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1.
  • Radek, Renate, et al. (författare)
  • Morphologic and molecular data help adopting the insect-pathogenic nephridiophagids (Nephridiophagidae) among the early diverging fungal lineages, close to the Chytridiomycota
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: MycoKeys. - 1314-4057 .- 1314-4049. ; 25, s. 31-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nephridiophagids are poorly known unicellular eukaryotes, previously of uncertain systematic position, that parasitize the Malpighian tubules of insects. Their life cycle includes merogony with multinucleate plasmodia and sporogony leading to small, uninucleate spores. We examined the phylogenetic affiliations of three species of Nephridiophaga, including one new species, Nephridiophaga maderae, from the Madeira cockroach (Leucophaea maderae). In addition to the specific host, the new species differs from those already known by the size of the spores and by the number of spores within the sporogenic plasmodium. The inferred phylogenetic analyses strongly support a placement of the nephridiophagids in the fungal kingdom near its root and with a close, but unresolved, relationship to the chytids (Chytridiomycota). We found evidence for the nephridiophagidean speciation as being strongly coupled to host speciation.
2.
  • Nilsson, R. Henrik, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Mycobiome diversity: high-throughput sequencing and identification of fungi.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature reviews. Microbiology. - 1740-1534. ; 17, s. 95-109
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fungi are major ecological players in both terrestrial and aquatic environments by cycling organic matter and channelling nutrients across trophic levels. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) studies of fungal communities are redrawing the map of the fungal kingdom by hinting at its enormous - and largely uncharted - taxonomic and functional diversity. However, HTS approaches come with a range of pitfalls and potential biases, cautioning against unwary application and interpretation of HTS technologies and results. In this Review, we provide an overview and practical recommendations for aspects of HTS studies ranging from sampling and laboratory practices to data processing and analysis. We also discuss upcoming trends and techniques in the field and summarize recent and noteworthy results from HTS studies targeting fungal communities and guilds. Our Review highlights the need for reproducibility and public data availability in the study of fungal communities. If the associated challenges and conceptual barriers are overcome, HTS offers immense possibilities in mycology and elsewhere.
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3.
  • Ritter, Camila, et al. (författare)
  • The pitfalls of biodiversity proxies: Differences in richness patterns of birds, trees and understudied diversity across Amazonia
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019, The Author(s). Most knowledge on biodiversity derives from the study of charismatic macro-organisms, such as birds and trees. However, the diversity of micro-organisms constitutes the majority of all life forms on Earth. Here, we ask if the patterns of richness inferred for macro-organisms are similar for micro-organisms. For this, we barcoded samples of soil, litter and insects from four localities on a west-to-east transect across Amazonia. We quantified richness as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in those samples using three molecular markers. We then compared OTU richness with species richness of two relatively well-studied organism groups in Amazonia: trees and birds. We find that OTU richness shows a declining west-to-east diversity gradient that is in agreement with the species richness patterns documented here and previously for birds and trees. These results suggest that most taxonomic groups respond to the same overall diversity gradients at large spatial scales. However, our results show a different pattern of richness in relation to habitat types, suggesting that the idiosyncrasies of each taxonomic group and peculiarities of the local environment frequently override large-scale diversity gradients. Our findings caution against using the diversity distribution of one taxonomic group as an indication of patterns of richness across all groups.
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4.
  • Alm Rosenblad, Magnus, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • Detection of signal recognition particle (SRP) RNAs in the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of three lineages of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: MycoKeys. - 1314-4057 .- 1314-4049. ; 13, s. 21-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During a routine scan for Signal Recognition Particle (SRP) RNAs in eukaryotic sequences, we surprisingly found in silico evidence in GenBank for a 265-base long SRP RNA sequence in the ITS1 region of a total of 11 fully identified species in three ectomycorrhizal genera of the Basidiomycota (Fungi): Astraeus, Russula, and Lactarius. To rule out sequence artifacts, one specimen from a species indicated to have the SRP RNA-containing ITS region in each of these genera was ordered and re-sequenced. Sequences identical to the corresponding GenBank entries were recovered, or in the case of a non-original but conspecific specimen differed by three bases, showing that these species indeed have an SRP RNA sequence incorporated into their ITS1 region. Other than the ribosomal genes, this is the first known case of non-coding RNAs in the eukaryotic ITS region, and it may assist in the examination of other types of insertions in fungal genomes.
5.
