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  • Okroj, Marcin, et al. (författare)
  • Antibodies against Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) complement control protein (KCP) in infected individuals
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Vaccine. - : Elsevier. - 1873-2518 .- 0264-410X. ; 25:48, s. 8102-8109
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the most important etiopathological factor of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and some specific types of malignant lymphomas. One of the viral lytic genes encodes the KSHV complement control protein (KCP), which functionally mimics human complement inhibitors. Although this protein provides an advantage for evading the complement attack, it can serve as target for adaptive immune response. Herein, we identified anti-KCP IgG antibodies in patients with KS and KSHV-related lymphomas. KCP-specific antibodies were only detected in sera of those patients who had high titres of antibodies against lytic or latent KSHV antigens. Complement control protein domain 2 (CCP2) was found to be the most immunogenic part of the KCP protein. Furthermore, pre-incubation of KCP-expressing CHO cells with patient sera containing anti-KCP antibodies resulted in an increased complement deposition when incubated with human serum.
  • Okroj, Marcin, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of antibodies against Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV) complement inhibitory protein (KCP) in KSHV-related diseases and their correlation with clinical parameters.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Vaccine. - : Elsevier. - 1873-2518. ; 29, s. 1129-1134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) encodes its own inhibitor of the complement system, designated KSHV complement control protein (KCP). Previously, we detected anti-KCP antibodies in a small group of 22 patients suffering from Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and KSHV-related lymphoproliferative diseases (Vaccine, 25:8102-9). Anti-KCP antibodies were more prevalent in individuals suffering from KSHV-related lymphomas than KS and also in those with high titer of antibodies against lytic KSHV antigens. Herein we analyze anti-KCP antibodies in 175 individuals originating from three different groups from northern Sweden or Italy, which included patients suffering from classical or HIV-associated KS, Multicentric Castleman's Disease, KSHV-associated solid lymphoma, pleural effusion lymphoma and healthy individuals with detectable KSHV immune response. Our current study confirmed previous observations concerning antibody prevalence but we also analyzed correlations between anti-KCP antibodies and classical KS evolution, clinical stage and viral load in body fluids. Furthermore, we show that patient's anti-KCP antibodies are able to decrease the ability of KCP to inhibit complement. This fact combined with results of statistical analysis suggests that KCP inactivation by specific antibodies may influence progression of classical KS.
  • Blom, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Mutations in alpha-chain of C4BP that selectively affect its factor I cofactor function
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 1083-351X. ; 278:44, s. 43437-43442
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • C4b-binding protein (C4BP) inhibits all pathways of complement activation, acting as a cofactor to the serine protease factor I (FI) in the degradation of activated complement factors C4b and C3b. C4BP is a disulfide-linked polymer of seven alpha-chains and a unique beta-chain, the alpha- and beta-chains being composed of eight and three complement control protein (CCP) domains, respectively. In previous studies we have localized cofactor activity and binding of C4b to alpha-chain CCP1-3 of C4BP, whereas the binding of C3b required additionally CCP4. Likewise, introduced point mutations that decreased binding of C4b/C3b caused a decrease in cofactor activity. In the present study, we describe two mutants of C4BP, K126Q/K128Q and F144S/F149S, clustered on alpha-chain CCP3, which selectively lost their ability to act as cofactors in the cleavage of both C4b and C3b. Both mutants show the same binding affinity for C4b/C3b as measured by surface plasmon resonance and have the same inhibitory effect on formation and decay of the classical pathway C3-convertase as the wild type C4BP. It appears that C4b and C3b do not undergo the same conformational changes upon binding to the C4BP mutants as during the interaction with the wild type C4BP, which then results in the observed loss of the cofactor activity.
