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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinska grundvetenskaper) hsv:(Farmakologi och toxikologi) "

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1.
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2.
  • Deshpande, J, et al. (författare)
  • Ultrastructural changes in the hippocampal CA1 region following transient cerebral ischemia: evidence against programmed cell death.
  • 1992
  • Ingår i: Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. - 0014-4819. ; 88:1, s. 91-105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ultrastructural changes in the pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus were studied 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h following a transient 10 min period of cerebral ischemia induced by common carotid occlusion combined with hypotension. The pyramidal neurons showed delayed neuronal death (DND), i.e. at 24 h and 48 h postischemia few structural alterations were noted in the light microscope, while at 72 h extensive neuronal degeneration was apparent. The most prominent early ultrastructural changes were polysome disaggregation, and the appearance of electron-dense fluffy dark material associated with tubular saccules. Mitochondria and nuclear elements appeared intact until frank neuronal degeneration. The dark material accumulated with extended periods of recirculation in soma and in the main trunks of proximal dendrites, often beneath the plasma membrane, less frequently in the distal dendrites and seldom in spines. Protein synthesis inhibitors (anisomycin, cycloheximide) and an RNA synthesis inhibitor (actinomycin D), administered by intrahippocampal injections or subcutanously, did not mitigate neuronal damage. Therefore, DND is probably not apoptosis or a form of programmed cell death. We propose that the dark material accumulating in the postischemic period represents protein complexes, possibly aggregates of proteins or internalized plasma membrane fragments, which may disrupt vital cellular structure and functions, leading to cell death.
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5.
  • Di Gennaro, A., et al. (författare)
  • Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 antagonism prevents experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424. ; 115:8, s. 1907-1912
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs) are 5-lipoxygenase-derived lipid mediators involved in the pathogenesis and progression of inflammatory disorders, in particular asthma. We have previously found evidence linking these mediators to increased levels of proteolytic enzymes in tissue specimens of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Here we show that antagonism of the CysLT1 receptor by montelukast, an established antiasthma drug, protects against a strong aorta dilatation (amp;gt;50% increase = aneurysm) in a mouse model of CaCl2-induced AAA at a dose comparable to human medical practice. Analysis of tissue extracts revealed that montelukast reduces the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) in the aortic wall. Furthermore, aneurysm progression was specifically mediated through CysLT1 signaling since a selective CysLT2 antagonist was without effect. A significantly reduced vessel dilatation is also observed when treatment with montelukast is started days after aneurysm induction, suggesting that the drug not only prevents but also stops and possibly reverts an already ongoing degenerative process. Moreover, montelukast reduced the incidence of aortic rupture and attenuated the AAA development in two additional independent models, i.e., angiotensin II- and porcine pancreatic elastase-induced AAA, respectively. Our results indicate that cys-LTs are involved in the pathogenesis of AAA and that antagonism of the CysLT1 receptor is a promising strategy for preventive and therapeutic treatment of this clinically silent and highly lethal disease.
6.
  • Gabrielsson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Dose-response-time data analysis involving nonlinear dynamics, feedback and delay
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal Of Pharmaceutical Sciences. - 0928-0987 .- 1879-0720. ; 59, s. 36-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper offers dose-response-time data analysis of four different case studies where the pharmacological response (neuronal ACh-release, tail-flick response, locomotor activity, NEFA) was modelled by a biophase-driven turnover model. The analysis uses a mathematical/analytical perspective in which analytic properties of the models involved are exploited in order to address the dual challenge of extracting information from these time-series about (i) the biophase kinetics following different routes of administration and (ii) pharmacodynamic issues such as transduction, saturation, and adaptation, and more specifically, parameter identifiability, such as correct estimation of potency (SD50 or ID50). It is shown how many of these estimates can be obtained by analytical means, giving considerable insight in the dynamics involved. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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9.
