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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinska grundvetenskaper) hsv:(Mikrobiologi inom det medicinska området) "

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinska grundvetenskaper) hsv:(Mikrobiologi inom det medicinska området)

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  • Rodríguez-Piñeiro, Ana María, et al. (författare)
  • The colonic mucus protection depends on the microbiota
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Gut microbes. - 1949-0976 .- 1949-0984. ; 6:5, s. 326-30
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The intestinal mucus is a pivotal part of our intestinal protection. It provides slow diffusion of protective molecules, trapping of luminal material as bacteria and smooth transport in the small intestine. In colon it restricts bacterial access to the epithelium limiting the responses to the enormous bacterial load present at this location. The development of these systems depends on the microbiota composition as seen in our recent study comparing the mucus phenotype in 2 colonies kept in different husbandries within the same SPF animal facility. One colony had impenetrable colonic mucus while the other colony had more penetrable mucus. The mucus phenotypes were transmitted via the microbiota and clear differences in its composition could be detected. Candidates associated with the different colonies were identified but the observed mucus difference could not be assigned to a specific bacterium.
  • Andersson, Sören, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • 2015
  • Patent (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Eklund, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Proteoglycan production in disomic and trisomy 7-carrying human synovial cells.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Matrix Biology. - Elsevier. - 1569-1802. ; 21:4, s. 325-335
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To gain further insight into the synthesis and structure of the synovial matrix of joints, we have established cell cultures from synovial specimens and elaborated their production of hyaluronan and proteoglycans. The cultures secreted mainly the small proteoglycan decorin, but also considerable amounts of the related biglycan and the large proteoglycan versican. Only minor amounts of heparan sulfate proteoglycans were found. All cultures also had a high production of hyaluronan, which highlights the important role for normal joint function of these cells. In joint diseases, a common feature is the presence of an extra chromosome 7 (trisomy 7) in the synovial cells. To study the possible consequences of trisomy 7 on the synovial cell function, we extended our study to cultures that had been sub-cloned to contain high amounts of trisomy 7-carrying cells. These cell cultures had approximately four times more versican than their disomic counterparts in the cell culture medium, indicating that versican may be a mediator in the processes of joint destructive disorders. To find an explanation for this increase in versican, we investigated the expression/secretion of PDGF-AA and IL-6, cytokines with their genes located to chromosome 7. Indeed, both these cytokines were increased in the cultures with high frequencies of trisomy 7. We then added the two cytokines to cell cultures of disomic synovial cells, but only cells treated with IL-6 displayed an increased amount of versican. Thus, we suggest that the increased amount of versican in cultures of trisomy 7-carrying cells relates to an autocrine loop involving an increased IL-6 production.
  • Ripamonti, Chiara, et al. (författare)
  • Biological and genetic evolution of HIV type 1 in two siblings with different patterns of disease progression
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. - Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.. - 1931-8405. ; 23:12, s. 1531-1540
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To investigate the immunological and virological factors that may lead to different patterns of disease progression characteristic of HIV-1-infected children, two HIV-1-infected siblings, a slow and a fast progressor, were followed prospectively before the onset of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Viral coreceptor usage, including the use of CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptors, macrophage tropism, and sensitivity to the CC-chemokine RANTES, has been studied. An autologous and heterologous neutralizing antibody response has been documented using peripheral blood mononuclear cells- and GHOST(3) cell line-based assays. Viral evolution was investigated by env C2-V3 region sequence analysis. Although both siblings were infected with HIV-1 of the R5 phenotype, their viruses showed important biological differences. In the fast progressor there was a higher RANTES sensitivity of the early virus, an increased trend to change the mode of CCR5 receptor use, and a larger genetic evolution. Both children developed an autologous neutralizing antibody response starting from the second year with evidence of the continuous emergence of resistant variants. A marked viral genetic and phenotypic evolution was documented in the fast progressor sibling, which is accompanied by a high viral RANTES sensitivity and persistent neutralizing antibodies.
