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1.
  • Ding, Baojian, et al. (författare)
  • Sequence variation determining stereochemistry of a delta-11 desaturase active in moth sex pheromone biosynthesis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. - : Elsevier. - 1879-0240. ; 74, s. 68-75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A Δ11 desaturase from the oblique banded leaf roller moth Choristoneura rosaceana takes the saturated myristic acid and produces a mixture of (E)-11-tetradecenoate and (Z)-11-tetradecenoate with an excess of the Z isomer (35:65). A desaturase from the spotted fireworm moth Choristoneura parallela also operates on myristic acid substrate but produces almost pure (E)-11-tetradecenoate. The two desaturases share 92% amino acid identity and 97% amino acid similarity. There are 24 amino acids differing between these two desaturases. We constructed mutations at all of these positions to pinpoint the sites that determine the product stereochemistry. We demonstrated with a yeast functional assay that one amino acid at the cytosolic carboxyl terminus of the protein (258E) is critical for the Z activity of the C. rosaceana desaturase. Mutating the glutamic acid (E) into aspartic acid (D) transforms the C. rosaceana enzyme into a desaturase with C. parallela-like activity, whereas the reciprocal mutation of the C. parallela desaturase transformed it into an enzyme producing an intermediate 64:36 E/Z product ratio. We discuss the causal link between this amino acid change and the stereochemical properties of the desaturase and the role of desaturase mutations in pheromone evolution.
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2.
  • Yuvaraj, Jothi Kumar, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of odorant receptors from a non-ditrysian moth, Eriocrania semipurpurella sheds light on the origin of the sex pheromone receptors in Lepidoptera
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution. - : Oxford University Press. - 0737-4038. ; 34:11, s. 2733-2746
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pheromone receptors (PRs) are essential in moths to detect sex pheromones for mate finding. However, it remainsunknown from which ancestral proteins these specialized receptors arose. The oldest lineages of moths, so-callednon-ditrysian moths, use short-chain pheromone components, secondary alcohols, or ketones, so called Type 0 pheromonesthat are similar to many common plant volatiles. It is, therefore, possible that receptors for these ancestralpheromones evolved from receptors detecting plant volatiles. Hence, we identified the odorant receptors (ORs) from anon-ditrysian moth, Eriocrania semipurpurella (Eriocraniidae, Lepidoptera), and performed functional characterizationof ORs using HEK293 cells. We report the first receptors that respond to Type 0 pheromone compounds; EsemOR3displayed highest sensitivity toward (2S, 6Z)-6-nonen-2-ol, whereas EsemOR5 was most sensitive to the behavioralantagonist (Z)-6-nonen-2-one. These receptors also respond to plant volatiles of similar chemical structures, but withlower sensitivity. Phylogenetically, EsemOR3 and EsemOR5 group with a plant volatile-responding receptor from thetortricid moth Epiphyas postvittana (EposOR3), which together reside outside the previously defined lepidopteran PRclade that contains the PRs from more derived lepidopteran families. In addition, one receptor (EsemOR1) that falls atthe base of the lepidopteran PR clade, responded specifically to b-caryophyllene and not to any other additional plant orpheromone compounds. Our results suggest that PRs for Type 0 pheromones have evolved from ORs that detectstructurally-related plant volatiles. They are unrelated to PRs detecting pheromones inmore derived Lepidoptera, which,in turn, also independently may have evolved a novel function from ORs detecting plant volatiles.
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3.
  • Zhang, Dan-Dan, et al. (författare)
  • Receptor for detection of a Type II sex pheromone in the winter moth Operophtera brumata
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • How signal diversity evolves under stabilizing selection in a pheromone-based mate recognitionsystem is a conundrum. Female moths produce two major types of sex pheromones, i.e., long-chainacetates, alcohols and aldehydes (Type I) and polyenic hydrocarbons and epoxides (Type II), alongdifferent biosynthetic pathways. Little is known on how male pheromone receptor (PR) genes evolvedto perceive the different pheromones. We report the identification of the first PR tuned to Type IIpheromones, namely ObruOR1 from the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae). ObruOR1clusters together with previously ligand-unknown orthologues in the PR subfamily for the ancestralType I pheromones, suggesting that O. brumata did not evolve a new type of PR to match the novel TypeII signal but recruited receptors within an existing PR subfamily. AsegOR3, the ObruOR1 orthologuepreviously cloned from the noctuid Agrotis segetum that has Type I acetate pheromone components,responded significantly to another Type II hydrocarbon, suggesting that a common ancestor with TypeI pheromones had receptors for both types of pheromones, a preadaptation for detection of Type II sexpheromone.
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4.
