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1.
  • Caputo, Andrea, 1988- (författare)
  • Genomic and morphological diversity of marine planktonic diatom-diazotroph associations : a continuum of integration and diversification through geological time
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Symbioses between eukaryotes and nitrogen (N2)-fixing cyanobacteria (or diazotrophs) are quite common in the plankton community. A few genera of diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) such as Rhizosolenia, Hemiaulus and Chaetoceros are well known to form symbioses with the heterocystous diazotrophic cyanobacteria Richelia intracellularis and Calothrix rhizosoleniae. The latter are also called diatom-diazotroph associations, or DDAs. Up to now, the prokaryotic partners have been morphologically and genetically characterized, and the phylogenetic reconstruction of the well conserved nifH gene (encodes for the nitrogenase enzyme) placed the symbionts in 3 clusters based on their host-specificity, i.e. het-1 (Rhizosolenia-R. intracellularis), het-2 (Hemiaulus-R. intracellularis), and het-3 (Chaetoceros-C- rhizosoleniae). Conversely, the diatom-hosts, major representative of the phytoplankton community and crucial contributors to the carbon (C) biogeochemical cycle, have been understudied.The first aim of this thesis was to genetically and morphologically characterize the diatom-hosts, and to reconstruct the evolutionary background of the partnerships and the symbiont integration in the host. The molecular-clock analysis reconstruction showed the ancient appearance of the DDAs, and the traits characterizing the ancestors. In addition, diatom-hosts bearing internal symbionts (with more eroded draft genomes) appeared earlier than diatom-hosts with external symbionts. Finally a blast survey highlighted a broader distribution of the DDAs than expected.The second aim of this thesis was to compare genetic and physiological characteristics of the DDAs symbionts with the other eukaryote-diazotroph symbiosis, i.e. prymnesiophyte-UCYN-A (or Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa). The genome comparison highlighted more genes for transporters in het-3 (external symbiont) and in the UCYN-A based symbiosis, suggesting that symbiont location might be relevant also for metabolic exchanges and interactions with the host and/or environment. Moreover, a summary of methodological biases that brought to an underestimation of the DDAs is reported.The third aim of this thesis was to determine the distribution of the DDAs in the South Pacific Ocean using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) approach and to outline the environmental drivers of such distribution. Among the het-groups, het-1 was the most abundant/detected and co-occurred with the other 2 symbiotic strains, all responding similarly to the influence of abiotic factors, such as temperature and salinity (positive and negative correlation, respectively). Globally, Trichodesmium dominated the qPCR detections, followed by UCYN-B. UCYN-A phylotypes (A-1, A-2) were detected without their proposed hosts, for which new oligonucleotides were designed. The latter suggested a facultative symbiosis. Finally, microscopy observations of the het-groups highlighted a discrepancy with the qPCR counts (i.e. the former were several order of magnitudes lower), leading to the idea of developing a new approach to quantify the DDAs.  The fourth aim of this thesis was to develop highly specific in situ hybridization assays (CARD-FISH) to determine the presence of alternative life-stages and/or free-living partners. The new assays were applied to samples collected in the South China Sea and compared with abundance estimates from qPCR assays for the 3 symbiotic strains. Free-living cells were indeed detected along the transect, mainly at deeper depths. Free-living symbionts had two morphotypes: trichomes and single-cells. The latter were interpreted as temporary life-stages. Consistent co-occurrence of the 3 het-groups was also found in the SCS and application of a SEM model predicted positive interactions between the het groups. We interpreted the positive interaction as absence of intra-specific competition, and consistent with the previous study, temperature and salinity were predicted as major drivers of the DDAs distribution.
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2.
