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1.
  • Nilsson, R. Henrik, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Mycobiome diversity: high-throughput sequencing and identification of fungi.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature reviews. Microbiology. - 1740-1534. ; 17, s. 95-109
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fungi are major ecological players in both terrestrial and aquatic environments by cycling organic matter and channelling nutrients across trophic levels. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) studies of fungal communities are redrawing the map of the fungal kingdom by hinting at its enormous - and largely uncharted - taxonomic and functional diversity. However, HTS approaches come with a range of pitfalls and potential biases, cautioning against unwary application and interpretation of HTS technologies and results. In this Review, we provide an overview and practical recommendations for aspects of HTS studies ranging from sampling and laboratory practices to data processing and analysis. We also discuss upcoming trends and techniques in the field and summarize recent and noteworthy results from HTS studies targeting fungal communities and guilds. Our Review highlights the need for reproducibility and public data availability in the study of fungal communities. If the associated challenges and conceptual barriers are overcome, HTS offers immense possibilities in mycology and elsewhere.
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2.
  • Rosenblad, Magnus Alm, et al. (författare)
  • Detection of signal recognition particle (SRP) RNAs in the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of three lineages of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: MycoKeys. - 1314-4057 .- 1314-4049. ; 13, s. 21-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During a routine scan for Signal Recognition Particle (SRP) RNAs in eukaryotic sequences, we surprisingly found in silico evidence in GenBank for a 265-base long SRP RNA sequence in the ITS1 region of a total of 11 fully identified species in three ectomycorrhizal genera of the Basidiomycota (Fungi): Astraeus, Russula, and Lactarius. To rule out sequence artifacts, one specimen from a species indicated to have the SRP RNA-containing ITS region in each of these genera was ordered and re-sequenced. Sequences identical to the corresponding GenBank entries were recovered, or in the case of a non-original but conspecific specimen differed by three bases, showing that these species indeed have an SRP RNA sequence incorporated into their ITS1 region. Other than the ribosomal genes, this is the first known case of non-coding RNAs in the eukaryotic ITS region, and it may assist in the examination of other types of insertions in fungal genomes.
3.
  • Airaud, M, et al. (författare)
  • Biologie - Les manuels visuels pour la Licence
  • 2018
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • En couleurs et très illustré, ce manuel a été conçu pour vous qui débutez un cursus scientifique universitaire. Il vous permettra d’acquérir les connaissances fondamentales en biologie, mais aussi la démarche et la rigueur scientifiques indispensables aux études supérieures. De multiples rubriques vous garantissent un apprentissage progressif et complet : un cours visuel avec de nombreux exemples concrets pour introduire et illustrer les notions et concepts clés ; des encadrés méthodologiques pour vous guider vers les bonnes pratiques et vous faire découvrir les grandes méthodes expérimentales ; des focus sur des applications, sujets de recherche ou thèmes d’actualité ; des repères historiques ; de nombreux QCM et exercices (tous corrigés) pour tester vos acquis et vous entraîner.
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4.
  • Halwachs, Bettina, et al. (författare)
  • Critical Issues in mycobiota analysis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Microbiology. - 1664-302X. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fungi constitute an important part of the human microbiota and they play a significant role for health and disease development. Advancements made in the culture-independent analysis of microbial communities have broadened our understanding of the mycobiota, however, microbiota analysis tools have been mainly developed for bacteria (e.g., targeting the 16S rRNA gene) and they often fall short if applied to fungal marker-gene based investigations (i.e., internal transcribed spacers, ITS). In the current paper we discuss all major steps of a fungal amplicon analysis starting with DNA extraction from specimens up to bioinformatics analyses of next-generation sequencing data. Specific points are discussed at each step and special emphasis is placed on the bioinformatics challenges emerging during operational taxonomic unit (OTU) picking, a critical step in mycobiota analysis. By using an in silico ITS1 mock community we demonstrate that standard analysis pipelines fall short if used with default settings showing erroneous fungal community representations. We highlight that switching OTU picking to a closed reference approach greatly enhances performance. Finally, recommendations are given on how to perform ITS based mycobiota analysis with the currently available measures.
