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  • Radek, Renate, et al. (författare)
  • Morphologic and molecular data help adopting the insect-pathogenic nephridiophagids (Nephridiophagidae) among the early diverging fungal lineages, close to the Chytridiomycota
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: MycoKeys. - 1314-4057 .- 1314-4049. ; 25, s. 31-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nephridiophagids are poorly known unicellular eukaryotes, previously of uncertain systematic position, that parasitize the Malpighian tubules of insects. Their life cycle includes merogony with multinucleate plasmodia and sporogony leading to small, uninucleate spores. We examined the phylogenetic affiliations of three species of Nephridiophaga, including one new species, Nephridiophaga maderae, from the Madeira cockroach (Leucophaea maderae). In addition to the specific host, the new species differs from those already known by the size of the spores and by the number of spores within the sporogenic plasmodium. The inferred phylogenetic analyses strongly support a placement of the nephridiophagids in the fungal kingdom near its root and with a close, but unresolved, relationship to the chytids (Chytridiomycota). We found evidence for the nephridiophagidean speciation as being strongly coupled to host speciation.
  • Sanli, Kemal, et al. (författare)
  • Metagenomic Sequencing of Marine Periphyton: Taxonomic and Functional Insights into Biofilm Communities
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Microbiology. - 1664-302X. ; 6:1192
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Periphyton communities are complex phototrophic, multispecies biofilms that develop on surfaces in aquatic environments. These communities harbor a large diversity of organisms comprising viruses, bacteria, algae, fungi, protozoans and metazoans. However, thus far the total biodiversity of periphyton has not been described. In this study, we use metagenomics to characterize periphyton communities from the marine environment of the Swedish west coast. Although we found approximately ten times more eukaryotic rRNA marker gene sequences compared to prokaryotic, the whole metagenome-based similarity searches showed that bacteria constitute the most abundant phyla in these biofilms. We show that marine periphyton encompass a range of heterotrophic and phototrophic organisms. Heterotrophic bacteria, including the majority of proteobacterial clades and Bacteroidetes, and eukaryotic macro-invertebrates were found to dominate periphyton. The phototrophic groups comprise Cyanobacteria and the alpha-proteobacterial genus Roseobacter, followed by different micro- and macro-algae. We also assess the metabolic pathways that predispose these communities to an attached lifestyle. Functional indicators of the biofilm form of life in periphyton involve genes coding for enzymes that catalyze the production and degradation of extracellular polymeric substances, mainly in the form of complex sugars such as starch and glycogen-like meshes together with chitin. Genes for 278 different transporter proteins were detected in the metagenome, constituting the most abundant protein complexes. Finally, genes encoding enzymes that participate in anaerobic pathways, such as denitrification and methanogenesis, were detected suggesting the presence of anaerobic or low-oxygen micro-zones within the biofilms.
  • Nilsson, R. Henrik, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Mycobiome diversity: high-throughput sequencing and identification of fungi.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature reviews. Microbiology. - 1740-1534. ; 17, s. 95-109
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fungi are major ecological players in both terrestrial and aquatic environments by cycling organic matter and channelling nutrients across trophic levels. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) studies of fungal communities are redrawing the map of the fungal kingdom by hinting at its enormous - and largely uncharted - taxonomic and functional diversity. However, HTS approaches come with a range of pitfalls and potential biases, cautioning against unwary application and interpretation of HTS technologies and results. In this Review, we provide an overview and practical recommendations for aspects of HTS studies ranging from sampling and laboratory practices to data processing and analysis. We also discuss upcoming trends and techniques in the field and summarize recent and noteworthy results from HTS studies targeting fungal communities and guilds. Our Review highlights the need for reproducibility and public data availability in the study of fungal communities. If the associated challenges and conceptual barriers are overcome, HTS offers immense possibilities in mycology and elsewhere.