  • Šandová, Markéta, et al. (författare)
  • Relationships within Capitotricha bicolor (Lachnaceae, Ascomycota) as inferred from ITS rDNA sequences, including some notes on the Brunnipila and Erioscyphella clades
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Mycological progress. - 1617-416X. ; 17:1-2 / S1, s. 89-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • DNA sequences of Capitotricha bicolor from Quercus, Fagus sylvatica, Alnus alnobetula, and Nothofagus, and C. rubi from Rubus idaeus were obtained from apothecia to establish whether specimens from different hosts belong to separate species. The obtained ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 rDNA sequences were examined with Bayesian and parsimony phylogenetic analyses. Intra- and interspecific variation was also investigated based on molecular distances in the ITS region. The phylogenetic analyses supported the specific distinctness of Capitotricha rubi and the Capitotricha from Nothofagus, but also suggest specific distinctness between samples from Quercus, Fagus, and Alnus. The interspecific distances were larger than intraspecific distances for all examined units. The smallest distance was found between the “Alnus alnobetula” and “Fagus sylvatica” units. Two new sequences of Brunnipila are published. Capitotricha, Lachnum, and Erioscyphella are compared to each other based on hair and excipulum characteristics.
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6.
  • Unterseher, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Mycobiomes of sympatric Amorphophallus albispathus (Araceae) and Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) – a case study reveals clear tissue preferences and differences in diversity and composition
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Mycological Progress. - 1617416X .- 18618952. ; 17:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multiple biotic and abiotic parameters influence the dynamics of individual fungal species and entire communities. Major drivers for tropical plant endophytes are undoubtedly seasonality, local habitat conditions and biogeography. However, host specialization and tissue preferences also contribute to the structuring of endophytic mycobiomes. To elucidate such specializations and preferences, we sampled two commercially important, unrelated plant species, Amorphophallus albispathus and Camellia sinensis (tea plant) simultaneously at close proximity. The mycobiomes of different tissue types were assessed with high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer DNA region. Both plants hosted different fungal communities and varied in α- and β-diversity, despite their neighboring occurrence. However, the fungal assemblages of Amorphophallus leaflets shared taxa with the mycobiomes of tea leaves, thereby suggesting common driving forces for leaf-inhabiting fungi irrespective of host plant identity. The mycobiome composition and diversity of tea leaves was clearly driven by leaf age. We suggest that the very youngest tea leaves are colonized by stochastic processes, while mycobiomes of old leaves are rather similar as the result of progressive succession. The biodiversity of fungi associated with A. albispathus was characterized by a large number of unclassified OTUs (at genus and species level) and by tissue-specific composition.This study is the first cultivation-independent high-throughput assessment of fungal biodiversity of an Amorphophallus species, and additionally expands the knowledge base on fungi associated with tea plants.
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7.
  • Abarenkov, Kessy, et al. (författare)
  • Annotating public fungal ITS sequences from the built environment according to the MIxS-Built Environment standard – a report from a May 23-24, 2016 workshop (Gothenburg, Sweden)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: MycoKeys. - 1314-4057 .- 1314-4049. ; 16, s. 1-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent molecular studies have identified substantial fungal diversity in indoor environments. Fungi and fungal particles have been linked to a range of potentially unwanted effects in the built environment, including asthma, decay of building materials, and food spoilage. The study of the built mycobiome is hampered by a number of constraints, one of which is the poor state of the metadata annotation of fungal DNA sequences from the built environment in public databases. In order to enable precise interrogation of such data – for example, “retrieve all fungal sequences recovered from bathrooms” – a workshop was organized at the University of Gothenburg (May 23-24, 2016) to annotate public fungal barcode (ITS) sequences according to the MIxS-Built Environment annotation standard (http://gensc.org/mixs/). The 36 participants assembled a total of 45,488 data points from the published literature, including the addition of 8,430 instances of countries of collection from a total of 83 countries, 5,801 instances of building types, and 3,876 instances of surface-air contaminants. The results were implemented in the UNITE database for molecular identification of fungi (http://unite.ut.ee) and were shared with other online resources. Data obtained from human/animal pathogenic fungi will furthermore be verified on culture based metadata for subsequent inclusion in the ISHAM-ITS database (http://its.mycologylab.org).
8.
