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  • Abat, E., et al. (författare)
  • Photon reconstruction in the ATLAS Inner Detector and Liquid Argon Barrel Calorimeter at the 2004 Combined Test Beam
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The reconstruction of photons in the ATLAS detector is studied with data taken during the 2004 Combined Test Beam, where a full slice of the ATLAS detector was exposed to beams of particles of known energy at the CERN SPS. The results presented show significant differences in the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic shower between converted and unconverted photons as well as in the total measured energy. The potential to use the reconstructed converted photons as a means to precisely map the material of the tracker in front of the electromagnetic calorimeter is also considered. All results obtained are compared with a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation of the test-beam setup which is based on the same simulation and reconstruction tools as those used for the ATLAS detector itself.
  • Blesneag, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Matter field Kahler metric in heterotic string theory from localisation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP). - 1126-6708 .- 1029-8479. ; :4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We propose an analytic method to calculate the matter field Kahler metric in heterotic compactifications on smooth Calabi-Yau three-folds with Abelian internal gauge fields. The matter field Kahler metric determines the normalisations of the N = 1 chiral superfields, which enter the computation of the physical Yukawa couplings. We first derive the general formula for this Kahler metric by a dimensional reduction of the relevant supergravity theory and find that its T-moduli dependence can be determined in general. It turns out that, due to large internal gauge flux, the remaining integrals localise around certain points on the compactification manifold and can, hence, be calculated approximately without precise knowledge of the Ricci-flat Calabi-Yau metric. In a final step, we show how this local result can be expressed in terms of the global moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold. The method is illustrated for the family of Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces embedded in P-1 x P-3 and we obtain an explicit result for the matter field Kahler metric in this case.
  • Scott, Pat, 1982- (författare)
  • Searches for Particle Dark Matter : Dark stars, dark galaxies, dark halos and global supersymmetric fits
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The identity of dark matter is one of the key outstanding problems in both particle and astrophysics. In this thesis, I describe a number of complementary searches for particle dark matter. I discuss how the impact of dark matter on stars can constrain its interaction with nuclei, focussing on main sequence stars close to the Galactic Centre, and on the first stars as seen through the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. The mass and annihilation cross-section of dark matter particles can be probed with searches for gamma rays produced in astronomical targets. Dwarf galaxies and ultracompact, primordially-produced dark matter minihalos turn out to be especially promising in this respect. I illustrate how the results of these searches can be combined with constraints from accelerators and cosmology to produce a single global fit to all available data. Global fits in supersymmetry turn out to be quite technically demanding, even with the simplest predictive models and the addition of complementary data from a bevy of astronomical and terrestrial experiments; I show how genetic algorithms can help in overcoming these challenges.
  • Xu, Hao, et al. (författare)
  • Mechanisms of fluorescence decays of colloidal CdSe-CdS/ZnS quantum dots unraveled by time-resolved fluorescence measurement
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP. - : Royal Society of Chemistry. - 1463-9076 .- 1463-9084. ; 17:41, s. 27588-27595
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By narrowing the detection bandpass and increasing the signal-to-noise ratio in measuring the time-resolved fluorescence decay spectrum of colloidal CdSe-CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), we show that directly after the photoexcitation, the fluorescence decay spectrum is characterized by a single exponential decay, which represents the energy relaxation of the photogenerated exciton from its initial high-energy state to the ground exciton state. The fluorescence decay spectrum of long decay time is in the form of beta/t(2), where beta is the radiative recombination time of the ground-state exciton and t is the decay time. Our findings provide us with a direct and quantitative link between fluorescence decay measurement data and fundamental photophysics of QD exciton, thereby leading to a novel way of applying colloidal QDs to study microscopic, physical and chemical processes in many fields including biomedicine.
  • Usman, Muhammad, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative study of proton and helium elastic scatterings from nitrogen in GaN
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing. - : Elsevier Ltd. - 1369-8001 .- 1873-4081. ; 121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nitrogen determination is important in a variety of applications to characterize nitride-based compounds, or to study materials where nitrogen is unwanted. Analyzing such constituents in some materials with sufficient accuracy is always a challenge, although non-Rutherford (elastic) scattering is an applicable way to do such analysis. With this ion beam analysis technique various competing resonances are available for accurate determination of nitrogen. These involve protons and alpha particles based elastic scatterings. Here, GaN grown on sapphire is used as a base material with known concertation of nitrogen (50%) that can be used to understand the dynamics of such elastic scattering experiments. Elastic backscattering from 14N(p,p)14N and 14N(α,α)14N resonances are compared and it is observed that proton based resonances are more reliable than the alpha particle resonances to find and locate nitrogen in certain matrix, mainly due to the higher availability of discrete and well separated resonances of protons compared to the alpha particles in the energy range of a few MeV. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Measurements of fiducial and differential cross sections for Higgs boson production in the diphoton decay channel at TeV with ATLAS
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - : Springer. - 1029-8479 .- 1126-6708. ; :9, s. 1-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Measurements of fiducial and differential cross sections are presented for Higgs boson production in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of TeV. The analysis is performed in the H -> gamma gamma decay channel using 20.3 fb(-1) of data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The signal is extracted using a fit to the diphoton invariant mass spectrum assuming that the width of the resonance is much smaller than the experimental resolution. The signal yields are corrected for the effects of detector inefficiency and resolution. The pp -> H -> gamma gamma fiducial cross section is measured to be 43.2 +/- 9.4(stat.) (-aEuro parts per thousand 2.9) (+ 3.2) (syst.) +/- 1.2(lumi)fb for a Higgs boson of mass 125.4GeV decaying to two isolated photons that have transverse momentum greater than 35% and 25% of the diphoton invariant mass and each with absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.37. Four additional fiducial cross sections and two cross-section limits are presented in phase space regions that test the theoretical modelling of different Higgs boson production mechanisms, or are sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model. Differential cross sections are also presented, as a function of variables related to the diphoton kinematics and the jet activity produced in the Higgs boson events. The observed spectra are statistically limited but broadly in line with the theoretical expectations.
