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  • Abat, E., et al. (författare)
  • Photon reconstruction in the ATLAS Inner Detector and Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter at the 2004 Combined Test Beam
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The reconstruction of photons in the ATLAS detector is studied with data taken during the 2004 Combined Test Beam, where a full slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to beams of particles of known energy at the CERN SPS. The results presented show significant differences in the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic shower between converted and unconverted photons as well as in the total measured energy. The potential to use the reconstructed converted photons as a means to precisely map the material of the tracker in front of the electromagnetic calorimeter is also considered. All results obtained are compared with a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation of the test-beam setup which is based on the same simulation and reconstruction tools as those used for the ATLAS detector itself.
  • Blesneag, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Matter field Kahler metric in heterotic string theory from localisation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP). - 1126-6708 .- 1029-8479. ; :4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We propose an analytic method to calculate the matter field Kahler metric in heterotic compactifications on smooth Calabi-Yau three-folds with Abelian internal gauge fields. The matter field Kahler metric determines the normalisations of the N = 1 chiral superfields, which enter the computation of the physical Yukawa couplings. We first derive the general formula for this Kahler metric by a dimensional reduction of the relevant supergravity theory and find that its T-moduli dependence can be determined in general. It turns out that, due to large internal gauge flux, the remaining integrals localise around certain points on the compactification manifold and can, hence, be calculated approximately without precise knowledge of the Ricci-flat Calabi-Yau metric. In a final step, we show how this local result can be expressed in terms of the global moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold. The method is illustrated for the family of Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces embedded in P-1 x P-3 and we obtain an explicit result for the matter field Kahler metric in this case.
  • Scott, Pat, 1982- (författare)
  • Searches for Particle Dark Matter : Dark stars, dark galaxies, dark halos and global supersymmetric fits
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The identity of dark matter is one of the key outstanding problems in both particle and astrophysics. In this thesis, I describe a number of complementary searches for particle dark matter. I discuss how the impact of dark matter on stars can constrain its interaction with nuclei, focussing on main sequence stars close to the Galactic Centre, and on the first stars as seen through the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. The mass and annihilation cross-section of dark matter particles can be probed with searches for gamma rays produced in astronomical targets. Dwarf galaxies and ultracompact, primordially-produced dark matter minihalos turn out to be especially promising in this respect. I illustrate how the results of these searches can be combined with constraints from accelerators and cosmology to produce a single global fit to all available data. Global fits in supersymmetry turn out to be quite technically demanding, even with the simplest predictive models and the addition of complementary data from a bevy of astronomical and terrestrial experiments; I show how genetic algorithms can help in overcoming these challenges.
  • Xu, Hao, et al. (författare)
  • Mechanisms of fluorescence decays of colloidal CdSe-CdS/ZnS quantum dots unraveled by time-resolved fluorescence measurement
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: ; 17:41, s. 27588-27595
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By narrowing the detection bandpass and increasing the signal-to-noise ratio in measuring the time-resolved fluorescence decay spectrum of colloidal CdSe-CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), we show that directly after the photoexcitation, the fluorescence decay spectrum is characterized by a single exponential decay, which represents the energy relaxation of the photogenerated exciton from its initial high-energy state to the ground exciton state. The fluorescence decay spectrum of long decay time is in the form of beta/t(2), where beta is the radiative recombination time of the ground-state exciton and t is the decay time. Our findings provide us with a direct and quantitative link between fluorescence decay measurement data and fundamental photophysics of QD exciton, thereby leading to a novel way of applying colloidal QDs to study microscopic, physical and chemical processes in many fields including biomedicine.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Ablikim, M., et al. (författare)
  • Precision measurement of the D*(0) decay branching fractions
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 1550-7998 .- 1550-2368 .- 2470-0010. ; 91:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using 482 pb(-1) of data taken at root s = 4.009 GeV, we measure the branching fractions of the decays of D*(0) into D-0 pi(0) and D-0 gamma to be B(D*(0) -> D-0 pi(0)) = (65.5 +/- 0.8 +/- 0.5)% and B(D*(0) -> D0 gamma) = (34.5 +/- 0.8 +/- 0.5)%, respectively, by assuming that the D*(0) decays only into these two modes. The ratio of the two branching fractions is B(D*(0) -> D-0 pi(0))/B(D*(0) -> D-0 gamma) = 1.90 +/- 0.07 +/- 0.05, which is independent of the assumption made above. The first uncertainties are statistical and the second ones systematic. The precision is improved by a factor of 3 compared to the present world average values.
