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  • Leung, Ka Yin, et al. (författare)
  • Gender asymmetry in concurrent partnerships and HIV prevalence
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Epidemics. - 1755-4365 .- 1878-0067. ; 19, s. 53-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The structure of the sexual network of a population plays an essential role in the transmission of HIV. Concurrent partnerships, i.e. partnerships that overlap in time, are important in determining this network structure. Men and women may differ in their concurrent behavior, e.g. in the case of polygyny where women are monogamous while men may have concurrent partnerships. Polygyny has been shown empirically to be negatively associated with HIV prevalence, but the epidemiological impacts of other forms of gender-asymmetric concurrency have not been formally explored. Here we investigate how gender asymmetry in concurrency, including polygyny, can affect the disease dynamics. We use a model for a dynamic network where individuals may have concurrent partners. The maximum possible number of simultaneous partnerships can differ for men and women, e.g. in the case of polygyny. We control for mean partnership duration, mean lifetime number of partners, mean degree, and sexually active lifespan. We assess the effects of gender asymmetry in concurrency on two epidemic phase quantities (R0 and the contribution of the acute HIV stage to R0) and on the endemic HIV prevalence. We find that gender asymmetry in concurrent partnerships is associated with lower levels of all three epidemiological quantities, especially in the polygynous case. This effect on disease transmission can be attributed to changes in network structure, where increasing asymmetry leads to decreasing network connectivity.
  • Schrader, Julian, et al. (författare)
  • Woody habitats promote pollinators and complexity of plant–pollinator interactions in homegardens located in rice terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Paddy and Water Environment. - : Springer. - 1611-2490 .- 1611-2504. ; 16:2, s. 253-263
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bees are important pollinators of wild plants and crops, but little is known about bee habitat requirements and pollinator management in tropical mountainous agricultural regions. Here, smallholder farmers produce fruits and vegetables in homegardens that depend upon or benefit from bee pollination. We hypothesized that abundance and richness of wild and domesticated bees and the complexity of plant–pollinator interactions are higher in homegardens surrounded by woody habitats than in homegardens found farther from woodlands. Bees were sampled in 20 homegardens in the rice terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras. We used linear mixed effect models to analyse effects of woody habitats around homegardens on bee richness and abundance. Based on pooled observations for each garden category, we built pollinator–plant interactions networks to illustrate shifts in interaction frequencies. We recorded 354 bee individuals of 13 wild and one domesticated bee species (Apis cerana). Wild bee richness was significantly higher in homegardens surrounded by woody habitats. Bee abundance increased significantly with increasing flower cover. Wild bees visited cultivated plants significantly more often than domesticated bees. Six vegetable species and 76% of all flower visits on cultivated plants in total were performed by wild bees and three plant species and 24% by domesticated bees. Pollinator–plant networks were more complex in homegardens surrounded by woody habitats. We conclude that woody habitats increase abundance and richness of wild and domesticated bees. Increasing availability of floral resources also promotes bee abundance. In order to promote pollination services in the landscape mosaic of smallholder rice farms, woody habitats and forest fragments together with numerous floral resources should be protected and restored.
  • Allen, Craig R., et al. (författare)
  • Quantifying spatial resilience
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Ecology. - : Wiley: 12 months. - 0021-8901 .- 1365-2664. ; 53:3, s. 625-635
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. Anthropogenic stressors affect the ecosystems upon which humanity relies. In some cases when resilience is exceeded, relatively small linear changes in stressors can cause relatively abrupt and nonlinear changes in ecosystems. 2. Ecological regime shifts occur when resilience is exceeded and ecosystems enter a new local equilibrium that differs in its structure and function from the previous state. Ecological resilience, the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stability domain, is an important framework for understanding and managing ecological systems subject to collapse and reorganization. 3. Recently, interest in the influence of spatial characteristics of landscapes on resilience has increased. Understanding how spatial structure and variation in relevant variables in landscapes affects resilience to disturbance will assist with resilience quantification, and with local and regional management. 4. Synthesis and applications. We review the history and current status of spatial resilience in the research literature, expand upon existing literature to develop a more operational definition of spatial resilience, introduce additional elements of a spatial analytical approach to understanding resilience, present a framework for resilience operationalization and provide an overview of critical knowledge and technology gaps that should be addressed for the advancement of spatial resilience theory and its applications to management and conservation.