  • Janson, S., et al. (författare)
  • Population genetic structure of crucian carp (Carassius carassius) in man-made ponds and wild populations in Sweden
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Aquaculture International. - 0967-6120 .- 1573-143X. ; 23:1, s. 359-368
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although once popular prior to the last century, the aquaculture of crucian carp Carassius carassius (L. 1758) in Sweden gradually fell from favour. This is the first genetic comparison of crucian carp from historic man-made ponds in the Scandinavian Peninsula. The aim was to identify old populations without admixture and to compare the relationship of pond populations from different provinces in Sweden. In total, nine microsatellite loci from 234 individuals from 20 locations in varied parts of Sweden were analysed. The genetic distances of crucian carp populations indicated that the populations in the southernmost province of Sweden, Scania, shared a common history. A pond population in the province SmAyenland also showed a common inheritance with this group. In the province Uppland, further north in Sweden, the population genetic distances suggested a much more complex history of crucian carp distributions in the ponds. The data showed that there are some ponds with potentially old populations without admixture, but also that several ponds might have been stocked with fish from many sources.
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3.
  • Fallahshahroudi, Amir, 1981- (författare)
  • Domestication Effects on the Stress Response in Chickens : Genetics, Physiology, and Behaviour
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Animal domestication, the process where animals become adapted to living in proximity to humans, is associated with the alteration of multiple traits, including decreased fearfulness and stress response. With an estimated population of 50 billion, the domesticated chicken is the most populous avian species in the world. Hundreds of chicken breeds have been developed for meat and egg production, hobby or research purposes. Multidirectional selection and the relaxation of natural selection in captivity have created immense phenotypic diversity amongst domesticates in a relatively short evolutionary time. The extensive phenotypic diversity, existence of the wild ancestor, and feasibility of intercrossing various breeds makes the chicken a suitable model animal for deciphering genetic determinants of complex traits such as stress response. We used chicken domestication as a model to gain insights about the mechanisms that regulate stress response in an avian species. We studied behavioural and physiological stress response in the ancestral Red Junglefowl and one of its domesticated progenies, White Leghorn. An advanced intercross between the aforementioned breeds was later used to map genetic loci underlying modification of stress response. The general pattern of the stress response in chickens was comparable with that reported in mammals, however we identified distinctive differences in the stress modulatory pathways in chickens. We showed that changes in the expression levels of several stress modulatory genes in the brain, the pituitary and the adrenal glands underlie the observed modified stress response in domesticated chickens. Using quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, several QTL underlying stress induced corticosterone, aldosterone and baseline dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels were detected. As a next step, we combined QTL mapping with gene expression (eQTL) mapping and narrowed two QTL down to the putative causal genes, SERPINA10 and PDE1C. Both of these genes were differentially expressed in the adrenal glands of White Leghorn and the Red Junglefowl, had overlapping eQTL with hormonal QTL, and their expression levels in the adrenal glands were correlated with plasma levels of corticosterone and al-dosterone. These two genes thus serve as strong candidates for further functional investigation concerning modification of the stress response during domestication. This dissertation increase the knowledge about genetics and physiology of the stress response in an avian species and its modification during domestication. Our findings expand the basic knowledge about the stress response in chicken, which can potentially be used to improve welfare through appropriate genetic selection.
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4.