  • Ablikim, M., et al. (författare)
  • Precision measurement of the D*(0) decay branching fractions
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 1550-7998 .- 1550-2368 .- 2470-0010. ; 91:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using 482 pb(-1) of data taken at root s = 4.009 GeV, we measure the branching fractions of the decays of D*(0) into D-0 pi(0) and D-0 gamma to be B(D*(0) -> D-0 pi(0)) = (65.5 +/- 0.8 +/- 0.5)% and B(D*(0) -> D0 gamma) = (34.5 +/- 0.8 +/- 0.5)%, respectively, by assuming that the D*(0) decays only into these two modes. The ratio of the two branching fractions is B(D*(0) -> D-0 pi(0))/B(D*(0) -> D-0 gamma) = 1.90 +/- 0.07 +/- 0.05, which is independent of the assumption made above. The first uncertainties are statistical and the second ones systematic. The precision is improved by a factor of 3 compared to the present world average values.
  • Andersson, B., et al. (författare)
  • The relationship between the meson, baryon, photon and quark fragmentation distributions
  • 1977
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters B. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 69:2, s. 221-224
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ideas presented in an earlier note on the relationship between the quark fragmentation distributions as measured in leptoproduction and the one particle distributions in the mesonic fragmentation regions of hadronic interactions are carried further to photoproduction and to the baryon fragmentation distributions. The results are as before interpreted in terms of a simple additive quark model where the main interaction is due to the wee partons whereas almost all the initial momentum is carried by one of the valence quarks or a diquark.
  • Antunes, António, et al. (författare)
  • The perturbative CFT optical theorem and high-energy string scattering in AdS at one loop
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP). - 1126-6708 .- 1029-8479. ; :4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We derive an optical theorem for perturbative CFTs which computes the double discontinuity of conformal correlators from the single discontinuities of lower order correlators, in analogy with the optical theorem for flat space scattering amplitudes. The theorem takes a purely multiplicative form in the CFT impact parameter representation used to describe high-energy scattering in the dual AdS theory. We use this result to study four-point correlation functions that are dominated in the Regge limit by the exchange of the graviton Regge trajectory (Pomeron) in the dual theory. At one-loop the scattering is dominated by double Pomeron exchange and receives contributions from tidal excitations of the scattering states which are efficiently described by an AdS vertex function, in close analogy with the known Regge limit result for one-loop string scattering in flat space at finite string tension. We compare the flat space limit of the conformal correlator to the flat space results and thus derive constraints on the one-loop vertex function for type IIB strings in AdS and also on general spinning tree level type IIB amplitudes in AdS.
  • Armoni, Adi, et al. (författare)
  • Metastable vacua in large-N QCD3
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP). - 1126-6708 .- 1029-8479. ; :1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We reexamine the vacuum structure of three-dimensional quantum chromodynamics (QCD3) with gauge group SU(N), Nf fundamental quark flavors, and a level-k Chern-Simons term. This analysis can be reliably carried out in the large-N, fixed Nf, k limit of the theory, up to certain assumptions that we spell out explicitly. At leading order in the large-N expansion we find Nf + 1 distinct, exactly degenerate vacuum superselection sectors with different patterns of flavor-symmetry breaking. The associated massless Nambu-Goldstone bosons are generically accompanied by topological Chern-Simons theories. This set of vacua explicitly realizes many candidate phases previously proposed for QCD3. At subleading order in the large-N expansion, the exact degeneracy between the different superselection sectors is lifted, leading to a multitude of metastable vacua. If we dial the quark masses, different metastable vacua can become the true vacuum of the theory, leading to a sequence of first-order phase transitions. We show that this intricate large-N dynamics can be captured by the previously proposed bosonic dual theories for QCD3, provided these bosonic duals are furnished with a suitable scalar potential. Interestingly, this potential must include terms beyond quartic order in the scalar fields.
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