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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinska och farmaceutiska grundvetenskaper) hsv:(Läkemedelskemi) "

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1.
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2.
  • Lai, Kuei-Hung (författare)
  • Studies on anti-leukemic terpenoids from medicinal mushrooms and marine sponges with ChemGPS-NP-based targets investigation of lead compounds
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis investigates the anti-leukemic activity of terpenoids isolated from medicinal mushrooms and marine sponges, as well as their possible targets and mechanisms of action.In the first section, we focused on studying the triterpenoidal components of three triterpenoid-enriched medicinal mushrooms Antrodia cinnamomea, Ganoderma lucidum, and Poria cocos, which have been used in folk medicine for centuries and also developed into several contemporary marketed products. We isolated the major and characteristic triterpenoids from these mushrooms, together with six new lanostanoids (II-1–II-6). The anti-leukemic activity of the isolates was evaluated in vitro using MTT proliferative assay and seven of them exhibited potential anti-leukemic effect. The active lead compounds were further subjected to computational analyses utilizing the ChemGPS-NP tool. We established a database for the anti-leukemic relevant chemical space of triterpenoids isolated from these three medicinal mushrooms, which could be used as a reference database for further research on anti-leukemic triterpenoids. Our results indicated that the anti-leukemic effect of the active lead compounds was mediated not only through topoisomerases inhibition but also through inhibiting DNA polymerases.The second and third sections focused on isolation of anti-leukemic sesterterpenoids from sponges. The investigation of Carteriospongia sp. led to the isolation of two new scalarane-type sesterterpenoids (III-1 and III-2) and one known tetraprenyltoluquinol-related metabolite (III-3). All isolates exhibit an apoptotic mechanism of action against Molt 4 cells, found to be mediated through the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and inhibition of topoisomerase IIα expression. Detailed investigation of the apoptotic mechanism of action using molecular docking analysis revealed that compound III-1 might target Hsp90 protein. The apoptotic-inducing effect of III-3 was supported by in vivo experiment by suppressing the volume of xenograft tumor growth (47.58%) compared with the control.In the final section of this thesis we studied manoalide and its derivatives, sesterterpenoids isolated from the sponge Luffariella sp.. Manoalide has been studied as a potential anti-inflammatory agent for the last thirty years with more than 200 publications and 40 patents. However, the configurations at positions 24 and 25 were never revealed. In the current study, ten manoalide-type sesterterpenoids (IV-1–IV-10) were isolated from Luffariella sp. and their stereoisomers at positions 24 and 25 were identified and separated for the first time. The configuration at positions 24 and 25 showed to have a significant effect on the anti-leukemic activity of manoalide derivatives, with the 24R,25S-isomer exhibiting the most potent anti-leukemic activity. The apoptotic mechanism of action of compound IV-7 against Molt 4 cells was investigated, and the compound was found to trigger MMP disruption and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Compound IV-7 also inhibited activity against both human topoisomerases, I and II. The in vivo experiment further supported the anti-leukemic effect of IV-7 with a 66.11% tumor volume suppression compared to the control.
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3.
  • Greiff, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of topical platelet activating factor on the guinea-pig tracheobronchial mucosa in vivo
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6772. ; 160:4, s. 387-391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Platelet activating factor (PAF) has been reported to produce a variety of airway effects including epithelial damage and increased airway-lung absorption of hydrophilic tracers. The present study examines effects of PAF on the guinea-pig tracheobronchial mucosa in vivo. Vehicle with and without PAF (4.0 and 8.0 nmol) was superfused onto the tracheobronchial mucosa. The levels of 125I-albumin, previously given intravenously, were determined in tracheobronchial lavage fluids as an index of mucosal exudation of plasma. The mucosa was also examined by scanning electron microscopy. In separate animals, 99mTc-DTPA (a low molecular weight, 492 Da, hydrophilic tracer) was superfused onto the mucosal surface through an oro-tracheal catheter, together with vehicle or PAF (8.0 nmol). A gamma camera determined the disappearance rate of 99mTc-DTPA from the airways as an index of mucosal absorption. PAF produced dose-dependent mucosal exudation of plasma up to 20-fold greater than control (P < 0.001). However, PAF did not damage the epithelium and the absorption ability of the airway mucosa was unaffected. The results, in contrast to previous reports, suggest that PAF may not readily damage the airway mucosa even at large exudative doses of the agent. The present finding support the view that the plasticity of the epithelial junctions allows the creation of valve-like paracellular pathways for unidirectional clearance of extravasated plasma into the airway lumen. We suggest that endogenous PAF may participate in first line respiratory defence reactions by causing lumenal entry of bulk plasma without harming the epithelium.
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4.
