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  • Abramowski, A., et al. (författare)
  • Acceleration of petaelectronvolt protons in the Galactic Centre
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 531:7595, s. 476-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Galactic cosmic rays reach energies of at least a few petaelectronvolts(1) (of the order of 1015 electronvolts). This implies that our Galaxy contains petaelectronvolt accelerators ('PeVatrons'), but all proposed models of Galactic cosmic-ray accelerators encounter difficulties at exactly these energies(2). Dozens of Galactic accelerators capable of accelerating particles to energies of tens of teraelectronvolts (of the order of 10(13) electronvolts) were inferred from recent gamma-ray observations(3). However, none of the currently known accelerators-not even the handful of shell-type supernova remnants commonly believed to supply most Galactic cosmic rays-has shown the characteristic tracers of petaelectronvolt particles, namely, power-law spectra of.-rays extending without a cut-off or a spectral break to tens of teraelectronvolts(4). Here we report deep.-ray observations with arcminute angular resolution of the region surrounding the Galactic Centre, which show the expected tracer of the presence of petaelectronvolt protons within the central 10 parsecs of the Galaxy. We propose that the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* is linked to this PeVatron. Sagittarius A* went through active phases in the past, as demonstrated by X-ray outbursts(5) and an outflow from the Galactic Centre(6). Although its current rate of particle acceleration is not sufficient to provide a substantial contribution to Galactic cosmic rays, Sagittarius A* could have plausibly been more active over the last 10(6)-10(7) years, and therefore should be considered as a viable alternative to supernova remnants as a source of petaelectronvolt Galactic cosmic rays.</p>
  • Abramsson, Mia, et al. (författare)
  • Research and development projects aiming to increase young adults’ knowledge of energy and energy efficiency
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: eceee Summer Study proceedings. - European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE). - 978-91-980482-6-1 - 978-91-980482-7-8 ; s. 509-514
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Children and young adults are important target groups in order to decrease the climate change effects and increase an energy-efficient end use. With increased knowledge and awareness these target groups could play a constructive role in the current and future transition of the energy system. The correlation between knowledge, awareness and behavioral change is central for improved energy efficiency in the society. Children and young adults and their interest in the natural and technical science are central to ensure the long-term capability needed to transform the energy system.</p><p>To support this development the Swedish Energy Agency started with young adults as a target group in research and development projects in 2008. Since then approximately 5 million EUR has been allocated for projects aiming to increase knowledge in these areas among young adults by developing practical methods and tools, educational material or in-service training for teachers. Around thirty projects have been supported and three of them, KNUT school development project, KNUT evaluation research project and The Energy Fall, will be discussed in this paper.</p><p> </p><p>The KNUT school development project is a national school project aiming at increasing students’ knowledge and interest in energy and energy efficiency. KNUT also stimulates learning and career choices related to energy, climate and resources and therefor strengthen Sweden's capacities and competitiveness future in these areas. To ensure the scientific base a research group from Linköping University (KNUT evaluation research project) has followed the project’s activities. Best practices of methods and tools have been tested and disseminated within the project at both regional and national level.</p><p> </p><p>The KNUT evaluation research project has identified and analyzed five success factors regarding energy, climate change and energy efficiency of importance for education: </p><ul><li><p>The relationships between the national, regional and local level</p></li><li><p>The function of education vary in time due to the development of society</p></li><li><p>Get to know the education content inside and outside of school</p></li><li><p>Successful meetings between different actors</p></li><li><p>The educational systems capacity to educate all and at the same time recruit some for specialization</p></li></ul><p>This paper will present an overview of the Swedish Energy Agency’s work on research and development projects aiming to increase young adults’ knowledge of energy and energy efficiency and the KNUT evaluation research project results, analysis and success factors.</p>
  • Achtel, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Surprising Insensitivity of Homogeneous Acetylation of Cellulose Dissolved in Triethyl(n-octyl)ammonium Chloride/Molecular Solvent on the Solvent Polarity
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Macromolecular materials and engineering (Print). - Wiley-VCH Verlag. - 1438-7492 .- 1439-2054. ; 303:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The homogeneous acetylation of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) by acetyl chloride and acetic anhydride in triethyl(n-octyl)ammonium chloride (N2228Cl)/molecular solvents (MSs) is investigated. The reaction with both acylating agents shows the expected increase of the degree of substitution (DS) on reaction temperature and time. Under comparable reaction conditions, however, DS is surprisingly little dependent on the MS employed, although the MSs differ in empirical polarity by 7 kcal mol−1 as calculated by use of solvatochromic probes. The empirical polarities of (MCC + N2228Cl + MS) differ only by 0.8 kcal mol−1. The formation a polar electrolyte sheath around cellulose chains presumably contributes to this “leveling-off” of the dependence DS on the polarity of the parent MS employed. N2228Cl recovery and recycling is feasible. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &amp; Co. KGaA, Weinheim</p>
  • Advanced Bioelectronic Materials
  • 2015
