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  • Thiele, I., et al. (författare)
  • Electron Beam Driven Generation of Frequency-Tunable Isolated Relativistic Subcycle Pulses
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 122
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019 American Physical Society. We propose a novel scheme for frequency-tunable subcycle electromagnetic pulse generation. To this end a pump electron beam is injected into an electromagnetic seed pulse as the latter is reflected by a mirror. The electron beam is shown to be able to amplify the field of the seed pulse while upshifting its central frequency and reducing its number of cycles. We demonstrate the amplification by means of 1D and 2D particle-in-cell simulations. In order to explain and optimize the process, a model based on fluid theory is proposed. We estimate that using currently available electron beams and terahertz pulse sources, our scheme is able to produce millijoule-strong midinfrared subcycle pulses.
  • Erhart, Paul, 1978- (författare)
  • A first-principles study of helium storage in oxides and at oxide-iron interfaces
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics. - 0021-8979 .- 1089-7550. ; 111:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Density-functional theory calculations based on conventional as well as hybrid exchange-correlation functionals have been carried out to study the properties of helium in various oxides (Al2O3, TiO2, Y2O3, YAP, YAG, YAM, MgO, CaO, BaO, SrO) as well as at oxide-iron interfaces. Helium interstitials in bulk oxides are shown to be energetically more favorable than substitutional helium, yet helium binds to existing vacancies. The solubility of He in oxides is systematically higher than in iron and scales with the free volume at the interstitial site nearly independently of the chemical composition of the oxide. In most oxides, He migration is significantly slower and He-He binding is much weaker than in iron. To quantify the solubility of helium at oxide-iron interfaces two prototypical systems are considered (Fe-MgO, Fe-FeO-MgO). In both cases, the He solubility is markedly enhanced in the interface compared to either of the bulk phases. The results of the calculations allow to construct a schematic energy landscape for He interstitials in iron. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of helium sequestration in oxide dispersion strengthened steels, including the effects of interfaces and lattice strain.
  • Alegret, Joan, 1977- (författare)
  • Numerical Simulations of Plasmonic Nanostructures
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis focuses on the study of metallic nanostructures that support plasmons. Special emphasis is devoted to two specific numerical methods that allow us to predict plasmon characteristics: the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) and the Green's tensor (GT) method.DDA is an approximate method that produces fast and accurate results, but it can only be applied to systems in which the nanostructure is situated in a homogeneous background. In this thesis, DDA has been applied to predict the field enhancement and field decay around nano-rings, showing that the structure is well suited for biosensing; to obtain the spectral characteristics of silver trimers, showing that the actual plasmon modes are closely related to symmetry-adapted coordinates derived from group-theory; and to calculate the optical forces between two spherical particles illuminated by a plane wave, showing that the illumination wavelength determines the separation between the particles.The GT method, on the other hand, is an exact method, in the sense that the system can be solved to arbitrary precision depending on the size of the discretization elements. Its major drawback is the long time it takes to perform the calculations. To tis end, this thesis introduces a novel algorithm, called the top-down extended meshing algorithm (TEMA), that speeds up GT calculations by reducing the number of elements in the discretization process. This decreases the total time needed to perform the calculations, while keeping the precision of the result essentially unaltered. The GT method with TEMA meshes has successfully been used to study single holes of different sizes and shapes (circular and ellipsoidal) in the near- and far-field regime, as well as hole pairs as a function of their separation distance. The results compare very well with experiments, demonstration that the GT method is well suited for predicting the behavior of nano-holes.
  • Forssen, C., et al. (författare)
  • The Ab Initio No-core Shell Model
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Workshop on Critical Stability of Few-Body Quantum Systems,Erice, Italy,2008-10-10. - Springer.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This contribution reviews a number of applications of the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) within nuclear physics and beyond. We will highlight a nuclear-structure study of the A = 12 isobar using a chiral NN + 3NF interaction. In the spirit of this workshop we will also mention the new development of the NCSM formalism to describe open channels and to approach the problem of nuclear reactions. Finally, we will illustrate the universality of the many-body problem by presenting the recent adaptation of the NCSM effective-interaction approach to study the many-boson problem in an external trapping potential with short-range interactions.
  • Cederwall, Martin, 1961- (författare)
  • An off-shell superspace reformulation of D=4, N=4 super-Yang–Mills theory
  • 2017
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • D = 4, N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory has an off-shell superspace formulation in terms of pure spinor superfields, which is directly inherited from the D = 10 theory. That superspace, in particular the choice of pure spinor variables, is less suitable for dealing with fields that are inherently 4-dimensional, such as the superfields based on the scalars, which are gauge-covariant, and traces of powers of scalars, which are gauge-invariant. We give a reformulation of D = 4, N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory in N = 4 superspace, using inherently 4-dimensional pure spinors. All local degrees of freedom reside in a superfield based on the physical scalars. The formalism should be suited for calculations of correlators of traces of scalar superfields.
  • Mårtensson-Pendrill, Ann-Marie, 1952- (författare)
  • The Manhattan Project - a part of physics history
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physics Education. - ISSN 0031-9120. ; 41:6, s. 493-501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Current physics textbooks tend to exclude military applications, but it is explained here how a study of the Manhattan project—the devastatingly successful attempt to develop an atomic bomb—can show students how the lives and work of physicists are shaped by events in society. Much of the original source material is available in books and on the internet (and referenced here), which allows students to discover the views of the scientists for themselves.
  • Isaksson, Oscar, et al. (författare)
  • An optical levitation system for a physics teaching laboratory
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physics. - 0002-9505. ; 86:2, s. 135-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We describe an experimental system based on optical levitation of an oil droplet. When combined with an applied electric field and a source of ionizing radiation, the setup permits the investigation of physical phenomena such as radiation pressure, light diffraction, the motion of a charged particle in an oscillating electric field, and the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter. The trapping occurs by creating an equilibrium between a radiation pressure force and the force of gravity. We have found that an oil droplet can be trapped for at least nine hours. The system can be used to measure the size and total electric charge on the trapped droplet. The intensity of the light from the trapping laser that is scattered by the droplet is sufficient to allow the droplet to be easily seen with the naked eye, covered by laser alignment goggles. When oscillating under the influence of an ac electric field, the motion of the droplet can be described as that of a driven, damped harmonic oscillator. The magnitude and polarity of the charge can be altered by exposing the droplet to ionizing radiation from a low-activity radioactive source. Our goal was to design a hands-on setup that allows undergraduate and graduate students to observe and better understand fundamental physical processes.
  • Litvinov, Yu.A., et al. (författare)
  • Nuclear physics experiments with ion storage rings
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. - 0168-583X. ; 317, Part B, s. 603--616
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the last two decades a number of nuclear structure and astrophysics experiments were performed at heavy-ion storage rings employing unique experimental conditions offered by such machines. Furthermore, building on the experience gained at the two facilities presently in operation, several new storage ring projects were launched worldwide. This contribution is intended to provide a brief review of the fast growing field of nuclear structure and astrophysics research at storage rings. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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