  • Buckland, Philip I., 1973- (författare)
  • The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package (BugsCEP) database : 1000 sites and half a million fossils later
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Quaternary International. - : Elsevier. - 1040-6182 .- 1873-4553. ; 341, s. 272-282
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Bugs database project started in the late 1980s as what would now be considered a relatively simple system, albeit advanced for its time, linking fossil beetle species lists to modern habitat and distribution information. Since then, Bugs has grown into a complex database of fossils records, habitat and distribution data, dating and climate reference data wrapped into an advanced software analysis package. At the time of writing, the database contains raw data and metadata for 1124 sites, and Russell Coope directly contributed to the analysis of over 154 (14%) of them, some 98790 identifications published in 231 publications. Such quantifications are infeasible without databases, and the analytical power of combining a database of modern and fossil insects with analysis tools is potentially immense for numerous areas of science ranging from conservation to Quaternary geology.BugsCEP, The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package, is the latest incarnation of the Bugs database project. Released in 2007, the database is continually added too and is available for free download from http://www.bugscep.com. The software tools include quantitative habitat reconstruction and visualisation, correlation matrices, MCR climate reconstruction, searching by habitat and retrieving, among other things, a list of taxa known from the selected habitat types. It also provides a system for entering, storing and managing palaeoentomological data as well as a number of expert system like reporting facilities.Work is underway to create an online version of BugsCEP, implemented through the Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD) project (http://www.sead.se). The aim is to provide more direct access to the latest data, a community orientated updating system, and integration with other proxy data. Eventually, the tools available in the offline BugsCEP will be duplicated and Bugs will be entirely in the web.This paper summarises aspects of the current scope, capabilities and applications of the BugsCEP database and software, with special reference to and quantifications of the contributions of Russell Coope to the field of palaeoentomology as represented in the database. The paper also serves to illustrate the potential for the use of BugsCEP in biographical studies, and discusses some of the issues relating to the use of large scale sources of quantitative data.All datasets used in this article are available through the current version of BugsCEP available at http://www.bugscep.com.
  • Buckland, Philip, 1973- (författare)
  • Lessons from extinctions
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Wood Wise. - : Woodland Trust. ; , s. 22-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Many beetles are very good at colonising new areas when changes in the landscape open up new possibilities. Equally, they are highly susceptible to local extinction in the face of landscape scale changes in their environment.
  • Giusti, Matteo, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • A Framework to Assess Where and How Children Connect to Nature
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology. - : Frontiers Media. - 1664-1078 .- 1664-1078. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The design of the green infrastructure in urban areas largely ignores how people's relation to nature, or human-nature connection (HNC), can be nurtured. One practical reason for this is the lack of a framework to guide the assessment of where people, and more importantly children, experience significant nature situations and establish nature routines. This paper develops such a framework. We employed a mixed-method approach to understand what qualities of nature situations connect children to nature (RQ1), what constitutes children's HNC (RQ2), and how significant nature situations and children's HNC relate to each other over time (RQ3). We first interviewed professionals in the field of connecting children to nature (N = 26), performed inductive thematic analysis of these interviews, and then further examined the inductive findings by surveying specialists (N = 275). We identified 16 qualities of significant nature situations (e.g., “awe,” “engagement of senses,” “involvement of mentors”) and 10 abilities that constitute children's HNC (e.g., “feeling comfortable in natural spaces,” “feeling attached to natural spaces,” “taking care of nature”). We elaborated three principles to answer our research questions: (1) significant nature situations are various and with differing consequences for children's HNC; (2) children's HNC is a complex embodied ability; (3) children's HNC progresses over time through diverse nature routines. Together, these findings form the Assessment framework for Children's Human Nature Situations (ACHUNAS). ACHUNAS is a comprehensive framework that outlines what to quantify or qualify when assessing “child-nature connecting” environments. It guides the assessment of where and how children connect to nature, stimulating both the design of nature-connecting human habitats as well as pedagogical approaches to HNC.
