in large airway epithelium increased from 1.5 +/- 0.8 (OVA/SAL mice) to 39.5 +/- 5.7 cells/mm BM in OVA/OVA treated mice (P < 0.001). OVA/SAL mice never differed from the other control groups. Corresponding experiments in wild-type mice (n = 6-7 in each group) showed qualitatively similar but less pronounced eosinophil and mucus cell changes. Macrophages and CD4+ T cells increased in lungs of all OVA/OVA-treated mice. Mast cell number did not differ but degranulation was detected only in OVA/OVA-treated wild-type mice. Immunization to OVA followed by OVA challenges thus cause eosinophil-rich inflammation in airways and lungs of mice without involvement of B cells and Ig.
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