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  • Usman, Muhammad, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative study of proton and helium elastic scatterings from nitrogen in GaN
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing. - : Elsevier Ltd. - 1369-8001 .- 1873-4081. ; 121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nitrogen determination is important in a variety of applications to characterize nitride-based compounds, or to study materials where nitrogen is unwanted. Analyzing such constituents in some materials with sufficient accuracy is always a challenge, although non-Rutherford (elastic) scattering is an applicable way to do such analysis. With this ion beam analysis technique various competing resonances are available for accurate determination of nitrogen. These involve protons and alpha particles based elastic scatterings. Here, GaN grown on sapphire is used as a base material with known concertation of nitrogen (50%) that can be used to understand the dynamics of such elastic scattering experiments. Elastic backscattering from 14N(p,p)14N and 14N(α,α)14N resonances are compared and it is observed that proton based resonances are more reliable than the alpha particle resonances to find and locate nitrogen in certain matrix, mainly due to the higher availability of discrete and well separated resonances of protons compared to the alpha particles in the energy range of a few MeV. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd
  • Armakavicius, Nerijus (författare)
  • Study of novel electronic materials by mid-infrared and terahertz optical Hall effect
  • 2017
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Development of silicon based electronics have revolutionized our every day life during the last three decades. Nowadays Si based devices operate close to their theoretical limits that is becoming a bottleneck for further progress. In particular, for the growing field of high frequency and high power electronics, Si cannot offer the required properties. Development of materials capable of providing high current densities, carrier mobilities and high breakdown fields is crucial for a progress in state of the art electronics.Epitaxial graphene grown on semi-insulating silicon carbide substrates has a high potential to be integrated in the current planar device technologies. High electron mobilities and sheet carrier densities make graphene extremely attractive for high frequency analog applications. One of the remaining challenges is the interaction of epitaxial graphene with the substrate. Typically, much lower free charge carrier mobilities, compared to free standing graphene, and doping, due to charge transfer from the substrate, is reported. Thus, a good understanding of the intrinsic free charge carriers properties and the factors affecting them is very important for further development of epitaxial graphene.III-group nitrides have been extensively studied and already have proven their high efficiency as light sources for short wavelengths. High carrier mobilities and breakdown electric fields were demonstrated for III-group nitrides, making them attractive for high frequency and high power applications. Currently, In-rich InGaN alloys and AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility structures are of high interest for the research community due to open fundamental questions.Electrical characterization techniques, commonly used for the determination of free charge carrier properties, require good ohmic and Schottky contacts, which in certain cases can be difficult to achieve. Access to electrical properties of buried conductive channels in multilayered structures requires modification of samples and good knowledge of the electrical properties of all electrical contact within the structure. Moreover, the use of electrical contacts to electrically characterize two-dimensional electronic materials, such as graphene, can alter their intrinsic properties. Furthermore, the determination of effective mass parameters commonly employs cyclotron resonance and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations measurements, which require long scattering times of free charge carriers, high magnetic fields and low temperatures.The optical Hall effect is an external magnetic field induced optical anisotropy in  conductive layers due to the motion of the free charge carriers under the influence of the Lorentz force, and is equivalent to the electrical Hall effect at optical frequencies. The optical Hall effect can be measured by generalized ellipsometry and provides a powerful method for the determination of free charge carrier properties in a non-destructive and contactless manner. In principle, a single optical Hall effect measurement can provide quantitative information about free charge carrier types, concentrations, mobilities and effective mass parameters at temperatures ranging from few kelvins to room temperature and above. Further, it was demonstrated that