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This book covers the recent advances in the development of bioelectronics systems and their potential application in future biomedical applications starting from system design to signal processing for physiological monitoring, to <em>in situ</em> biosensing.</p><p><em>Advanced Bioelectronics Materialshas</em> contributions from distinguished international scholars whose backgrounds mirror the multidisciplinary readership ranging from the biomedical sciences, biosensors and engineering communities with diverse backgrounds, interests and proficiency in academia and industry. The readers will benefit from the widespread coverage of the current literature, <em>state-of-the-art</em> overview of all facets of advanced bioelectronics materials ranging from real time monitoring, <em>in situ</em> diagnostics, <em>in vivo</em> imaging, image-guided therapeutics, biosensors, and translational biomedical devices and personalized monitoring.</p>
  • Agarwal, Sahil, et al. (författare)
  • Fluctuations in Arctic sea-ice extent : comparing observations and climate models
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Philosophical Transactions. Series A : Mathematical, physical, and engineering science. - 1364-503X .- 1471-2962. ; 376:2129
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The fluctuation statistics of the observed sea-ice extent during the satellite era are compared with model output from CMIP5 models using a multifractal time series method. The two robust features of the observations are that on annual to biannual time scales the ice extent exhibits white noise structure, and there is a decadal scale trend associated with the decay of the ice cover. It is shown that (i) there is a large inter-model variability in the time scales extracted from the models, (ii) none of the models exhibits the decadal time scales found in the satellite observations, (iii) five of the 21 models examined exhibit the observed white noise structure, and (iv) the multi-model ensemble mean exhibits neither the observed white noise structure nor the observed decadal trend. It is proposed that the observed fluctuation statistics produced by this method serve as an appropriate test bed for modelling studies. This article is part of the theme issue 'Modelling of sea-ice phenomena'.</p>
  • Ahlborg, Helene, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Ecology and sociotechnical systems research – motivations for theoretical and methodological integration across fields
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Sustainability Transitions conference 2017.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Currently, we are witnessing a number of global trends that do not promise well for the future. Accelerating climate change, loss of biodiversity, chemical pollution, disappearance of natural forest and degradation of fishing grounds and agricultural lands are just a few of the serious environmental problems that threaten the functional and structural integrity of ecosystems, to an extent that also human societies risk collapse. The scale of human impact is now such that scholars suggest that we live in the Anthropocene. The trends are driven by several linked factors, which are not easily disentangled into manageable specific problems to be solved by specific policies. More than ever, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary collaborations are needed in order to address these urgent challenges. The objective of this paper is to argue for the importance of research on socio-technical-ecological systems (STES) rather than social-ecological (SES) and sociotechnical systems (STS) separately. Hence, we address researchers in both the social-ecological and sociotechnical fields. We organize the argument around six reasons why “technology” should be integrated into SES studies. We call these reasons: (1) the interface and mediation aspect, (2) ambivalence, (3) the agency aspect, (4) the question of scale, (5) the question of governance and politics, and (6) the question of epistemology and framing. We also highlight potential conceptual conflicts and mistranslations. Our discussion is primarily a theoretical argument, exemplified with empirical examples.Among the conceptual challenges, we note that SES scholars, if they consider technology in their analyses, generally treat it as an exogenous factor or as a passive background element. Similarly, STS scholars tend to neglect ecological dynamics and refer to the ecological domain mainly in terms of inputs and outputs, e.g. natural resources, environmental and health problems caused by human activities. In light of the discussion, we conclude that the importance of collaborating across the two fields goes beyond each field adding pieces together. We argue that integration and translation across these domains will lead to qualitative change in the theoretical and methodological approaches of both fields; and that technology, society and ecology should be given symmetric analytical attention.
  • Ahlborg, Helene, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Mismatch between scales of knowledge in Nepalese forestry – epistemology, power and policy implications
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Ecology & society. - 1708-3087. ; 17:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The importance of scale dynamics and scale mismatches for outcomes of natural resource management has been widely discussed. In this article we develop theoretically the concept of ‘knowledge scales’ and illustrate it through empirical examples. We define scales of knowledge as the temporal and spatial extent and character of knowledge held by individuals and collectives, and argue that disparate scales of knowledge are an important ‘scale mismatch,’ which together with scale politics, lead to conflicts in Nepalese forest management. We reveal how there are multiple positions within local knowledge systems and how these positions emerge through people’s use of and relations to the forest, in a dynamic interaction between the natural environment and relations of power such as gender, literacy, and caste. Nepalese forestry is a realm in which power and scales of knowledge are being coproduced in community forestry, at the interface of material and symbolic practices in use of forest resources, and in contestations of social-political relations. Further, we reflect upon the importance of clear and precise use of scale concepts and present a methodological approach using triangulation for divergence, enabling researchers and practitioners involved in natural resource management to reveal scale mismatches and politics.
