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1.
  • Radek, Renate, et al. (författare)
  • Morphologic and molecular data help adopting the insect-pathogenic nephridiophagids (Nephridiophagidae) among the early diverging fungal lineages, close to the Chytridiomycota
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: MycoKeys. - 1314-4057 .- 1314-4049. ; 25, s. 31-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nephridiophagids are poorly known unicellular eukaryotes, previously of uncertain systematic position, that parasitize the Malpighian tubules of insects. Their life cycle includes merogony with multinucleate plasmodia and sporogony leading to small, uninucleate spores. We examined the phylogenetic affiliations of three species of Nephridiophaga, including one new species, Nephridiophaga maderae, from the Madeira cockroach (Leucophaea maderae). In addition to the specific host, the new species differs from those already known by the size of the spores and by the number of spores within the sporogenic plasmodium. The inferred phylogenetic analyses strongly support a placement of the nephridiophagids in the fungal kingdom near its root and with a close, but unresolved, relationship to the chytids (Chytridiomycota). We found evidence for the nephridiophagidean speciation as being strongly coupled to host speciation.
2.
  • Sanli, Kemal, et al. (författare)
  • Metagenomic Sequencing of Marine Periphyton: Taxonomic and Functional Insights into Biofilm Communities
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Microbiology. - 1664-302X. ; 6:1192
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Periphyton communities are complex phototrophic, multispecies biofilms that develop on surfaces in aquatic environments. These communities harbor a large diversity of organisms comprising viruses, bacteria, algae, fungi, protozoans and metazoans. However, thus far the total biodiversity of periphyton has not been described. In this study, we use metagenomics to characterize periphyton communities from the marine environment of the Swedish west coast. Although we found approximately ten times more eukaryotic rRNA marker gene sequences compared to prokaryotic, the whole metagenome-based similarity searches showed that bacteria constitute the most abundant phyla in these biofilms. We show that marine periphyton encompass a range of heterotrophic and phototrophic organisms. Heterotrophic bacteria, including the majority of proteobacterial clades and Bacteroidetes, and eukaryotic macro-invertebrates were found to dominate periphyton. The phototrophic groups comprise Cyanobacteria and the alpha-proteobacterial genus Roseobacter, followed by different micro- and macro-algae. We also assess the metabolic pathways that predispose these communities to an attached lifestyle. Functional indicators of the biofilm form of life in periphyton involve genes coding for enzymes that catalyze the production and degradation of extracellular polymeric substances, mainly in the form of complex sugars such as starch and glycogen-like meshes together with chitin. Genes for 278 different transporter proteins were detected in the metagenome, constituting the most abundant protein complexes. Finally, genes encoding enzymes that participate in anaerobic pathways, such as denitrification and methanogenesis, were detected suggesting the presence of anaerobic or low-oxygen micro-zones within the biofilms.
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3.
  • Nilsson, R. Henrik, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Mycobiome diversity: high-throughput sequencing and identification of fungi.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature reviews. Microbiology. - 1740-1534. ; 17, s. 95-109
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fungi are major ecological players in both terrestrial and aquatic environments by cycling organic matter and channelling nutrients across trophic levels. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) studies of fungal communities are redrawing the map of the fungal kingdom by hinting at its enormous - and largely uncharted - taxonomic and functional diversity. However, HTS approaches come with a range of pitfalls and potential biases, cautioning against unwary application and interpretation of HTS technologies and results. In this Review, we provide an overview and practical recommendations for aspects of HTS studies ranging from sampling and laboratory practices to data processing and analysis. We also discuss upcoming trends and techniques in the field and summarize recent and noteworthy results from HTS studies targeting fungal communities and guilds. Our Review highlights the need for reproducibility and public data availability in the study of fungal communities. If the associated challenges and conceptual barriers are overcome, HTS offers immense possibilities in mycology and elsewhere.
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4.
  • Rosenblad, Magnus Alm, et al. (författare)
  • Detection of signal recognition particle (SRP) RNAs in the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of three lineages of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: MycoKeys. - 1314-4057 .- 1314-4049. ; 13, s. 21-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During a routine scan for Signal Recognition Particle (SRP) RNAs in eukaryotic sequences, we surprisingly found in silico evidence in GenBank for a 265-base long SRP RNA sequence in the ITS1 region of a total of 11 fully identified species in three ectomycorrhizal genera of the Basidiomycota (Fungi): Astraeus, Russula, and Lactarius. To rule out sequence artifacts, one specimen from a species indicated to have the SRP RNA-containing ITS region in each of these genera was ordered and re-sequenced. Sequences identical to the corresponding GenBank entries were recovered, or in the case of a non-original but conspecific specimen differed by three bases, showing that these species indeed have an SRP RNA sequence incorporated into their ITS1 region. Other than the ribosomal genes, this is the first known case of non-coding RNAs in the eukaryotic ITS region, and it may assist in the examination of other types of insertions in fungal genomes.
5.
  • Abarenkov, Kessy, et al. (författare)
  • Annotating public fungal ITS sequences from the built environment according to the MIxS-Built Environment standard – a report from a May 23-24, 2016 workshop (Gothenburg, Sweden)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: MycoKeys. - 1314-4057 .- 1314-4049. ; 16, s. 1-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent molecular studies have identified substantial fungal diversity in indoor environments. Fungi and fungal particles have been linked to a range of potentially unwanted effects in the built environment, including asthma, decay of building materials, and food spoilage. The study of the built mycobiome is hampered by a number of constraints, one of which is the poor state of the metadata annotation of fungal DNA sequences from the built environment in public databases. In order to enable precise interrogation of such data - for example, "retrieve all fungal sequences recovered from bathrooms" - a workshop was organized at the University of Gothenburg (May 23-24, 2016) to annotate public fungal barcode (ITS) sequences according to the MIxS-Built Environment annotation standard (http:// gensc.org/ mixs/). The 36 participants assembled a total of 45,488 data points from the published literature, including the addition of 8,430 instances of countries of collection from a total of 83 countries, 5,801 instances of building types, and 3,876 instances of surface-air contaminants. The results were implemented in the UNITE database for molecular identification of fungi (http://unite.ut.ee) and were shared with other online resources. Data obtained from human/animal pathogenic fungi will furthermore be verified on culture based metadata for subsequent inclusion in the ISHAM-ITS database (http:// its. mycologylab.org).