for transparent samples, a backside cavity can be employed to enhance the optical Hall effect.Measurement of the optical Hall effect by generalized ellipsometry is an indirect technique requiring subsequent data analysis. Parameterized optical models are fitted to match experimentally measured ellipsometric data by varying physically significant parameters. Analysis of the optical response of samples, containing free charge carriers, employing optical models based on the classical Drude model, which is augmented with an external magnetic field contribution, provide access to the free charge carrier properties.The main research results of the graduate studies presented in this licentiate thesis are summarized in the five scientific papers.Paper I. Description of the custom-built terahertz frequency-domain spectroscopic ellipsometer at Linköping University. The terahertz ellipsometer capabilities are demonstrated by an accurate determination of the isotropic and anisotropic refractive indices of silicon and m-plane sapphire, respectively. Further, terahertz optical Hall effect measurements of an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility structures were employed to extract the two-dimensional electron gas sheet density, mobility and effective mass parameters. Last, in-situ optical Hall effect measurement on epitaxial graphene in a gas cell with controllable environment, were used to study the effects of environmental doping on the mobility and carrier concentration.Paper II. Presents terahertz cavity-enhanced optical Hall measurements of the monolayer and multilayer epitaxial graphene on semi-insulating 4H-SiC (0001) substrates. The data analysis revealed p-type doping for monolayer graphene with a carrier density in the low 1012 cm−2 range and a carrier mobility of 1550 cm2/V·s. For the multilayer epitaxial graphene, n-type doping with a carrier density in the low 1013 cm−2 range, a mobility of 470 cm2/V·s and an effective mass of (0.14 ± 0.03) m0 were extracted. The measurements demonstrate that cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect measurements can be applied to study electronic properties of two-dimensional materials.Paper III. Terahertz cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect measurements are employed to study anisotropic transport in as-grown monolayer, quasi free-standing monolayer and quasi free-standing bilayer epitaxial graphene on semi-insulating 4H-SiC (0001) substrates. The data analysis revealed a strong anisotropy in the carrier mobilities of the quasi freestanding bilayer graphene. The anisotropy is demonstrated to be induced by carriers scattering at the step edges of the SiC, by showing that the mobility is higher along the step than across them. The scattering mechanism is discussed based on the results of the optical Hall effect, low-energy electron microscopy, low-energy electron diffraction and Raman measurements.Paper IV. Mid-infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry and mid-infrared optical Hall effect measurements are employed to determine the electron effective mass in an In0.33Ga0.67N epitaxial layer. The data analysis reveals slightly anisotropic effective mass and carrier mobility parameters together with the optical phonon frequencies and broadenings.Paper V. Terahertz cavity-enhanced optical Hall measurements are employed to study the free charge carrier properties in a set of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility structures with modified interfaces. The results show that the interface structure has a significant effect on the free charge carrier mobility and that the sample with a sharp interface between an AlGaN barrier and a GaN buffer layers exhibits a record mobility of 2332±73 cm2/V·s. The determined effective mass parameters showed an increase compared to the GaN value, that is attributed the the penetration of the electron wavefunction into the AlGaN barrier layer.
  • Elofsson, Viktor, et al. (författare)
  • Structure formation in Ag-X (X = Au, Cu) alloys synthesized far-from-equilibrium
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics. - New York : A I P Publishing LLC. - 0021-8979 .- 1089-7550. ; 123:16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We employ sub-monolayer, pulsed Ag and Au vapor fluxes, along with deterministic growth simulations, and nanoscale probes to study structure formation in miscible Ag-Au films synthesized under far-from-equilibrium conditions. Our results show that nanoscale atomic arrangement is primarily determined by roughness build up at the film growth front, whereby larger roughness leads to increased intermixing between Ag and Au. These findings suggest a different structure formation pathway as compared to the immiscible Ag-Cu system for which the present study, in combination with previously published data, reveals that no significant roughness is developed, and the local atomic structure is predominantly determined by the tendency of Ag and Cu to phase-separate.