  • Anderbrant, O., et al. (författare)
  • Diprionyl esters attractive to males of the dailing pine sawfly Neodiprion dailingensis Xiao et Zhou (Hym., Diprionidae) in north-eastern China
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Entomology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0931-2048. ; 121:5, s. 281-283
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The attraction of male Neodiprion dailingensis Xiao et Zhou to pheromone substances identified from other Neodiprion species was tested in plantations of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. in Liaoning Province in north-eastern China. Both the acetate and propionate of (2S,3S,7S)-3,7-dimethyl-2-pentadecanol (diprionol) were highly attractive. An addition of 10% of the (2S,3R,7R)-isomer did not significantly reduce the catch to the acetate. The (2S,3R,7R)-isomer was not attractive by itself. This is the first pheromone study of a species belonging to the recently described East Asian group of Neodiprion. The response of N. dailingensis males is similar to that of N. sertifer males in eastern part of Asia.
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5.
  • Andersson, Martin O., et al. (författare)
  • Molecular detection of Babesia capreoli and Babesia venatorum in wild Swedish roe deer, Capreolus capreolus
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Parasites & Vectors. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1756-3305. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The epidemiology of the zoonotic tick-transmitted parasite Babesia spp. and its occurrence in wild reservoir hosts in Sweden is unclear. In European deer, several parasite species, including Babesia capreoli and the zoonotic B. venatorum and B. divergens has been reported previously. The European roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, is an important and common part of the indigenous fauna in Europe, as well as an important host for Ixodes ricinus ticks, the vector of several Babesia spp. in Europe. Here, we aimed to investigate the occurrence of Babesia spp. in roe deer in Sweden. Findings: Roe deer (n = 77) were caught and sampled for blood. Babesia spp. was detected with a PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene. The prevalence of Babesia spp. was 52 %, and two species were detected; B. capreoli and B. venatorum in 44 and 7.8 % of the individuals, respectively. Infection occurred both in summer and winter. Conclusions: We showed that roe deer in Sweden, close to the edge of their northern inland distributional range, are infected with Babesia spp. The occurrence of B. venatorum in roe deer imply that it is established in Sweden and the zoonotic implication of this finding should be regarded to a greater extent in future.
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6.
  • Huang, Xi, et al. (författare)
  • Generalist haemosporidian parasites are better adapted to a subset of host species in a multiple host community
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Ecology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0962-1083. ; 27:21, s. 4336-4346
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Parasites that can infect multiple host species are considered to be host generalists with low host specificity. However, whether generalist parasites are better adapted to a subset of their host species remains unknown. To elucidate this possibility, we compared the variation in prevalence and infection intensity among host species of three generalist parasite lineages belonging to the morphological species Haemoproteus majoris, in a natural bird community in southern Sweden. Prevalence in each host species was confirmed by nested PCR and DNA sequencing and infection intensities were quantified using lineage-specific real-time qPCR. For two of the three lineages, we detected positive correlations between prevalence and infection intensity, indicating that these generalist parasites are better adapted to a subset of host species, which may have been more frequently encountered during the evolution of the parasite; we refer to these as main host species. For both lineages, the main host species were more phylogenetically related than expected by chance as revealed by strong phylogenetic signal in prevalence among hosts. By comparing our results with previous records of these parasites, we found that the host range of a generalist parasite can vary among different communities and may partly be shaped by the presence of other parasites. Our study reveals that generalist parasites may be specialized on a subset of their host species and it highlights the importance of considering infection intensity and host phylogeny when determining the host specificity of a parasite. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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7.
  • Lukasch, Barbara, et al. (författare)
  • Genes of the major histocompatibility complex highlight interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PeerJ. - : PeerJ. - 2167-8359. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: A well-functioning immune defence is crucial for fitness, but our knowledge about the immune system and its complex interactions is still limited. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are involved in T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses, but MHC is also highly upregulated during the initial innate immune response. The aim of our study was therefore to determine to what extent the highly polymorphic MHC is involved in interactions of the innate and adaptive immune defence and if specific functional MHC alleles (FA) or heterozygosity at the MHC are more important.METHODS: To do this we used captive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) to survey MHC diversity and immune function controlling for several environmental factors. MHC class I alleles were identified using parallel amplicon sequencing and to mirror immune function, several immunological tests that correspond to the innate and adaptive immunity were conducted.RESULTS: Our results reveal that MHC was linked to all immune tests, highlighting its importance for the immune defence. While all innate responses were associated with one single FA, adaptive responses (cell-mediated and humoral) were associated with several different alleles.DISCUSSION: We found that repeated injections of an antibody in nestlings and adults were linked to different FA and hence might affect different areas of the immune system. Also, individuals with a higher number of different FA produced a smaller secondary response, indicating a disadvantage of having numerous MHC alleles. These results demonstrate the complexity of the immune system in relation to the MHC and lay the foundation for other studies to further investigate this topic.
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8.