5.
  • Unterseher, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Mycobiomes of sympatric Amorphophallus albispathus (Araceae) and Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) – a case study reveals clear tissue preferences and differences in diversity and composition
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Mycological Progress. - 1617416X .- 18618952. ; 17:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multiple biotic and abiotic parameters influence the dynamics of individual fungal species and entire communities. Major drivers for tropical plant endophytes are undoubtedly seasonality, local habitat conditions and biogeography. However, host specialization and tissue preferences also contribute to the structuring of endophytic mycobiomes. To elucidate such specializations and preferences, we sampled two commercially important, unrelated plant species, Amorphophallus albispathus and Camellia sinensis (tea plant) simultaneously at close proximity. The mycobiomes of different tissue types were assessed with high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer DNA region. Both plants hosted different fungal communities and varied in α- and β-diversity, despite their neighboring occurrence. However, the fungal assemblages of Amorphophallus leaflets shared taxa with the mycobiomes of tea leaves, thereby suggesting common driving forces for leaf-inhabiting fungi irrespective of host plant identity. The mycobiome composition and diversity of tea leaves was clearly driven by leaf age. We suggest that the very youngest tea leaves are colonized by stochastic processes, while mycobiomes of old leaves are rather similar as the result of progressive succession. The biodiversity of fungi associated with A. albispathus was characterized by a large number of unclassified OTUs (at genus and species level) and by tissue-specific composition.This study is the first cultivation-independent high-throughput assessment of fungal biodiversity of an Amorphophallus species, and additionally expands the knowledge base on fungi associated with tea plants.
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6.
  • Bengtsson-Palme, Johan, 1985-, et al. (författare)
  • Metaxa2 Database Builder: enabling taxonomic identification from metagenomic or metabarcoding data using any genetic marker
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Bioinformatics (Oxford, England). - 1367-4811. ; 34:23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Motivation: Correct taxonomic identification of DNA sequences is central to studies of biodiversity using both shotgun metagenomic and metabarcoding approaches. However, no genetic marker gives sufficient performance across all the biological kingdoms, hampering studies of taxonomic diversity in many groups of organisms. This has led to the adoption of a range of genetic markers for DNA metabarcoding. While many taxonomic classification software tools can be re-trained on these genetic markers, they are often designed with assumptions that impair their utility on genes other than the SSU and LSU rRNA. Here, we present an update to Metaxa2 that enables the use of any genetic marker for taxonomic classification of metagenome and amplicon sequence data. Results: We evaluated the Metaxa2 Database Builder on 11 commonly used barcoding regions and found that while there are wide differences in performance between different genetic markers, our software performs satisfactorily provided that the input taxonomy and sequence data are of high quality. Availability and implementation: Freely available on the web as part of the Metaxa2 package at http://microbiology.se/software/metaxa2/. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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7.
  • Nilsson, R. Henrik, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • The UNITE database for molecular identification of fungi: handling dark taxa and parallel taxonomic classifications.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nucleic acids research. - 1362-4962. ; 47:D1, s. D259-D264
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • UNITE (https://unite.ut.ee/) is a web-based database and sequence management environment for the molecular identification of fungi. It targets the formal fungal barcode-the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region-and offers all ∼1 000 000 public fungal ITS sequences for reference. These are clustered into ∼459 000 species hypotheses and assigned digital object identifiers (DOIs) to promote unambiguous reference across studies. In-house and web-based third-party sequence curation and annotation have resulted in more than 275 000 improvements to the data over the past 15 years. UNITE serves as a data provider for a range of metabarcoding software pipelines and regularly exchanges data with all major fungal sequence databases and other community resources. Recent improvements include redesigned handling of unclassifiable species hypotheses, integration with the taxonomic backbone of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, and support for an unlimited number of parallel taxonomic classification systems.