  • Rosenblad, Magnus Alm, et al. (författare)
  • Detection of signal recognition particle (SRP) RNAs in the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of three lineages of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: MycoKeys. - 1314-4057 .- 1314-4049. ; 13, s. 21-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During a routine scan for Signal Recognition Particle (SRP) RNAs in eukaryotic sequences, we surprisingly found in silico evidence in GenBank for a 265-base long SRP RNA sequence in the ITS1 region of a total of 11 fully identified species in three ectomycorrhizal genera of the Basidiomycota (Fungi): Astraeus, Russula, and Lactarius. To rule out sequence artifacts, one specimen from a species indicated to have the SRP RNA-containing ITS region in each of these genera was ordered and re-sequenced. Sequences identical to the corresponding GenBank entries were recovered, or in the case of a non-original but conspecific specimen differed by three bases, showing that these species indeed have an SRP RNA sequence incorporated into their ITS1 region. Other than the ribosomal genes, this is the first known case of non-coding RNAs in the eukaryotic ITS region, and it may assist in the examination of other types of insertions in fungal genomes.
  • Abarenkov, Kessy, et al. (författare)
  • Annotating public fungal ITS sequences from the built environment according to the MIxS-Built Environment standard – a report from a May 23-24, 2016 workshop (Gothenburg, Sweden)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: MycoKeys. - 1314-4057 .- 1314-4049. ; 16, s. 1-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent molecular studies have identified substantial fungal diversity in indoor environments. Fungi and fungal particles have been linked to a range of potentially unwanted effects in the built environment, including asthma, decay of building materials, and food spoilage. The study of the built mycobiome is hampered by a number of constraints, one of which is the poor state of the metadata annotation of fungal DNA sequences from the built environment in public databases. In order to enable precise interrogation of such data - for example, "retrieve all fungal sequences recovered from bathrooms" - a workshop was organized at the University of Gothenburg (May 23-24, 2016) to annotate public fungal barcode (ITS) sequences according to the MIxS-Built Environment annotation standard (http:// gensc.org/ mixs/). The 36 participants assembled a total of 45,488 data points from the published literature, including the addition of 8,430 instances of countries of collection from a total of 83 countries, 5,801 instances of building types, and 3,876 instances of surface-air contaminants. The results were implemented in the UNITE database for molecular identification of fungi (http://unite.ut.ee) and were shared with other online resources. Data obtained from human/animal pathogenic fungi will furthermore be verified on culture based metadata for subsequent inclusion in the ISHAM-ITS database (http:// its. mycologylab.org).
  • Ritter, Camila, et al. (författare)
  • The pitfalls of biodiversity proxies: Differences in richness patterns of birds, trees and understudied diversity across Amazonia
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019, The Author(s). Most knowledge on biodiversity derives from the study of charismatic macro-organisms, such as birds and trees. However, the diversity of micro-organisms constitutes the majority of all life forms on Earth. Here, we ask if the patterns of richness inferred for macro-organisms are similar for micro-organisms. For this, we barcoded samples of soil, litter and insects from four localities on a west-to-east transect across Amazonia. We quantified richness as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in those samples using three molecular markers. We then compared OTU richness with species richness of two relatively well-studied organism groups in Amazonia: trees and birds. We find that OTU richness shows a declining west-to-east diversity gradient that is in agreement with the species richness patterns documented here and previously for birds and trees. These results suggest that most taxonomic groups respond to the same overall diversity gradients at large spatial scales. However, our results show a different pattern of richness in relation to habitat types, suggesting that the idiosyncrasies of each taxonomic group and peculiarities of the local environment frequently override large-scale diversity gradients. Our findings caution against using the diversity distribution of one taxonomic group as an indication of patterns of richness across all groups.
  • Airaud, M, et al. (författare)
  • Biologie - Les manuels visuels pour la Licence
  • 2018
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • En couleurs et très illustré, ce manuel a été conçu pour vous qui débutez un cursus scientifique universitaire. Il vous permettra d’acquérir les connaissances fondamentales en biologie, mais aussi la démarche et la rigueur scientifiques indispensables aux études supérieures. De multiples rubriques vous garantissent un apprentissage progressif et complet : un cours visuel avec de nombreux exemples concrets pour introduire et illustrer les notions et concepts clés ; des encadrés méthodologiques pour vous guider vers les bonnes pratiques et vous faire découvrir les grandes méthodes expérimentales ; des focus sur des applications, sujets de recherche ou thèmes d’actualité ; des repères historiques ; de nombreux QCM et exercices (tous corrigés) pour tester vos acquis et vous entraîner.