  • Blom, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Structural requirements for the complement regulatory activities of C4BP
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 1083-351X. ; 276:29, s. 27136-27144
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • C4b-binding protein (C4BP) is a regulator of the classical complement pathway C3 convertase (C4bC2a complex). It is a disulfide-linked polymer of seven alpha-chains and a unique beta-chain; the alpha- and beta-chains are composed of eight and three complement control protein (CCP) domains, respectively. To elucidate the importance of the polymeric nature of C4BP and the structural requirements for the interaction between C4b and the alpha-chain, 19 recombinant C4BP variants were created. Six truncated monomeric variants, nine polymeric variants in which individual CCPs were deleted, and finally, four variants in which double alanine residues were introduced between CCPs were functionally characterized. The smallest truncated C4BP variant still active in regulating fluid phase C4b comprised CCP1-3. The monomeric variants were less efficient than polymeric C4BP in degrading C4b on cell surfaces. All three N-terminal CCP domains contributed to the binding of C4b and were important for full functional activity; CCP2 and CCP3 were the most important. The spatial arrangements of the first CCPs were found to be important, as introduction of alanine residues between CCPs 1 and 2, CCPs 2 and 3, and CCPs 3 and 4 resulted in functional impairment. The results presented here elucidate the structural requirements of individual CCPs of C4BP, as well as their spatial arrangements within and between subunits for expression of full functional activity.
  • Braun, Katharina, et al. (författare)
  • Membrane interactions of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as carriers of antimicrobial peptides
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. - : Elsevier. - 0021-9797 .- 1095-7103. ; 475, s. 161-170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Membrane interactions are critical for the successful use of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In order to elucidate these, we here investigate effects of nanoparticle charge and porosity on AMP loading and release, as well as consequences of this for membrane interactions and antimicrobial effects. Anionic mesoporous silica particles were found to incorporate considerable amounts of the cationic AMP LLGDFFRKSKEKIGKEFKRIVQRIKDFLRNLVPRTES (LL-37), whereas loading is much lower for non-porous or positively charged silica nanoparticles. Due to preferential pore localization, anionic mesoporous particles, but not the other particles, protect LL-37 from degradation by infection-related proteases. For anionic mesoporous nanoparticles, membrane disruption is mediated almost exclusively by peptide release. In contrast, non-porous silica particles build up a resilient LL-37 surface coating due to their higher negative surface charge, and display largely particle-mediated membrane interactions and antimicrobial effects. For positively charged mesoporous silica nanoparticles, LL-37 incorporation promotes the membrane binding and disruption displayed by the particles in the absence of peptide, but also causes toxicity against human erythrocytes. Thus, the use of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as AMP delivery systems requires consideration of membrane interactions and selectivity of both free peptide and the peptide-loaded nanoparticles, the latter critically dependent on nanoparticle properties.
  • Friedrich, Ute, et al. (författare)
  • Structural and energetic characteristics of the heparin-binding site in antithrombotic protein C
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 1083-351X. ; 276:26, s. 24122-24128
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human activated protein C (APC) is a key component of a natural anticoagulant system that regulates blood coagulation. In vivo, the catalytic activity of APC is regulated by two serpins, alpha1-antitrypsin and the protein C inhibitor (PCI), the inhibition by the latter being stimulated by heparin. We have identified a heparin-binding site in the serine protease domain of APC and characterized the energetic basis of the interaction with heparin. According to the counter-ion condensation theory, the binding of heparin to APC is 66% ionic in nature and comprises four to six net ionic interactions. To localize the heparin-binding site, five recombinant APC variants containing amino acid exchanges in loops 37, 60, and 70 (chymotrypsinogen numbering) were created. As demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance, reduction of the electropositive character of loops 37 and 60 resulted in complete loss of heparin binding. The functional consequence was loss in heparin-induced stimulation of APC inhibition by PCI, whereas the PCI-induced APC inhibition in the absence of heparin was enhanced. Presumably, the former observations were due to the inability of heparin to bridge some APC mutants to PCI, whereas the increased inhibition of certain APC variants by PCI in the absence of heparin was due to reduced repulsion between the enzymes and the serpin. The heparin-binding site of APC was also shown to interact with heparan sulfate, albeit with lower affinity. In conclusion, we have characterized and spatially localized the functionally important heparin/heparan sulfate-binding site of APC.