  • Pankratova, Galina, et al. (författare)
  • Extracellular Electron Transfer by the Gram-positive Bacterium Enterococcus faecalis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Biochemistry. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0006-2960. ; 57, s. 4597-4603
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Extracellular electron transfer (EET) in microbial cells is essential for certain biotechnological applications and contributes to the biogeochemical cycling of elements and syntrophic microbial metabolism in complex natural environments. The Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, an opportunistic human pathogen, is shown to be able to transfer electrons generated in fermentation metabolism to electrodes directly and indirectly via mediators. By exploiting E. faecalis wild-type and mutant cells it is demonstrated that reduced demethylmenaquinone in the respiratory chain in the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane is crucial for the EET. Heme-proteins are not involved and cytochrome bd oxidase activity was found to attenuate EET. These results are significant for the mechanistic understanding of EET in bacteria and for design of microbial electrochemical systems. The basic findings infer that in dense microbial communities, such as in biofilm and in the large intestine, metabolism in E. faecalis and similar Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria might be electrically connected to other microbes. Such an intercellular electron transfer might confer syntrophic metabolism that promote growth and other activities of bacteria in the microbiota of humans and animals.
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9.
  • Powell, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • A highly-contiguous genome assembly of the Eurasian spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, provides insight into a major forest pest
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Communications Biology. - : Nature Research. - 2399-3642. ; 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Conifer-feeding bark beetles are important herbivores and decomposers in forest ecosystems. These species complete their life cycle in nutritionally poor substrates and some can kill enormous numbers of trees during population outbreaks. The Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) can destroy >100 million m3 of spruce in a single year. We report a 236.8 Mb I. typographus genome assembly using PacBio long-read sequencing. The final phased assembly has a contig N50 of 6.65 Mb in 272 contigs and is predicted to contain 23,923 protein-coding genes. We reveal expanded gene families associated with plant cell wall degradation, including pectinases, aspartyl proteases, and glycosyl hydrolases. This genome sequence from the genus Ips provides timely resources to address questions about the evolutionary biology of the true weevils (Curculionidae), one of the most species-rich animal families. In forests of today, increasingly stressed by global warming, this draft genome may assist in developing pest control strategies to mitigate outbreaks.
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10.
  • Rönkä, Katja, et al. (författare)
  • Putting Parasemia in its phylogenetic place : A molecular analysis of the subtribe Arctiina (Lepidoptera)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Systematic Entomology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0307-6970. ; 41:4, s. 844-853
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite being popular among amateur and professional lepidopterologists and posing great opportunities for evolutionary research, the phylogenetic relationships of tiger moths (Erebidae: Arctiinae) are not well resolved. Here we provide the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the subtribe Arctiina with the basic aim of clarifying the phylogenetic position of the Wood Tiger Moth Parasemia plantaginis Hübner, a model species in evolutionary ecology. We sampled 89 species in 52 genera within Arctiina s.l., 11 species of Callimorphina and two outgroup species. We sequenced up to seven nuclear genes (CAD, GAPDH, IDH, MDH, Ef1α, RpS5, Wingless) and one mitochondrial gene (COI) including the barcode region (a total of 5915 bp). Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference resulted in a well-resolved phylogenetic hypothesis, consisting of four clades within Arctiina s.s. and a clade comprising spilosomine species in addition to Callimorphina and outgroups. Based on our results, we present a new classification, where we consider the Diacrisia clade, Chelis clade, Apantesis clade, Micrarctia Seitz and Arctia clade as valid genera within Arctiina s.s., whereas Rhyparia Hübner syn.n. and Rhyparioides Butler syn.n. are synonymized with Diacrisia Hübner; Neoarctia Neumoegen & Dyar syn.n., Tancrea Püngeler syn.n., Hyperborea Grum-Grshimailo syn.n., Palearctia Ferguson syn.n., Holoarctia Ferguson syn.n., Sibirarctia Dubatolov syn.n. and Centrarctia Dubatolov syn.n. are synonymized with Chelis Rambur; Grammia Rambur syn.n., Orodemnias Wallengren syn.n., Mimarctia Neumoegen & Dyar syn.n., Notarctia Smith syn.n. and Holarctia Smith syn.n. are synonymized with Apantesis Walker; and Epicallia Hübner syn.n., Eucharia Hübner syn.n., Hyphoraia Hübner syn.n., Parasemia Hübner syn.n., Pericallia Hübner syn.n., Nemeophila Stephens syn.n., Ammobiota Wallengren syn.n., Platarctia Packard syn.n., Chionophila Guenée syn.n., Eupsychoma Grote syn.n., Gonerda Moore syn.n., Platyprepia Dyar syn.n., Preparctia Hampson syn.n., Oroncus Seitz syn.n., Acerbia Sotavalta syn.n., Pararctia Sotavalta syn.n., Borearctia Dubatolov syn.n., Sinoarctia Dubatolov syn.n. and Atlantarctia Dubatolov syn.n. are synonymized with Arctia Schrank, leading to 33 new genus-level synonymies. Our focal species Arctia plantaginis comb.n. is placed as sister to Arctia festiva comb.n., another widespread aposematic species showing wing pattern variation. Our molecular hypothesis can be used as a basis when adding more species to the tree and tackling interesting evolutionary questions, such as the evolution of warning signalling and mimicry in tiger moths.
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