  • Eriksson, Martin (författare)
  • Photoluminescence Characteristics of III-Nitride Quantum Dots and Films
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • III-Nitride semiconductors are very promising in both electronics and optical devices. The ability of the III-Nitride semiconductors as light emitters to span the electromagnetic spectrum from deep ultraviolet light, through the entire visible region, and into the infrared part of the spectrum, is a very important feature, making this material very important in the field of light emitting devices. In fact, the blue emission from Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN), which was awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics, is the basis of the common and important white light emitting diode (LED).Quantum dots (QDs) have properties that make them very interesting for light emitting devices for a range of different applications, such as the possibility of increasing device efficiency. The spectrally well-defined emission from QDs also allows accurate color reproduction and high-performance communication devices. The small size of QDs, combined with selective area growth allows for an improved display resolution. By control of the polarization direction of QDs, they can be used in more efficient displays as well as in traditional communication devices. The possibility of sending out entangled photon pairs is another QD property of importance for quantum key distribution used for secure communication.QDs can hold different exciton complexes, such as the neutral single exciton, consisting of one electron and one hole, and the biexciton, consisting of two excitons. The integrated PL intensity of the biexciton exhibits a quadratic dependence with respect to the excitation power, as compared to the linear power dependence of the neutral single exciton. The lifetime of the neutral exciton is 880 ps, whereas the biexciton, consisting of twice the number of charge carriers and lacks a dark state, has a considerably shorter lifetime of only 500 ps. The ratio of the lifetimes is an indication that the size of the QD is in the order of the exciton Bohr radius of the InGaN crystal making up these QDs in the InGaN QW.A large part of the studies of this thesis has been focused on InGaN QDs on top of hexagonal Gallium Nitride (GaN) pyramids, selectively grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). On top of the GaN pyramids, an InGaN layer and a GaN capping layer were grown. From structural and optical investigations, InGaN QDs have been characterized as growing on (0001) facets on truncated GaN pyramids. These QDs exhibit both narrow photoluminescence linewidths and are linearly polarized in directions following the symmetry of the pyramids.In this work, the neutral single exciton, and the more rare negatively charged exciton, have been investigated. At low excitation power, the integrated intensity of the PL peak of the neutral exciton increases linearly with the excitation power. The negatively charged exciton, on the other hand, exhibits a quadratic power dependence, just like that of the biexciton. Upon increasing the temperature, the power dependence of the negatively charged exciton changes to linear, just like the neutral exciton. This change in power dependence is explained in terms of electrons in potential traps close to the QD escaping by thermal excitation, leading to a surplus of electrons in the vicinity of the QD. Consequently, only a single exciton needs to be created by photoexcitation in order to form a negatively charged exciton, while the extra electron is supplied to the QD by thermal excitation.Upon a close inspection of the PL of the neutral exciton, a splitting of the peak of just below 0.4 meV is revealed. There is an observed competition in the integrated intensity between these two peaks, similar to that between an exciton and a biexciton. The high energy peak of this split exciton emission is explained in terms of a remotely charged exciton. This exciton state consists of a neutral single exciton in the QD with an extra electron or hole in close vicinity of the QD, which screens the built-in field in the QD.The InGaN QDs are very small; estimated to be on the order of the exciton Bohr radius of the InGaN crystal, or even smaller. The lifetimes of the neutral exciton and the negatively charged exciton are approximately 320 ps and 130 ps, respectively. The ratio of the lifetimes supports the claim of the QD size being on the order of the exciton Bohr radius or smaller, as is further supported by power dependence results. Under the assumption of a spherical QD, theoretical calculations predict an emission energy shift of 0.7 meV, for a peak at 3.09 eV, due to the built-in field for a QD with a diameter of 1.3 nm, in agreement with