  • Ahmad, Arslan (författare)
  • Evaluation and optimization of advanced oxidation coagulation filtration (AOCF) to produce drinking water with less than 1 μg/L of arsenic
  • 2014
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Arsenic is an extremely poisonous element. It has been reported to cause contamination of drinking water sources in many parts of the world. The current drinking water permissible limit for arsenic in the European Union is 10 μg/L. The World Health Organization has a general rule that no substance may have a higher lifetime risk of more than 1 in 100,000. However, several studies on toxicity of arsenic suggest that purely based on health effects the arsenic limit of 10 μg/L is not sufficient. The main goal of this research was to develop an efficient arsenic removal technology that could be able to produce drinking water with an arsenic concentration of less than 1 μg/L. For this purpose, an innovative three step technique, Advanced Oxidation - Coagulation - Filtration (AOCF), was investigated through bench-scale and pilot scale experiments in the Netherlands at the water treatment plant of Dorst. Firstly, prior to the investigations on AOCF, the existing arsenic removal at the water treatment plant was investigated. Secondly, through a series of bench-scale experiments, the optimum type of coagulant, its combination dose with the selected chemical oxidant and optimum process pH were determined. Eventually, the partially optimized technique from the bench-scale was implemented at the pilot scale physical model of water treatment plant Dorst where AOCF was evaluated for arsenic removal and its effect on the removal of other common undesirable groundwater constituents. The optimized AOCF technology consistently removed arsenic from groundwater to below 1 ug/L when implemented at pilot scale. The overall effluent quality also remained acceptable. The method is efficient with both types of filtration media tested in this research i.e., virgin sand and metal oxide coated sand, however virgin sand media showed slightly better arsenic removal efficiency.</p>
  • Aid, Graham, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Action Research In Waste Management Application to construction and demolition waste in the Stockholm region
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Project BRA. - Linnaeus University.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The action research methodology and several of its methods have previously been highlighted and described by the authors as a fitting and rigorous framework approach for complex waste management systems.  This was in response to criticism of the ex ante selection of traditional empiric systems analysis tools to provide decision support and ‘sustainable improvement’ in such complex systems which often involve strong human and political factors.   Several of the action research methods described have recently been utilized in a case study around mineral (aggregate) construction and demolition waste in the Stockholm region.  These methods were integrated through a series of workshops and work areas undergone together with project members from several private and public sectors.  Leaving the problem fuzzy (loosely defined) in the beginning; utilizing convergent interviewing, rich pictures and focus groups allowed the researchers and partner stakeholders to identify not one but several problem areas within the system of focus.  Indicator creation and a dialectic processes were then used to identify qualitative and quantitative aspects of salience around these problem areas.  These resulting indicators were strengthened through a process of verification.  Each indicator was then analyzed by what was deemed to be appropriate and transparent means.  It is argued that this approach may create better communication, transparency, and understanding by the stakeholders.  These factors in turn allowing stronger stakeholder ownership of the process and assisting in more informed decisions and help to provide stability for desired change. However the process was not without its drawbacks such as intense communication and time requirements.</p>
  • Aili, Hans, 1947-, et al. (författare)
  • Jacob Theodor Klein's Critique of Peter Artedi's <em>Ichthyologia</em> (1738)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Svenska Linnésällskapets årsskrift. - 0375-2038. ; s. 39-84
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>An anonymous critique of Peter Artedi’s (1705‒1735) <em>Ichthyologia</em><em> sive opera omnia de piscibus</em>, the latter edited and published posthumously by Carolus Linnaeus (1707‒ 1778) in 1738, is shown to have been written by the Prussian jurist and naturalist Jacob Theodor Klein (1685‒1759), and sent to Hans Sloane (1660−1753) in London for his approval. The critique is transcribed and translated, and its contents assessed in light of Artedi’s contribution to Linnaean systematics. While in some ways highly critical of Artedi, Klein must have been well aware that by criticizing Artedi he was, by association, criticizing Linnaeus as well. Linnaeus’s editorial contributions to the <em>Ichthyologia</em><em> </em>as well as his on-going antagonistic relationship with Klein are also discussed.</p>
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