  • Ritter, Camila, et al. (författare)
  • High-throughput metabarcoding reveals the effect of physicochemical soil properties on soil and litter biodiversity and community turnover across Amazonia.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: PeerJ. - 2167-8359. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Knowledge on the globally outstanding Amazonian biodiversity and its environmental determinants stems almost exclusively from aboveground organisms, notably plants. In contrast, the environmental factors and habitat preferences that drive diversity patterns for micro-organisms in the ground remain elusive, despite the fact that micro-organisms constitute the overwhelming majority of life forms in any given location, in terms of both diversity and abundance. Here we address how the diversity and community turnover of operational taxonomic units (OTU) of organisms in soil and litter respond to soil physicochemical properties; whether OTU diversities and community composition in soil and litter are correlated with each other; and whether they respond in a similar way to soil properties. Methods. We used recently inferred OTUs from high-throughput metabarcoding of the 16S (prokaryotes) and 18S (eukaryotes) genes to estimate OTU diversity (OTU richness and effective number of OTUs) and community composition for prokaryotes and eukaryotes in soil and litter across four localities in Brazilian Amazonia. All analyses were run separately for prokaryote and eukaryote OTUs, and for each group using both presence-absence and abundance data. Combining these with novel data on soil chemical and physical properties, we identify abiotic correlates of soil and litter organism diversity and community structure using regression, ordination, and variance partitioning analysis. Results. Soil organic carbon content was the strongest factor explaining OTU diversity (negative correlation) and pH was the strongest factor explaining community turnover for prokaryotes and eukaryotes in both soil and litter. We found significant effects also for other soil variables, including both chemical and physical properties. The correlation between OTU diversity in litter and in soil was non-significant for eukaryotes and weak for prokaryotes. The community compositions of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes were more separated among habitat types (terra-firme, várzea, igapó and campina) than between substrates (soil and litter). Discussion. In spite of the limited sampling (four localities, 39 plots), our results provide a broad-scale view of the physical and chemical correlations of soil and litter biodiversity in a longitudinal transect across the world’s largest rainforest. Our methods help to understand links between soil properties, OTU diversity patterns, and community composition and turnover. The lack of strong correlation between OTU diversity in litter and in soil suggests independence of diversity drives of these substrates and highlights the importance of including both measures in biodiversity assessments. Massive sequencing of soil and litter samples holds the potential to complement traditional biological inventories in advancing our understanding of the factors affecting tropical diversity.
9.
  • Zanne, Amy E, et al. (författare)
  • Fungal functional ecology: bringing a trait-based approach to plant-associated fungi.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. - 1469-185X. ; 95:2, s. 409-433
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fungi play many essential roles in ecosystems. They facilitate plant access to nutrients and water, serve as decay agents that cycle carbon and nutrients through the soil, water and atmosphere, and are major regulators of macro-organismal populations. Although technological advances are improving the detection and identification of fungi, there still exist key gaps in our ecological knowledge of this kingdom, especially related to function. Trait-based approaches have been instrumental in strengthening our understanding of plant functional ecology and, as such, provide excellent models for deepening our understanding of fungal functional ecology in ways that complement insights gained from traditional and -omics-based techniques. In this review, we synthesize current knowledge of fungal functional ecology, taxonomy and systematics and introduce a novel database of fungal functional traits (FunFun). FunFun is built to interface with other databases to explore and predict how fungal functional diversity varies by taxonomy, guild, and other evolutionary or ecological grouping variables. To highlight how a quantitative trait-based approach can provide new insights, we describe multiple targeted examples and end by suggesting next steps in the rapidly growing field of fungal functional ecology.
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10.
  • Tedersoo, Leho, et al. (författare)
  • Novel soil-inhabiting clades fill gaps in the fungal tree of life
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Microbiome. - 2049-2618. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background - Fungi are a diverse eukaryotic group of degraders, pathogens, and symbionts, with many lineages known only from DNA sequences in soil, sediments, air, and water. Results - We provide rough phylogenetic placement and principal niche analysis for >40 previously unrecognized fungal groups at the order and class level from global soil samples based on combined 18S (nSSU) and 28S (nLSU) rRNA gene sequences. Especially, Rozellomycota (Cryptomycota), Zygomycota s.lat, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota are rich in novel fungal lineages, most of which exhibit distinct preferences for climate and soil pH. Conclusions - This study uncovers the great phylogenetic richness of previously unrecognized order- to phylum-level fungal lineages. Most of these rare groups are distributed in different ecosystems of the world but exhibit distinct ecological preferences for climate or soil pH. Across the fungal kingdom, tropical and non-tropical habitats are equally likely to harbor novel groups. We advocate that a combination of traditional and high-throughput sequencing methods enable efficient recovery and phylogenetic placement of such unknown taxonomic groups.
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