the experimental observations.Studying the InGaN QD PL from neutral and charged excitons at elevated temperatures (4 K to 166 K) has revealed that the QDs are surrounded by potential fluctuations that trap charge carriers with an energy of around 20 meV, to be compared with the exciton trapping energy in the QDs of approximately 50 meV. The confinement of electrons close to the QD is predicted to be smaller than for holes, which accounts for the negative charge of the charged exciton, and for the higher probability of capturing free electrons. We have estimated the lifetimes of free electrons and holes in the GaN barrier to be 45 ps and 60 ps, in consistence with excitons forming quickly in the barrier upon photoexcitation and that free electrons and holes get trapped quickly in local potential traps close to the QDs. This analysis also indicates that there is a probability of 35 % to have an electron in the QD between the photoexcitation pulses, in agreement with a lower than quadratic power dependence of the negatively charged exciton.InN is an attractive material due to its infrared emission, for applications such as light emitters for communication purposes, but it is more difficult to grow with high quality and low doping concentration as compared to GaN. QDs with a higher In-composition or even pure InN is an interesting prospect as being a route towards increased quantum confinement and room temperature device operation. For all optical devices, p-type doping is needed. Even nominally undoped InN samples tend to be heavily n-type doped, causing problems to make pn-junctions as needed for LEDs. In our work, we present Mg-doped p-type InN films, which when further increasing the Mg-concentration revert to n-type conductivity. We have focused on the effect of the Mg-doping on the light emission properties of these films. The low Mg doped InN film is inhomogeneous and is observed to contain areas with n-type conductivity, so called n-type pockets in the otherwise p-type InN film. A higher concentration of Mg results in a higher crystalline quality and the disappearance of the n-type pockets. The high crystalline quality has enabled us to determine the binding energy of the Mg dopants to 64 meV. Upon further increase of the Mg concentration, the film reverts to ntype conductivity. The highly Mg doped sample also exhibits a red-shifted emission with features that are interpreted as originating from Zinc-Blende inclusions in the Wurtzite InN crystal, acting as quantum wells. The Mg doping is an important factor in controlling the conductivity of InN, as well as its light emission properties, and ultimately construct InN-based devices.In summary, in this thesis, both pyramidal InGaN QDs and InGaN QDs in a QW have been investigated. Novel discoveries of exciton complexes in these QD systems have been reported. Knowledge has also been gained about the challenging material InN, including a study of the effect of the Mg-doping concentration on the semiconductor crystalline quality and its light emission properties. The outcome of this thesis enriches the knowledge of the III-Nitride semiconductor community, with the long-term objective to improve the device performance of III-Nitride based light emitting devices.
  • Mahida, H. R., et al. (författare)
  • The influence of edge structure on the optoelectronic properties of Si2BN quantum dot
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics. - : AMER INST PHYSICS. - 0021-8979 .- 1089-7550. ; 126:23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In recent work, we have investigated the electronic and optical properties of pristine and functionalized Si2BN quantum dots (QDs) using first-principles calculations. Due to the edge functionalization, Si2BN QDs have binding energies of -0.96 eV and -2.08 eV per hydrogen atom for the adsorption of single and double hydrogen atoms, respectively. These results reveal the stability and the bonding nature of hydrogen at the edges of Si2BN QD. In particular, the charge transfer between hydrogen and other atoms is explicitly increased. The electronic band structure of pristine Si2BN QD shows a metallic behavior with a finite number of electronic states in the density of states at the Fermi level. The frequency-dependent optical properties, such as refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient, electron energy loss spectra, and reflectivity, are computed for both the parallel and perpendicular components of electric field polarization. The higher absorption was found in the infrared regime. The present study shows that the functionalization of Si2BN QD by two hydrogen atoms is energetically stable. It offers a promising application of Si2BN QD, which can be used in optical nanodevices such as photodetectors and biomedical imagination.