  • Halwachs, Bettina, et al. (författare)
  • Critical Issues in mycobiota analysis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Microbiology. - 1664-302X. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fungi constitute an important part of the human microbiota and they play a significant role for health and disease development. Advancements made in the culture-independent analysis of microbial communities have broadened our understanding of the mycobiota, however, microbiota analysis tools have been mainly developed for bacteria (e.g., targeting the 16S rRNA gene) and they often fall short if applied to fungal marker-gene based investigations (i.e., internal transcribed spacers, ITS). In the current paper we discuss all major steps of a fungal amplicon analysis starting with DNA extraction from specimens up to bioinformatics analyses of next-generation sequencing data. Specific points are discussed at each step and special emphasis is placed on the bioinformatics challenges emerging during operational taxonomic unit (OTU) picking, a critical step in mycobiota analysis. By using an in silico ITS1 mock community we demonstrate that standard analysis pipelines fall short if used with default settings showing erroneous fungal community representations. We highlight that switching OTU picking to a closed reference approach greatly enhances performance. Finally, recommendations are given on how to perform ITS based mycobiota analysis with the currently available measures.
  • Šandová, Markéta, et al. (författare)
  • Relationships within Capitotricha bicolor (Lachnaceae, Ascomycota) as inferred from ITS rDNA sequences, including some notes on the Brunnipila and Erioscyphella clades
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Mycological progress. - 1617-416X. ; 17:1-2 / S1, s. 89-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • DNA sequences of Capitotricha bicolor from Quercus, Fagus sylvatica, Alnus alnobetula, and Nothofagus, and C. rubi from Rubus idaeus were obtained from apothecia to establish whether specimens from different hosts belong to separate species. The obtained ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 rDNA sequences were examined with Bayesian and parsimony phylogenetic analyses. Intra- and interspecific variation was also investigated based on molecular distances in the ITS region. The phylogenetic analyses supported the specific distinctness of Capitotricha rubi and the Capitotricha from Nothofagus, but also suggest specific distinctness between samples from Quercus, Fagus, and Alnus. The interspecific distances were larger than intraspecific distances for all examined units. The smallest distance was found between the “Alnus alnobetula” and “Fagus sylvatica” units. Two new sequences of Brunnipila are published. Capitotricha, Lachnum, and Erioscyphella are compared to each other based on hair and excipulum characteristics.
  • Tedersoo, Leho, et al. (författare)
  • Shotgun metagenomes and multiple primer pair-barcode combinations of amplicons reveal biases in metabarcoding analyses of fungi
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: MycoKeys. - 1314-4057 .- 1314-4049. ; 10, s. 1-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rapid development of high-throughput (HTS) molecular identification methods has revolutionized our knowledge about taxonomic diversity and ecology of fungi. However, PCR-based methods exhibit multiple technical shortcomings that may bias our understanding of the fungal kingdom. This study was initiated to quantify potential biases in fungal community ecology by comparing the relative performance of amplicon-free shotgun metagenomics and amplicons of nine primer pairs over seven nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) regions often used in metabarcoding analyses. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) barcodes ITS1 and ITS2 provided greater taxonomic and functional resolution and richness of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% similarity threshold compared to barcodes located within the ribosomal small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) genes. All barcode-primer pair combinations provided consistent results in ranking taxonomic richness and recovering the importance of floristic variables in driving fungal community composition in soils of Papua New Guinea. The choice of forward primer explained up to 2.0% of the variation in OTU-level analysis of the ITS1 and ITS2 barcode data sets. Across the whole data set, barcode-primer pair combination explained 37.6-38.1% of the variation, which surpassed any environmental signal. Overall, the metagenomics data set recovered a similar taxonomic overview, but resulted in much lower fungal rDNA sequencing depth, inability to infer OTUs, and high uncertainty in identification. We recommend the use of ITS2 or the whole ITS region for metabarcoding and we advocate careful choice of primer pairs in consideration of the relative proportion of fungal DNA and expected dominant groups.
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