  • Andersson, B., et al. (författare)
  • The relationship between the meson, baryon, photon and quark fragmentation distributions
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters B. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 69:2, s. 221-224
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ideas presented in an earlier note on the relationship between the quark fragmentation distributions as measured in leptoproduction and the one particle distributions in the mesonic fragmentation regions of hadronic interactions are carried further to photoproduction and to the baryon fragmentation distributions. The results are as before interpreted in terms of a simple additive quark model where the main interaction is due to the wee partons whereas almost all the initial momentum is carried by one of the valence quarks or a diquark.
  • Armoni, Adi, et al. (författare)
  • Metastable vacua in large-N QCD3
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; :1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We reexamine the vacuum structure of three-dimensional quantum chromodynamics (QCD3) with gauge group SU(N), Nf fundamental quark flavors, and a level-k Chern-Simons term. This analysis can be reliably carried out in the large-N, fixed Nf, k limit of the theory, up to certain assumptions that we spell out explicitly. At leading order in the large-N expansion we find Nf + 1 distinct, exactly degenerate vacuum superselection sectors with different patterns of flavor-symmetry breaking. The associated massless Nambu-Goldstone bosons are generically accompanied by topological Chern-Simons theories. This set of vacua explicitly realizes many candidate phases previously proposed for QCD3. At subleading order in the large-N expansion, the exact degeneracy between the different superselection sectors is lifted, leading to a multitude of metastable vacua. If we dial the quark masses, different metastable vacua can become the true vacuum of the theory, leading to a sequence of first-order phase transitions. We show that this intricate large-N dynamics can be captured by the previously proposed bosonic dual theories for QCD3, provided these bosonic duals are furnished with a suitable scalar potential. Interestingly, this potential must include terms beyond quartic order in the scalar fields.
  • Banerjee, Souvik, et al. (författare)
  • Dark bubbles : decorating the wall
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP). - : SPRINGER. - 1126-6708 .- 1029-8479. ; :4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Motivated by the difficulty of constructing de Sitter vacua in string theory, a new approach was proposed in arXiv:1807.01570 and arXiv:1907.04268, where four dimensional de Sitter space was realized as the effective cosmology, with matter and radiation, on an expanding spherical bubble that mediates the decay of non supersymmetric AdS(5) to a more stable AdS5 in string theory. In this third installment, we further expand on this scenario by considering the backreaction of matter in the bulk and on the brane in terms of how the brane bends. We compute the back reacted metric on the bent brane as well as in the five dimensional bulk. To further illuminate the effect of brane-bending, we compare our results with an explicit computation of the five dimensional graviton propagator using a holographic prescription. Finally we comment on a possible localization of four dimensional gravity in our model using two colliding branes.
  • Banerjee, Souvik, et al. (författare)
  • De Sitter cosmology on an expanding bubble
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; :10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Constructing an explicit compactification yielding a metastable de Sitter (dS) vacuum in a UV consistent string theory is an incredibly difficult open problem. Motivated by this issue, as well as the conjecture that all non-supersymmetric AdS vacua must decay, we discuss the alternative possibility of realizing an effective four-dimensional dS cosmology on a codimension-one bubble wall separating two AdS(5) vacua. The construction further elaborates on the scenario of , where the aforementioned cosmology arises due to a non-perturbative decay and is embedded in a five-dimensional bulk in a time- dependent way. In this paper we discuss the relation between this scenario and the weak gravity conjecture and further develop the details of the four-dimensional cosmology. We provide a bulk interpretation for the dS temperature as the Unruh temperature experienced by an accelerated observer riding the bubble. A source of four-dimensional matter arises from a string cloud in the bulk, and we examine the consequences for the particle mass spectrum. Furthermore, we show how effective four-dimensional Einstein gravity on the bubble is obtained from the five-dimensional Gauss equation. We conclude by outlining some implications that this paradigm will have for holography, inflation, the standard model, and black holes.
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