  • Mosyagin, Igor (författare)
  • Development and applications of theoretical algorithms for simulations of materials at extreme conditions
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Materials at extreme conditions exhibit properties that differ substantially from ambient conditions. High pressure and high temperature expose anharmonic, non-linear behavior, and can provoke phase transitions among other effects. Experimental setups to study that sort of effects are typically costly and experiments themselves are laborious. It is common to apply theoretical techniques in order to provide a road-map for experimental research. In this thesis I cover computational algorithms based on first-principles calculations for high-temperature and high-pressure conditions. The two thoroughly described algorithms are: 1) the free energy studies using temperature-dependent effective potential method (TDEP), and 2) a higher-order elastic constants calculation procedure. The algorithms are described in an easy to follow manner with motivation for every step covered.The Free energy calculation algorithm is demonstrated with applications to hexagonal close-packed Iron at the conditions close to the inner Earth Core’s. The algorithm of elastic constants calculation is demonstrated with application to Molybdenum, Tantalum, and Niobium. Other projects included in the thesis are the study of effects of van der Waals corrections on the graphite and diamond equations of state.
  • Negi, Devendra, et al. (författare)
  • Proposal for Measuring Magnetism with Patterned Apertures in a Transmission Electron Microscope
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : AMER PHYSICAL SOC. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 122:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We propose a magnetic measurement method utilizing a patterned post-sample aperture in a transmission electron microscope. While utilizing electron magnetic circular dichroism, the method circumvents previous needs to shape the electron probe to an electron vortex beam or astigmatic beam. The method can be implemented in standard scanning transmission electron microscopes by replacing the spectrometer entrance aperture with a specially shaped aperture, hereafter called ventilator aperture. The proposed setup is expected to work across the whole range of beam sizes -- from wide parallel beams down to atomic resolution magnetic spectrum imaging.
  • Tengdin, Phoebe, et al. (författare)
  • Direct light-induced spin transfer between different elements in a spintronic Heusler material via femtosecond laser excitation
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science Advances. - : AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE. - 2375-2548. ; 6:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heusler compounds are exciting materials for future spintronics applications because they display a wide range of tunable electronic and magnetic interactions. Here, we use a femtosecond laser to directly transfer spin polarization from one element to another in a half-metallic Heusler material, Co2MnGe. This spin transfer initiates as soon as light is incident on the material, demonstrating spatial transfer of angular momentum between neighboring atomic sites on time scales < 10 fs. Using ultrafast high harmonic pulses to simultaneously and independently probe the magnetic state of two elements during laser excitation, we find that the magnetization of Co is enhanced, while that of Mn rapidly quenches. Density functional theory calculations show that the optical excitation directly transfers spin from one magnetic sublattice to another through preferred spin-polarized excitation pathways. This direct manipulation of spins via light provides a path toward spintronic devices that can operate on few-femtosecond or faster time scales.
  • Waltersson, Erik, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Controlled operations in a strongly correlated two-electron quantum ring
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. - : American Physical Society. - 1098-0121 .- 1550-235X. ; 79:11, s. 115318-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have analyzed the electronic spectrum and wave-function characteristics of a strongly correlated two-electron quantum ring with model parameters close to those observed in experiments. The analysis is based on an exact diagonalization of the Hamiltonian in a large B-spline basis. We propose a qubit pair for storing quantum information, where one component is stored in the total electron spin and one multivalued “quMbit” is represented by the total angular momentum. In this scheme the controlled-NOT quantum gate is demonstrated with near 100% fidelity for a realistic far-infrared electromagnetic pulse.
  • Wang, JunXin, et al. (författare)
  • Light scattering materials for energy-related applications : Determination of absorption and scattering coefficients
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Materials Today. - 2214-7853. ; 33:Part 6, s. 2474-2480
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To facilitate optical design of energy-efficient materials and devices, a detailed knowledge of their basic optical parameters is necessary. In this paper we present a novel method for determining scattering (S) and absorption (K) coefficients from total transmittance and reflectance measurements by inversion of the Kubelka-Munk theory. The reflectance parameters appearing in this theory depend on the angular distribution of scattered light inside the material. The versatility of our method is demonstrated by a reanalysis of experimental data for several materials of interest in energy-related applications. Specifically, we report spectra of S and K for: (a) pigmented polymer foils for radiative cooling applications; (b) suspended particle devices for smart windows; (c) solar reflecting TiO2-pigmented paints and (d) selective solar absorbing paints for solar collectors.
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