  • Lai, Kuei-Hung (författare)
  • Studies on anti-leukemic terpenoids from medicinal mushrooms and marine sponges with ChemGPS-NP-based targets investigation of lead compounds
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis investigates the anti-leukemic activity of terpenoids isolated from medicinal mushrooms and marine sponges, as well as their possible targets and mechanisms of action.In the first section, we focused on studying the triterpenoidal components of three triterpenoid-enriched medicinal mushrooms Antrodia cinnamomea, Ganoderma lucidum, and Poria cocos, which have been used in folk medicine for centuries and also developed into several contemporary marketed products. We isolated the major and characteristic triterpenoids from these mushrooms, together with six new lanostanoids (II-1–II-6). The anti-leukemic activity of the isolates was evaluated in vitro using MTT proliferative assay and seven of them exhibited potential anti-leukemic effect. The active lead compounds were further subjected to computational analyses utilizing the ChemGPS-NP tool. We established a database for the anti-leukemic relevant chemical space of triterpenoids isolated from these three medicinal mushrooms, which could be used as a reference database for further research on anti-leukemic triterpenoids. Our results indicated that the anti-leukemic effect of the active lead compounds was mediated not only through topoisomerases inhibition but also through inhibiting DNA polymerases.The second and third sections focused on isolation of anti-leukemic sesterterpenoids from sponges. The investigation of Carteriospongia sp. led to the isolation of two new scalarane-type sesterterpenoids (III-1 and III-2) and one known tetraprenyltoluquinol-related metabolite (III-3). All isolates exhibit an apoptotic mechanism of action against Molt 4 cells, found to be mediated through the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and inhibition of topoisomerase IIα expression. Detailed investigation of the apoptotic mechanism of action using molecular docking analysis revealed that compound III-1 might target Hsp90 protein. The apoptotic-inducing effect of III-3 was supported by in vivo experiment by suppressing the volume of xenograft tumor growth (47.58%) compared with the control.In the final section of this thesis we studied manoalide and its derivatives, sesterterpenoids isolated from the sponge Luffariella sp.. Manoalide has been studied as a potential anti-inflammatory agent for the last thirty years with more than 200 publications and 40 patents. However, the configurations at positions 24 and 25 were never revealed. In the current study, ten manoalide-type sesterterpenoids (IV-1–IV-10) were isolated from Luffariella sp. and their stereoisomers at positions 24 and 25 were identified and separated for the first time. The configuration at positions 24 and 25 showed to have a significant effect on the anti-leukemic activity of manoalide derivatives, with the 24R,25S-isomer exhibiting the most potent anti-leukemic activity. The apoptotic mechanism of action of compound IV-7 against Molt 4 cells was investigated, and the compound was found to trigger MMP disruption and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Compound IV-7 also inhibited activity against both human topoisomerases, I and II. The in vivo experiment further supported the anti-leukemic effect of IV-7 with a 66.11% tumor volume suppression compared to the control.
10.
  • Lind, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Vitamin A Is a Negative Regulator of Osteoblast Mineralization
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 8:12, s. e82388
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An excessive intake of vitamin A has been associated with an increased risk of fractures in humans. In animals, a high vitamin A intake leads to a reduction of long bone diameter and spontaneous fractures. Studies in rodents indicate that the bone thinning is due to increased periosteal bone resorption and reduced radial growth. Whether the latter is a consequence of direct effects on bone or indirect effects on appetite and general growth is unknown. In this study we therefore used pair-feeding and dynamic histomorphometry to investigate the direct effect of a high intake of vitamin A on bone formation in rats. Although there were no differences in body weight or femur length compared to controls, there was an approximately halved bone formation and mineral apposition rate at the femur diaphysis of rats fed vitamin A. To try to clarify the mechanism(s) behind this reduction, we treated primary human osteoblasts and a murine preosteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) with the active metabolite of vitamin A; retinoic acid (RA), a retinoic acid receptor (RAR) antagonist (AGN194310), and a Cyp26 inhibitor (R115866) which blocks endogenous RA catabolism. We found that RA, via RARs, suppressed in vitro mineralization. This was independent of a negative effect on osteoblast proliferation. Alkaline phosphatase and bone gamma carboxyglutamate protein (Bglap, Osteocalcin) were drastically reduced in RA treated cells and RA also reduced the protein levels of Runx2 and Osterix, key transcription factors for progression to a mature osteoblast. Normal osteoblast differentiation involved up regulation of Cyp26b1, the major enzyme responsible for RA degradation, suggesting that a drop in RA signaling is required for osteogenesis analogous to what has been found for chondrogenesis. In addition, RA decreased Phex, an osteoblast/osteocyte protein necessary for mineralization. Taken together, our data indicate that vitamin A is a negative regulator of osteoblast mineralization.
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