  • Sundman, Ann-Sofie, 1982- (författare)
  • Dog behaviour : Intricate picture of genetics, epigenetics, and human-dog relations
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Dogs, Canis familiaris, share the lives of humans all over the world. That dogs, and the behavior of dogs, are of interest to many is therefore no surprise. In this thesis, the main aim has been to identify factors that affect dogs’ behaviours.The dog, Canis familiaris, is our first domesticated animal. Since domestication, various types of dogs have developed through adaptation to an environment shared with humans and through our selective breeding, resulting in a unique variation in morphology and behaviour. Although there is an individual variation in the behaviour of dogs, there is also a difference between breeds. Moreover, selection during the last decades has split some breeds into divergent types. Labrador and golden retrievers are divided into a common type, for show and companionship, and a field type, for hunting. By comparing the breed types, we can study the effects of recent selection. In Paper I, we investigate differences in general behavioural traits between Labrador and golden retriever and between common and field type within the two breeds by using results from the standardized behaviour test Dog Mentality Assessment. There were differences between breeds and types for all behavioural traits. However, there was also an interaction between breed and type. Thus, a common/field-type Labrador does not behave like a common/field-type golden retriever. Even though they have been selected for similar traits, the selection has affected the general behavioural traits differently in the two breeds.In paper II, we were interested in dogs’ human-directed social skills. Dogs have a high social competence when it comes to humans. Two experiments commonly used to study these skills are the problem-solving test, where dogs’ human-directed behaviours when faced with a problem are measured, and the pointing test, where dogs are tested on how well they understand human gestures. We compared the social skills of German shepherds and Labrador retrievers, and of common- and field-type Labradors. Labradors were more successful in the pointing test and German shepherds stayed closer to their owners during the problem solving. Among Labrador types, the field type had more human eye contact than the common type. Importantly, when comparing the two experiments, we found no positive correlations between the problem-solving test and the pointing test, suggesting that the two tests measure different aspects of human-directed social behaviour in dogs.A previous study has identified two suggestive genetic regions for human-directed social behaviours during the problem-solving test in beagles. In paper III, we show that these SNPs are also associated to social behaviours in Labrador and golden retrievers. Moreover, the Labrador breed types differed significantly in allele frequencies. This indicates that the two SNPs have been affected by recent selection and may have a part in the differences in sociability between common and field type.The behaviour of dogs cannot simply be explained by genetics, there is also an environmental component. In paper IV, we study which factors that affect long-term stress in dogs. Long-term cortisol can be measured by hair samples. We found a clear synchronization in hair cortisol concentrations between dogs and their owners. Neither dogs’ activity levels nor their behavioural traits affected the cortisol, however, the personality of the owners did. Therefore, we suggest that dogs mirror the stress level of their owners.The mediator between genes and the environment is epigenetics, and one epigenetic factor is DNA methylation. In paper V, we compared methylation patterns of wolves and dogs as well as dog breeds. Between both wolves and dogs and among dogs there were substantial differences in methylated DNA regions, suggesting that DNA methylation is likely to contribute to the vast variation among canines. We hypothesize that epigenetic factors have been important during domestication and in breed formation.In this thesis, I cover several aspects on how dogs’ behaviours can be affected, and paint an intricate picture on how genetics, epigenetics, and human-dog relations forms dog behaviour.
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5.
  • Bélteky, Johan (författare)
  • Chicken domestication : Effects of tameness on brain gene expression and DNA methylation
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Domestication greatly increases phenotypic variation in a short time span, with selection for a single phenotype and a plethora of associated phenotypic changes as an outcome of the process. The domestication process influences the underlying genomic architecture of a species, and the success and speed of the process is likely influenced by it. The main aims of my thesis was to study how domestication affects the brain of chickens: specifically changes in morphology, gene expression, and DNA methylation. Differences in gene expression and DNA methylation between White Leghorn and Red Junglefowl chickens were mapped, and inheritance of these patterns were quantified, indicating a faithful transmission of breed-specific epigenetic markers. Selection on the behavioral trait fearfulness, generated high and low fearful lines of Red Junglefowl. Both the parental population and the fifth selected generation were used for the analyses in this thesis. One experiment studied morphological changes in the brain and other vital organs, and found that relative total brain size increased in high fearful birds, as a consequence of an increase in cerebral hemisphere size in high fearful birds and not in low fearful birds. Also, the relative heart, liver, spleen and testis size increased in high fearful birds, indicating correlated morphological changes with selection for fearfulness. Two additional experiments examined differential gene expression in the hypothalamus and the anterior cerebral hemisphere. The hypothalamus differed in expression of genes with reproductive and immunological functions, whilst the cerebral hemisphere differed in expression of genes related to social behaviors and neurological functions especially those upregulated in low fearful birds.  These results indicate the occurrence of tissue- and species-specific changes in gene expression as overlap with other domestication events were nearly nonexistent. A fourth experiment sought to associate the change in fear levels and gene expression differences with DNA methylation. Chromosomal regions with differential DNA methylation between high and low fearful birds were identified, and genes in these regions had annotated functions relevant to phenotypic differences between the selection lines. This thesis is the first to study the genetic alterations of domestication using the wild ancestor of an already domesticated species to repeat the domestication process selecting against fear of humans. The findings corroborate results from previous comparisons of wild and domestic animals, and further support the theory that rigorous selection for a behavioral trait can cause a cascade of genetic and epigenetic changes facilitating the domestication of a population.