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8.
  • Alström, Per (författare)
  • Mitochondrial phylogeny of the Eurasian/African reed warbler complex (Acrocephalus, Aves). Disagreement between morphological and molecular evidence and cryptic divergence: A case for resurrecting Calamoherpe ambigua Brehm 1857
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. - Elsevier. - 1055-7903 .- 1095-9513. ; 102, s. 30-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A tree based on the mitochondrial cyt b gene for 278 samples from throughout the range of the Eurasian Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus - African Reed Warbler A. baeticatus complex shows well supported geographically structured divergence for eight distinct lineages. The phylogenetic structuring together with the clarification of priority, provided by sequence data from seven type specimens, suggests that both taxonomy and distribution boundaries are in need of revision. The Iberian and Moroccan populations form a well-supported Glade, and we propose that these are treated as taxonomically distinct, under the name ambiguus (Brehm, 1857). We propose that the names scirpaceus, fuscus, avicenniae, ambiguus, minor, cinnamomeus, hallae and baeticatus are used for the well supported clades in the complex, which we recommend to treat as one polytypic species, A. scirpaceus, pending studies of gene flow and assortative mating in the contact zones.
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9.
  • Alström, Per (författare)
  • Multiple instances of paraphyletic species and cryptic taxa revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear RAD data for Calandrella larks (Aves: Alaudidae)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. - Elsevier. - 1055-7903 .- 1095-9513. ; 102, s. 233-245
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The avian genus Calandrella (larks) was recently suggested to be non-monophyletic, and was divided into two genera, of which Calandrella sensu stricto comprises 4-5 species in Eurasia and Africa. We analysed mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) and nuclear Restriction-site Associated DNA (RAD) sequences from all species, and for cytb we studied 21 of the 22 recognised subspecies, with the aim to clarify the phylogenetic relationships within the genus and to compare large-scale nuclear sequence patterns with a widely used mitochondrial marker. Cytb indicated deep splits among the currently recognised species, although it failed to support the interrelationships among most of these. It also revealed unexpected deep divergences within C. brachydactyla, C. blanfordi/C erlangeri, C. cinerea, and C. acutirostris. It also suggested that both C. brachydactyla and C. blanfordi, as presently circumscribed, are paraphyletic. In contrast, most of the many subspecies of C brachydactyla and C. cinerea were unsupported by cytb, although two populations of C. cinerea were found to be genetically distinct. The RAD data corroborated the cytb tree (for the smaller number of taxa analysed) and recovered strongly supported interspecific relationships. However, coalescence analyses of the RAD data, analysed in SNAPP both with and without an outgroup, received equally strong support for two conflicting topologies. We suggest that the tree rooted with an outgroup - which is not recommended for SNAPP - is more trustworthy, and suggest that the reliability of analyses performed without any outgroup species should be thoroughly evaluated. We also demonstrate that degraded museum samples can be phylogenetically informative in RAD analyses following careful bioinformatic treatment. We note that the genus Calandrella is in need of taxonomic revision.
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10.
  • Alström, Per (författare)
  • Phylogenetic position of the Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Ornithology. - Springer Science Business Media. - 2193-7192 .- 2193-7206. ; 157, s. 913-918
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria is usually placed in a monotypic family or subfamily within the superfamily Certhioidea, with assumed close relationships to Certhia (treecreepers), Sitta (nuthatches) and Salpornis (spotted creepers). Previous studies have suggested that Tichodroma is most closely related to Sitta, alternatively to Salpornis. We analysed the relationships of Tichodroma using two mitochondrial and five nuclear loci. The tree based on concatenated sequences strongly supported a sister relationship between Tichodroma and Sitta, as well as between Salpornis and Certhia. However, species tree analysis (MP-EST) was unable to resolve these relationships, and although the concatenation tree remains the best hypothesis, more data are needed to corroborate this.
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