6.
  • Ritter, Camila, et al. (författare)
  • The pitfalls of biodiversity proxies: Differences in richness patterns of birds, trees and understudied diversity across Amazonia
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 20452322. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019, The Author(s). Most knowledge on biodiversity derives from the study of charismatic macro-organisms, such as birds and trees. However, the diversity of micro-organisms constitutes the majority of all life forms on Earth. Here, we ask if the patterns of richness inferred for macro-organisms are similar for micro-organisms. For this, we barcoded samples of soil, litter and insects from four localities on a west-to-east transect across Amazonia. We quantified richness as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in those samples using three molecular markers. We then compared OTU richness with species richness of two relatively well-studied organism groups in Amazonia: trees and birds. We find that OTU richness shows a declining west-to-east diversity gradient that is in agreement with the species richness patterns documented here and previously for birds and trees. These results suggest that most taxonomic groups respond to the same overall diversity gradients at large spatial scales. However, our results show a different pattern of richness in relation to habitat types, suggesting that the idiosyncrasies of each taxonomic group and peculiarities of the local environment frequently override large-scale diversity gradients. Our findings caution against using the diversity distribution of one taxonomic group as an indication of patterns of richness across all groups.
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7.
  • Videvall, Elin, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular identification of bloodmeals and species composition in Culicoides biting midges
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Medical And Veterinary Entomology. - 0269-283X .- 1365-2915. ; 27:1, s. 104-112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Investigations of host preferences in haematophagous insects, including Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), are critical in order to assess transmission routes of vector-borne diseases. In this study, we collected and morphologically identified 164 blood-engorged Culicoides females caught in both light traps and permanent 12-m high suction traps during 20082010 in Sweden. Molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in the biting midges was performed to verify species classification, discern phylogenetic relationships and uncover possible cryptic species. Bloodmeal analysis using universal vertebrate cytochrome b primers revealed a clear distinction in host selection between mammalophilic and ornithophilic Culicoides species. Host sequences found matches in horse (n = 59), sheep (n = 39), cattle (n = 26), Eurasian elk (n = 1) and 10 different bird species (n = 18). We identified 15 Culicoides species previously recorded in Scandinavia and four additional species haplotypes that were distinctly different from the described species. All ornithophilic individuals (n = 23) were caught exclusively in the suction traps, as were, interestingly, almost all mammalophilic species (n = 41), indicating that many biting midge species may be able to cover long distances after completing a bloodmeal. These results add new information on the composition of Culicoides species and their host preferences and their potential long-distance dispersal while blood-engorged.
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8.
  • Zhao, Min, et al. (författare)
  • Phylogenetic position of the Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal Of Ornithology. - 0021-8375. ; 157:3, s. 913-918
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria is usually placed in a monotypic family or subfamily within the superfamily Certhioidea, with assumed close relationships to Certhia (treecreepers), Sitta (nuthatches) and Salpornis (spotted creepers). Previous studies have suggested that Tichodroma is most closely related to Sitta, alternatively to Salpornis. We analysed the relationships of Tichodroma using two mitochondrial and five nuclear loci. The tree based on concatenated sequences strongly supported a sister relationship between Tichodroma and Sitta, as well as between Salpornis and Certhia. However, species tree analysis (MP-EST) was unable to resolve these relationships, and although the concatenation tree remains the best hypothesis, more data are needed to corroborate this.
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9.
  • Airaud, M, et al. (författare)
  • Biologie - Les manuels visuels pour la Licence
  • 2018
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • En couleurs et très illustré, ce manuel a été conçu pour vous qui débutez un cursus scientifique universitaire. Il vous permettra d’acquérir les connaissances fondamentales en biologie, mais aussi la démarche et la rigueur scientifiques indispensables aux études supérieures. De multiples rubriques vous garantissent un apprentissage progressif et complet : un cours visuel avec de nombreux exemples concrets pour introduire et illustrer les notions et concepts clés ; des encadrés méthodologiques pour vous guider vers les bonnes pratiques et vous faire découvrir les grandes méthodes expérimentales ; des focus sur des applications, sujets de recherche ou thèmes d’actualité ; des repères historiques ; de nombreux QCM et exercices (tous corrigés) pour tester vos acquis et vous entraîner.
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10.
  • Alström, Per, et al. (författare)
  • A review of the recent advances in the systematics of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Chinese Birds. - 1674-7674. ; 4:2, s. 99-131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The systematics of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea are reviewed, focusing on studies of relationships among families and within genera, more superficially on taxonomic studies at the species level. For the families Bernieridae and Phylloscopidae, new analyses based on already published sequence data are presented. Our understanding of relationships has been vastly improved in recent years due to a large number of molecular studies. However, the relationships among the different families remain largely obscured, probably mainly as a result of rapid divergence of the different primary lineages (families). Also, species level taxonomy has been much improved in recent years due to a large number of studies applying molecular markers and/or vocalizations and other life-history data. It seems likely that the number of species will continue to increase, as new groups are being studied with modern integrative methods.
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