  • Korsgren, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Allergic eosinophil-rich inflammation develops in lungs and airways of B cell-deficient mice
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Medicine. - : Rockefeller University Press. - 1540-9538. ; 185:5, s. 885-892
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Immunoglobulins (Ig), particularly IgE, are believed to be crucially involved in the pathogenesis of asthma and, equally, in allergic models of the disease. To validate this paradigm we examined homozygous mutant C57BL/6 mice, which are B cell deficient, lacking all Ig. Mice were immunized intraperitoneally with 10 micrograms ovalbumin (OVA) plus alum, followed by daily (day 14-20) 30 min exposures to OVA aerosol (OVA/OVA group). Three control groups were run: OVA intraperitoneally plus saline (SAL) aerosol (OVA/SAL group); saline intraperitoneally plus saline aerosol; saline intraperitoneally plus OVA aerosol (n = 6-7). Lung and large airway tissues obtained 24 h after the last OVA or SAL exposure were examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Ig-deficient mice receiving OVA/ OVA treatment had swollen and discolored lungs and exhibited marked eosinophilia both in large airway subepithelial tissue (49.2 +/- 12.0 cells/mm basement membrane [BM] versus OVA/ SAL control 1.2 +/- 0.3 cells/mm BM; P < 0.001), and perivascularly and peribronchially in the lung (49.3 +/- 9.0 cells/unit area versus OVA/SAL control 2.6 +/- 0.6 cells/unit area; P < 0.001). The eosinophilia extended to the regional lymph nodes. TEM confirmed the subepithelial and perivascular localization of eosinophils. Mucus cells in large airway epithelium increased from 1.5 +/- 0.8 (OVA/SAL mice) to 39.5 +/- 5.7 cells/mm BM in OVA/OVA treated mice (P < 0.001). OVA/SAL mice never differed from the other control groups. Corresponding experiments in wild-type mice (n = 6-7 in each group) showed qualitatively similar but less pronounced eosinophil and mucus cell changes. Macrophages and CD4+ T cells increased in lungs of all OVA/OVA-treated mice. Mast cell number did not differ but degranulation was detected only in OVA/OVA-treated wild-type mice. Immunization to OVA followed by OVA challenges thus cause eosinophil-rich inflammation in airways and lungs of mice without involvement of B cells and Ig.
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5.
  • Persson, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • The mouse trap
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. - : Elsevier. - 0165-6147. ; 18:12, s. 465-467
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mouse models of asthma are now being used extensively in drug research. However, the successful unravelling of combinatorial interplays of cells and molecules in the murine airways may not be matched by equally successful demonstrations of an asthma-like pathophysiology. Here, Carl Persson, Jonas Erjefalt, Magnus Korsgren and Frank Sundler discuss the fact that major features of asthma may still need to be demonstrated in the airways of allergic mice.
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6.
  • Persson, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Unbalanced research
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. - : Elsevier. - 0165-6147. ; 22:10, s. 538-541
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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7.
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8.
  • Brattström, L, et al. (författare)
  • Pyridoxine reduces cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein and increases antithrombin III activity in 80-year-old men with low plasma pyridoxal 5-phosphate
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. - : Informa Healthcare. - 1502-7686. ; 50:8, s. 873-877
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have previously observed that pyridoxine treatment reduced plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations and increased antithrombin III (AT III) activity in atherosclerotic patients with subnormal plasma pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP) levels. In order to confirm these results, we selected 17 males with low plasma PLP levels from a group of 122 80-year-old males in whom PLP has been determined. After supplementation with 120 mg of pyridoxine per day for 8 weeks their mean plasma TC and LDL cholesterol concentrations were decreased by 10% (p less than 0.01) and 17% (p less than 0.001), respectively. There was no effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides but plasma AT III activity was increased by 6% (p less than 0.05). The mechanism by which pyridoxine acts is unclear but it is hypothesized that pyridoxine-derived PLP may enhance the catabolism of LDL and the activity of AT III by inhibiting their glycosylation.
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9.
  • Bravell, Marie Ernsth, et al. (författare)
  • How to assess frailty and the need for care? Report from the Study of Health and Drugs in the Elderly (SHADES) in community dwellings in Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. - : Elsevier. - 1872-6976 .- 0167-4943. ; 53:1, s. 40-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Knowledge about the need for care of elderly individuals in community dwellings and the factors affecting their needs and support is limited. The aim of this study was to characterize the frailty of a population of elderly individuals living in community dwellings in Sweden in relation to co-morbidity, use of drugs, and risk of severe conditions such as malnutrition, pressure ulcers, and falls. In 2008, 315 elderly individuals living in community dwellings were interviewed and examined as part of the SHADES-study. The elderly demonstrated co-morbidity (a mean of three diseases) and polypharmacy (an average of seven drugs). More than half the sample was at risk for malnutrition, one third was at risk for developing pressure ulcers, and nearly all (93%) had an increased risk of falling and a great majority had cognitive problems. Age, pulse pressure, body mass index, and specific items from the modified Norton scale (MNS), the Downton fall risk index (DFRI), and the mini nutritional assessment (MNA-SF) were related to different outcomes, defining the need for care and frailty. Based on the results of this study, we suggest a single set of items useful for understanding the need for care and to improve individual based care in community dwellings. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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10.
  • Okroj, Marcin, et al. (författare)
  • Antibodies against Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) complement control protein (KCP) in infected individuals
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Vaccine. - : Elsevier. - 1873-2518 .- 0264-410X. ; 25:48, s. 8102-8109
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the most important etiopathological factor of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and some specific types of malignant lymphomas. One of the viral lytic genes encodes the KSHV complement control protein (KCP), which functionally mimics human complement inhibitors. Although this protein provides an advantage for evading the complement attack, it can serve as target for adaptive immune response. Herein, we identified anti-KCP IgG antibodies in patients with KS and KSHV-related lymphomas. KCP-specific antibodies were only detected in sera of those patients who had high titres of antibodies against lytic or latent KSHV antigens. Complement control protein domain 2 (CCP2) was found to be the most immunogenic part of the KCP protein. Furthermore, pre-incubation of KCP-expressing CHO cells with patient sera containing anti-KCP antibodies resulted in an increased complement deposition when incubated with human serum.
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