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6.
  • Wedin, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Slippery when wet : phylogeny and character evolution in the gelatinous cyanobacterial lichens (Peltigerales, Ascomycetes)
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. - San Diego : Academic Press. - 1055-7903 .- 1095-9513. ; 53:3, s. 862-871
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many lichen fungi form symbioses with filamentous Nostoc cyanobacteria, which cause the lichen to swell and become extremely gelatinous when moist. Within the Lecanoromycetes, such gelatinous lichens are today mainly classified in the Collemataceae (Peltigerales, Ascomycota). We performed Bayesian MCMC, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony analyses of three independent markers (mtSSU rDNA, nuLSU rDNA, and RPB1), to improve our understanding of the phylogeny and classification in the Peltigerales, as well as the evolution of morphological characters that have been used for classification purposes in this group. The Collemataceae and the non-gelatinous Parmariaceae are paraphyletic but can be re-circumscribed as monophyletic if Leciophysma, Physma, Ramalodium and Staurolemma are transferred to the Parmariaceae. The gelatinous taxa transferred to the Parmariaceae deviate from other Collemataceae in having simple ascospores, and several also have a ring-shaped exciple as in other Pannariaceae, rather than the disc-shaped exciple found in the typical Collemataceae. Both Collema and Leptogium are non-monophyletic. The re-circumscribed Collemataceae shares a distinct ascus type with the sister group Placynthiaceae and the Coccocarpiaceae, whereas Parmariaceae includes a variety of structures. All Parmariaceae have one-celled ascospores, whereas all Collemataceae have two- or multi-celled spores. Reconstructions of the number of character state transformations in exciple structure, thallus gelatinosity, and ascus apex structure indicate that the number of transformations is distinctly higher than the minimum possible. Most state transformations in the exciple took place from a ring-shaped to a disc-shaped exciple. Depending on the reconstruction method, most or all transformations in thallus structure took place from a non-gelatinous to a gelatinous thallus. Gains and losses of internal structures in the ascus apex account for all or a vast majority of the number of transformations in the ascus, whereas direct transformations between asci with internal structures appear to have been rare.
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7.
  • Martínez Barrio, Álvaro, et al. (författare)
  • The genetic basis for ecological adaptation of the Atlantic herring revealed by genome sequencing
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ecological adaptation is of major relevance to speciation and sustainable population management, but the underlying genetic factors are typically hard to study in natural populations due to genetic differentiation caused by natural selection being confounded with genetic drift in subdivided populations. Here, we use whole genome population sequencing of Atlantic and Baltic herring to reveal the underlying genetic architecture at an unprecedented detailed resolution for both adaptation to a new niche environment and timing of reproduction. We identify almost 500 independent loci associated with a recent niche expansion from marine (Atlantic Ocean) to brackish waters (Baltic Sea), and more than 100 independent loci showing genetic differentiation between spring- and autumn-spawning populations irrespective of geographic origin. Our results show that both coding and non-coding changes contribute to adaptation. Haplotype blocks, often spanning multiple genes and maintained by selection, are associated with genetic differentiation.
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8.