  • Wold, Agnes E, 1955-, et al. (författare)
  • Breast feeding and the intestinal microflora of the infant--implications for protection against infectious diseases.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Advances in experimental medicine and biology. - 0065-2598. ; 478, s. 77-93
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human breast milk contains an array of factors with anti-infectious potential, such as immunoglobulins (especially secretory IgA), oligosaccharides and glycoproteins with anti-adhesive capacity, and cytokines. Breast-feeding is associated with protection from the following infections or infection-related conditions: gastroenteritis, upper and lower respiratory tract infection, acute otitis media, urinary tract infection, neonatal septicaemia and necrotizing enterocolitis. Some of the protective effects may derive from an altered mucosal colonization pattern in the breast-fed infant. In other instances breast-fed infants develop less symptoms to the same microbe which causes disease in the bottle-fed infant. An example of an altered colonization pattern is that breast-fed infants have less P-fimbriated, but more type 1-fimbriated E. coli. This may protect against urinary tract infection in the breast-fed infant since P. fimbriae are the major virulence factor for urinary tract infection. An example of changed consequences of the same microbial colonization is that secretory IgA in the breast-milk protects very efficiently from translocation of intestinal bacteria across the gut mucosa by coating intestinal bacteria and blocking their interaction with the epithelium. This mechanism may protect the infant from septicaemia of gut origin and, possibly, necrotizing enterocolitis. Breast-milk is also highly anti-inflammatogenic and contains hormone like factors which counteract diarrhea. Thus, breast-fed infants may be colonized by recognized diarrheal pathogens and still remain healthy. Due to a less virulent intestinal microflora and decreased translocation breast-fed infants will obtain less stimuli for the gut immune system, resulting, in e.g., lower salivary IgA antibody titres.
  • Bratanis, Eleni (författare)
  • Bacterial antibody hydrolyzing enzymes – as bacterial virulence factors and biotechnological tools
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Antibodies are an essential part of the human immune system, and antibody mediated immunity has been an area of interest for many researchers for almost a century. An accumulation of knowledge regarding antibody structure, glycosylation and receptor interactions has contributed to the current understanding of antibody mediated immunity. It has more recently become evident how bacteria and other microorganisms evade host recognition and eradication through specific antibody degradation or modification. The importance of antibody glycosylation and how glycan modification can fine-tune the elicited immune response has also contributed to the development of antibody-based drugs with improved clinical efficacy. In turn these insights have paved the way and created a need for the development of biotechnological methods and tools to specifically engineer antibodies with defined properties, for analysis to ensure quality and safety, and for improved antibody purification.This thesis highlights the importance of glycosylation for antibody function and presents different aspects and applications of antibody modifications by bacteria. We show, for the first time, activity of the IgG-specific Streptococcal endoglycosidase EndoS during Streptococcus pyogenes infection, clearly demonstrating that EndoS contributes to S. pyogenes pathogenesis and bacterial survival in the context of adaptive immunity. Further this thesis presents the use of bacterial enzymes as antibody modifying tools and their potential as binding reagents for selective antibody purification. The identification and characterization of two novel proteases, BspK and BspE exhibiting unique IgG and IgA cleavage profiles respectively, from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus highlights the potential of using Bdellovibrio as a source for the identification of novel enzymes with biotechnological applications. Finally, I present the development of a novel method for selective antibody purification, using the inactive variants of the bacterial enzymes EndoS and EndoS2, ensuring the purification of native, correctly folded and modified antibodies.