  • Holmér, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • The factor H variant associated with age-related macular degeneration (H384) and the non-disease associated form bind differentially to C-reactive protein, fibromodulin, DNA and necrotic cells.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 1083-351X. ; 282:15, s. 10894-10900
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recently, a polymorphism in the complement regulator factor H (FH) gene has been associated with age-related macular degeneration. When histidine instead of tyrosine is present at position 384 in the seventh complement control protein (CCP) domain of FH, the risk for age-related macular degeneration is increased. It was recently shown that these allotypic variants of FH, in the context of a recombinant construct corresponding to CCPs 6 - 8, recognize polyanionic structures differently, which may lead to altered regulation of the alternative pathway of complement. We show now that His-384, corresponding to the risk allele, binds C-reactive protein (CRP) poorly compared with the Tyr-384 form. We also found that C1q and phosphorylcholine do not compete with FH for binding to C-reactive protein. The interaction with extracellular matrix protein fibromodulin, which we now show to be mediated, at least in part, by CCP6 - 8 of FH, occurs via the polypeptide of fibromodulin and not through its glycosaminoglycan modifications. The Tyr-384 variant of FH bound fibromodulin better than the His-384 form. Furthermore, we find that CCP6 - 8 is able to interact with DNA and necrotic cells, but in contrast the His-384 allotype binds these ligands more strongly than the Tyr-384 variant. The variations in binding affinity of the two alleles indicate that complement activation and local inflammation in response to different targets will differ between His/His and Tyr/Tyr homozygotes.
  • Khoshnood, Ardavan (författare)
  • Prehospital Diagnosis and Oxygen Treatment in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • IntroductionPaper I: An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was constructed to identify ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) and predict the need for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). Paper II, III and IV: Studies suggest that O2 therapy may be harmful in STEMI patients. We therefore conducted the SOCCER study to evaluate the effects of O2 therapy in STEMI patients.MethodsPaper I: 560 ambulance ECGs sent to the Cardiac Care Unit (CCU), was together with the CCU physicians interpretation and decision of conducting an acute PCI or not collected, and compared with the interpretation and PCI decision of the ANN. Paper II, III, IV: Normoxic (≥94%) STEMI patients accepted for acute PCI were in the ambulance randomized to standard care with 10 L/min O2 or room air. A subset of the patients underwent echocardiography for determination of the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF) and the Wall Motion Score Index (WMSI). All patients had a Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMRI) to evaluate Myocardial area at Risk (MaR), Infarct Size (IS) and Myocardial Salvage Index (MSI).ResultsPaper I: The area under the ANN’s receiver operating characteristics curve for STEMI detection as well as predicting the need of acute PCI were very good.Paper II, III, IV: No significant differences could be shown in discussing MaR, MSI or IS between the O2 group (n=46) and the air group (n=49). Neither could any differences be shown for LVEF and WMSI at the index visit as well after six months between the O2 group (n=46) and the air group (n=41)ConclusionsPaper I: The results indicate that the number of ECGs sent to the CCU could be reduced with 2/3 as the ANN would safely identify ECGs not being STEMI.Paper II, III, IV: The results suggest that it is safe to withhold O2 therapy in normoxic, stable STEMI patients.
  • Korpetinou, Angeliki, et al. (författare)
  • Serglycin Is Implicated in the Promotion of Aggressive Phenotype of Breast Cancer Cells
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 8:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Serglycin is a proteoglycan expressed by some malignant cells. It promotes metastasis and protects some tumor cells from complement system attack. In the present study, we show for the first time the in situ expression of serglycin by breast cancer cells by immunohistochemistry in patients' material. Moreover, we demonstrate high expression and constitutive secretion of serglycin in the aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Serglycin exhibited a strong cytoplasmic staining in these cells, observable at the cell periphery in a thread of filaments near the cell membrane, but also in filopodia-like structures. Serglycin was purified from conditioned medium of MDA-MB-231 cells, and represented the major proteoglycan secreted by these cells, having a molecular size of similar to 250 kDa and carrying chondroitin sulfate side chains, mainly composed of 4-sulfated (similar to 87%), 6-sulfated (similar to 10%) and non-sulfated (similar to 3%) disaccharides. Purified serglycin inhibited early steps of both the classical and the lectin pathways of complement by binding to C1q and mannose-binding lectin. Stable expression of serglycin in less aggressive MCF-7 breast cancer cells induced their proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration and invasion. Interestingly, over-expression of serglycin lacking the glycosaminoglycan attachment sites failed to promote these cellular functions, suggesting that glycanation of serglycin is a pre-requisite for its oncogenic properties. Our findings suggest that serglycin promotes a more aggressive cancer cell phenotype and may protect breast cancer cells from complement attack supporting their survival and expansion.
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