  • Almeida, Pedro, et al. (författare)
  • Genome assembly of the basket willow, Salix viminalis, reveals earliest stages of sex chromosome expansion
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; 18:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundSex chromosomes have evolved independently multiple times in eukaryotes and are therefore considered a prime example of convergent genome evolution. Sex chromosomes are known to emerge after recombination is halted between a homologous pair of chromosomes, and this leads to a range of non-adaptive modifications causing gradual degeneration and gene loss on the sex-limited chromosome. However, the proximal causes of recombination suppression and the pace at which degeneration subsequently occurs remain unclear.ResultsHere, we use long- and short-read single-molecule sequencing approaches to assemble and annotate a draft genome of the basket willow, Salix viminalis, a species with a female heterogametic system at the earliest stages of sex chromosome emergence. Our single-molecule approach allowed us to phase the emerging Z and W haplotypes in a female, and we detected very low levels of Z/W single-nucleotide divergence in the non-recombining region. Linked-read sequencing of the same female and an additional male (ZZ) revealed the presence of two evolutionary strata supported by both divergence between the Z and W haplotypes and by haplotype phylogenetic trees. Gene order is still largely conserved between the Z and W homologs, although the W-linked region contains genes involved in cytokinin signaling regulation that are not syntenic with the Z homolog. Furthermore, we find no support across multiple lines of evidence for inversions, which have long been assumed to halt recombination between the sex chromosomes.ConclusionsOur data suggest that selection against recombination is a more gradual process at the earliest stages of sex chromosome formation than would be expected from an inversion and may result instead from the accumulation of transposable elements. Our results present a cohesive understanding of the earliest genomic consequences of recombination suppression as well as valuable insights into the initial stages of sex chromosome formation and regulation of sex differentiation.
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9.
  • Klevebring, Daniel, 1981- (författare)
  • On Transcriptome Sequencing
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is about the use of massive DNA sequencing to investigate the transcriptome. During recent decades, several studies have made it clear that the transcriptome comprises a more complex set of biochemical machinery than was previously believed. The majority of the genome can be expressed as transcripts; and overlapping and antisense transcription is widespread. New technologies for the interroga- tion of nucleic acids have made it possible to investigate such cellular phenomena in much greater detail than ever before. For each application, special requirements need to be met. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the transcrip- tome and the development of technology for its analysis. In paper I, we report our development of an automated approach for sample preparation. The procedure was benchmarked against a publicly available reference data set, and we note that our approach outperformed similar manual procedures in terms of reproducibility. In the work reported in papers II-IV, we used different massive sequencing technologies to investigate the transcriptome. In paper II we describe a concatemerization approach that increased throughput by 65% using 454 sequencing,and we identify classes of transcripts not previously described in Populus. Papers III and IV both report studies based on SOLiD sequencing. In the former, we investigated transcripts and proteins for 13% of the human gene and detected a massive overlap for the upper 50% transcriptional levels. In the work described in paper IV, we investigated transcription in non-genic regions of the genome and detected expression from a high number of previ- ously unknown loci.
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10.
  • Cossu, Rosa Maria, et al. (författare)
  • LTR Retrotransposons Show Low Levels of Unequal Recombination and High Rates of Intraelement Gene Conversion in Large Plant Genomes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology and Evolution. - : Oxford University Press. - 1759-6653 .- 1759-6653. ; 9:12, s. 3449-3462
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The accumulat on and removal of transposable elements (TEs) is a major driver of genome size evolution in eukaryotes. In plants, long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) represent the majority of TEs and form most of the nuclear DNA in large genomes. Unequal recombination (UR) between LTRs leads to removal of intervening sequence and formation of solo-LTRs. UR is a major mechanism of LTR-RT removal in many angiosperms, but our understanding of LTR-RT-associated recombination within the large, LTR-RT-rich genomes of conifers is quite limited. We employ a novel read based methodology to estimate the relative rates of LTR-RT-associated UR within the genomes of four conifer and seven angiosperm species. We found the lowest rates of UR in the largest genomes studied, conifers and the angiosperm maize. Recombination may also resolve as gene conversion, which does not remove sequence, so we analyzed LTR-RT-associated gene conversion events (GCEs) in Norway spruce and six angiosperms. Opposite the trend for UR, we found the highest rates of GCEs in Norway spruce and maize. Unlike previous work in angiosperms, we found no evidence that rates of UR correlate with retroelement structural features in the conifers, suggesting that another process is suppressing UR in these species. Recent results from diverse eukaryotes indicate that heterochromatin affects the resolution of recombination, by favoring gene conversion over crossing-over, similar to our observation of opposed rates of UR and GCEs. Control of LTR-RT proliferation via formation of heterochromatin would be a likely step toward large genomes in eukaryotes carrying high LTR-RT content.
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