  • Giusti, Matteo, 1982- (författare)
  • Home for future Earth lovers : Foundations of nature-connecting habitats for children
  • 2018
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Modern childhood is increasingly segregated from nature. Yet, children’s nature experiences are first steps for sustainable futures. In this thesis, I research the foundations of habitats that can connect children to nature. I call them nature-connecting habitats.Five papers in this thesis answer: (RQ1) what is children’s human-nature connection (HNC)?; and (RQ2) what are the requirements of nature-connecting habitats for children? The preschools paper shows that five-year-olds with nature-rich routines have higher HNC than children with nature-poor routines, but it cannot understand which nature experiences are most influential. Hence, the salamanders paper assesses children’s participation in a nature conservation project. Discrepancies between the qualitative and quantitative results reveal an assessment gap with theoretical roots, which impedes the assessment of nature experiences in practical time-frames. To close this gap, the review paper surveys the literature and shows that attributes of the mind, qualities of nature experiences, and attachment to places are all aspects of HNC. The embody paper conceptualizes an embodied approach to HNC to overcome the barriers identified previously, and the toolbox paper operationalises it to develop a toolbox to assess children’s HNC and nature-connecting habitats.Answering RQ1, results show that children’s HNC is a complex set of embodied abilities. Human-nature relationships that could enable, promote, or assist sustainable development are a set of abilities that children can learn. These abilities are relationships between mind, body, culture, and environment, and progress following non-linear dynamics. This thesis identifies 10 of these abilities of HNC and finds that children learn them in three consecutive phases. Phase one – being in nature – includes feeling comfortable in natural spaces, and being curious about nature. Phase two – being with nature – includes reading natural spaces, acting in natural spaces, feeling attached to natural spaces, knowing about nature, and recalling memories with nature. Phase three – being for nature – includes taking care of nature, caring about nature, and being one with nature.Answering RQ2, two requirements of nature-connecting habitats are found: significant nature situations and various nature routines. Nature situations that can connect children to nature are characterised by configurations of 16 qualities – qualities of significant nature situations. These qualities are: entertainment, thought-provocation, awe, surprise, intimacy, mindfulness, self-restoration, creative expression, physical activity, challenge, engagement of senses, child-driven, involvement of mentors, structure/instructions, social/cultural endorsement, and involvement of animals. This set of qualities delineates the kinds of nature situations that nature-connecting habitats have to provide. These qualities should be various and recurring to allow children’s HNC to progress – hence, various nature routines. These lists of abilities and qualities form a toolbox capable of assessing where and how children connect to nature, named ACHUNAS.This thesis sets the stage to develop nature-connecting habitats. Children’s HNC and nature-connecting habitats are not the only intervention to promote sustainable futures, but they might be necessary conditions to meet the ever-shifting target of sustainable civilizations.
  • Lindberg, Tom, et al. (författare)
  • Översiktlig naturinventering utförd år 1975 av Ljusdals kommun
  • 1975
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Inventeringens målsättning kan sammanfattas i följande punkter: 1) Registrerings av redan kända naturområden som kan komma att bli föremål för naturvårdande åtgärder.2) Uppspårande av eventuella nya sådana områden.3) kontroller i fäll av noterade objekt och översiktlig beskrivning dessa.4) Gardering av objekten enligt SNV: ”Råd och anvisningar för naturinventering och naturvårdsplanering”. Graderingen leder fram till en klassificering i riks-, läns och lokalintresse för varje objekt.
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