  • Cervin, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Fucose-Galactose Polymers Inhibit Cholera Toxin Binding to Fucosylated Structures and Galactose-Dependent Intoxication of Human Enteroids.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ACS infectious diseases. - 2373-8227. ; 6:5, s. 1192-1203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A promising strategy to limit cholera severity involves blockers mimicking the canonical cholera toxin ligand (CT) ganglioside GM1. However, to date the efficacies of most of these blockers have been evaluated in noncellular systems that lack ligands other than GM1. Importantly, the CT B subunit (CTB) has a noncanonical site that binds fucosylated structures, which in contrast to GM1 are highly expressed in the human intestine. Here we evaluate the capacity of norbornene polymers displaying galactose and/or fucose to block CTB binding to immobilized protein-linked glycan structures and also to primary human and murine small intestine epithelial cells (SI ECs). We show that the binding of CTB to human SI ECs is largely dependent on the noncanonical binding site, and interference with the canonical site has a limited effect while the opposite is observed with murine SI ECs. The galactose-fucose polymer blocks binding to fucosylated glycans but not to GM1. However, the preincubation of CT with the galactose-fucose polymer only partially blocks toxic effects on cultured human enteroid cells, while preincubation with GM1 completely blocks CT-mediated secretion. Our results support a model whereby the binding of fucose to the noncanonical site places CT in close proximity to scarcely expressed galactose receptors such as GM1 to enable binding via the canonical site leading to CT internalization and intoxication. Our finding also highlights the importance of complementing CTB binding studies with functional intoxication studies when assessing the efficacy inhibitors of CT.
  • O'Meara, Connor P, et al. (författare)
  • Immunity against a Chlamydia infection and disease may be determined by a balance of IL-17 signaling.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Immunology and cell biology. - 1440-1711. ; 92:3, s. 287-297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most vaccines developed against Chlamydia using animal models provide partial protection against a genital tract infection. However, protection against the oviduct pathology associated with infertility is highly variable and often has no defining immunological correlate. When comparing two adjuvants (CTA1-DD and a combination of Cholera toxin plus CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide-CT/CpG) combined with the chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP) antigen and delivered via the intranasal (IN), sublingual (SL) or transcutaneous (TC) routes, we identified two vaccine groups with contrasting outcomes following infection. SL immunization with MOMP/CTA1-DD induced a 70% reduction in the incidence of oviduct pathology, without significantly altering the course of infection. Conversely, IN immunization with MOMP/CT/CpG prevented an ascending infection, but not the oviduct pathology. This anomaly presented a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms by which vaccines can prevent oviduct pathology, other than by controlling the infection. The IL-17 signaling in the oviducts was found to associate with both the enhancement of immunity to infection and the development of oviduct pathology. This conflicting role of IL-17 may provide some explanation for the discordance in protection between infection and disease and suggests that controlling immunopathology, as opposed to the rapid eradication of the infection, may be essential for an effective human chlamydial vaccine that prevents infertility.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 24 December 2013; doi:10.1038/icb.2013.92.
  • Baba, Akiyasu, et al. (författare)
  • Antigen-specific effects of autoantibodies against sarcolemmal Na-K-ATPase pump in immunized cardiomyopathic rabbits.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International journal of cardiology. - 0167-5273. ; 112:1, s. 15-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: We examine antigen-specific actions of autoantibodies directed against sarcolemmal Na-K-ATPase. BACKGROUND: Autoantibodies against some receptors or pumps were detected in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Although immunoglobulin adsorption therapy improved cardiac function in such patients, direct pathogenic effects of autoantibodies remain to be proven. METHODS: Japanese white rabbits were immunized once a month with purified Na-K-ATPase (NKA rabbits, n=10) or a synthetic peptide corresponding to the second extracellular loop of beta1-adrenergic receptors (beta rabbits, n=10), respectively. Control rabbits (n=10) received vehicle in the same manner. RESULTS: At 6 months, cardiac hypertrophy along with increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was observed in both NKA and beta rabbits, and inhibitory G protein level increased in both NKA and beta rabbits. Histological findings showed similar myocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis in both rabbits. Enzymatic activities of Na-K-ATPase were lower in NKA rabbits than in other groups. Immunoblotting showed that alpha3-isoform of Na-K-ATPase was selectively reduced in myocardium from NKA rabbits. CONCLUSIONS: Our present findings suggested that isoform-specific alterations of myocardial Na-K-ATPase activity were induced by immunizing rabbits. This was not secondary change due to cardiac hypertrophy. Thus, autoantibodies against sarcolemmal Na-K-ATPase have antigen-specific effect on the heart in vivo.
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