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1.
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2.
  • Mills, Gina, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Tropospheric ozone assessment report: Present-day tropospheric ozone distribution and trends relevant to vegetation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Elementa. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) on the current state of knowledge of ozone metrics of relevance to vegetation (TOAR-Vegetation) reports on present-day global distribution of ozone at over 3300 vegetated sites and the long-term trends at nearly 1200 sites. TOAR-Vegetation focusses on three metrics over vegetation-relevant time-periods across major world climatic zones: M12, the mean ozone during 08:00-19:59; AOT40, the accumulation of hourly mean ozone values over 40 ppb during daylight hours, and W126 with stronger weighting to higher hourly mean values, accumulated during 08:00-19:59. Although the density of measurement stations is highly variable across regions, in general, the highest ozone values (mean, 2010-14) are in mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere, including southern USA, the Mediterranean basin, northern India, north, north-west and east China, the Republic of Korea and Japan. The lowest metric values reported are in Australia, New Zealand, southern parts of South America and some northern parts of Europe, Canada and the USA. Regional-scale assessments showed, for example, significantly higher AOT40 and W126 values in East Asia (EAS) than Europe (EUR) in wheat growing areas (p < 0.05), but not in rice growing areas. In NAM, the dominant trend during 1995-2014 was a significant decrease in ozone, whilst in EUR it was no change and in EAS it was a significant increase. TOAR-Vegetation provides recommendations to facilitate a more complete global assessment of ozone impacts on vegetation in the future, including: an increase in monitoring of ozone and collation of field evidence of the damaging effects on vegetation; an investigation of the effects on peri-urban agriculture and in mountain/upland areas; inclusion of additional pollutant, meteorological and inlet height data in the TOAR dataset; where not already in existence, establishing new region-specific thresholds for vegetation damage and an innovative integration of observations and modelling including stomatal uptake of the pollutant.
3.
  • Kylander, Malin, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • A novel geochemical approach to paleorecords of dust deposition and effective humidity : 8500 years of peat accumulation at Store Mosse (the Great Bog), Sweden
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews. - 0277-3791. ; 69, s. 69-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Both bog surface wetness and atmospheric dust deposition are intricately linked to changes in the hydrological cycle and pairing these types of records at the same site provides complementary information. Here a peat core from Store Mosse in southern Sweden covering the last 8500 years was used to make a high-resolution paleoclimate reconstruction based on a combination of bog development, colourimetric humification and inorganic geochemistry data. The coupling of Principal Component Analysis with changepoint modelling allowed for precise linking of changes in bog surface wetness and dust deposition records. A long-term trend towards warm (and possibly wet) conditions starts ca 8150 cal yr BP and culminates with the most pronounced conditions from 6900 to 6600 cal yr BP. The most significant arid period at Store Mosse occurred between 6500 and 5600 cal yr BP during which dust deposition was significantly higher. Wetter conditions dominate from 5500 to 4980 cal yr BP as the transition from the Hypsithermal and into the Neoglacial is made. After a shift to drier conditions, humification enters a more stable period that lasts from 4525 until 3200 cal yr BP. It is during this time that the first possible anthropogenic dust signals occur at ca 4200 cal yr BP. From 3200 cal yr BP to present humification generally shows a long-term decline moving towards wetter conditions. The main exceptions are during the transition from the Neoglacial to Roman Warm Period which is registered as a significantly wetter period and two dry periods recorded 2365 to 2155 cal yr BP and 1275-1105 cal yr BP. In general, the observed changes agree well with regional records of effective humidity and temperature. The high temporal resolution of the Store Mosse record reveals that palaeoclimatic change over the last 8500 years in southern Sweden has had a complex and variable structure.
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4.
  • Kylander, Malin E., et al. (författare)
  • Mineral dust as a driver of carbon accumulation in northern latitudes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Peatlands in northern latitudes sequester one third of the world's soil organic carbon. Mineral dusts can affect the primary productivity of terrestrial systems through nutrient transport but this process has not yet been documented in these peat-rich regions. Here we analysed organic and inorganic fractions of an 8900-year-old sequence from Store Mosse (the "Great Bog") in southern Sweden. Between 5420 and 4550 cal yr BP, we observe a seven-fold increase in net peat-accumulation rates corresponding to a maximum carbon-burial rate of 150 g C m(-2) yr(-1) -more than six times the global average. This high peat accumulation event occurs in parallel with a distinct change in the character of the dust deposited on the bog, which moves from being dominated by clay minerals to less weathered, phosphate and feldspar minerals. We hypothesize that this shift boosted nutrient input to the bog and stimulated ecosystem productivity. This study shows that diffuse sources and dust dynamics in northern temperate latitudes, often overlooked by the dust community in favour of arid and semi-arid regions, can be important drivers of peatland carbon accumulation and by extension, global climate, warranting further consideration in predictions of future climate variability.
5.
  • Roldin, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • The role of highly oxygenated organic molecules in the Boreal aerosol-cloud-climate system
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 10, s. 1-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Over Boreal regions, monoterpenes emitted from the forest are the main precursors for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and the primary driver of the growth of new aerosol particles to climatically important cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Autoxidation of monoterpenes leads to rapid formation of Highly Oxygenated organic Molecules (HOM). We have developed the first model with near-explicit representation of atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) and HOM formation. The model can reproduce the observed NPF, HOM gas-phase composition and SOA formation over the Boreal forest. During the spring, HOM SOA formation increases the CCN concentration by ~10 % and causes a direct aerosol radiative forcing of −0.10 W/m2. In contrast, NPF reduces the number of CCN at updraft velocities < 0.2 m/s, and causes a direct aerosol radiative forcing of +0.15 W/m2. Hence, while HOM SOA contributes to climate cooling, NPF can result in climate warming over the Boreal forest.
6.
  • Olsson, Mikael, 1948- (författare)
  • Polaris Möten med världens poler www.polarisen.se
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: http://www.polarisen.se. - Göteborg : University of Gothenburg.
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Polaris is a Swedish based web site dealing with Antarctic, Arctic and sub-polar areas around the globe, including sub-Arctic regions of Scandinavia and Eurasia. Polaris is focusing on peoples and places, research and resources on high latitudes. In particular, the site's ambition is to depict the interaction between the components and put them in a context of global environmental and climate change. The web site also addresses the Swedish polar and mountain research, exemplified by the depiction of a number of Swedish polar researchers' work and choice of career. Polaris main target group is high school students. We aim at establishing Polaris as the popular web site in Sweden for polar research. Polaris was a joint production by Gothenburg and Stockholm Universities and others during the International Polar Year 2007-09. The initiative to the website was taken by the Swedish Committee for International Polar Year, the Swedish Research Council and the Universeum Science Center in Gothenburg. There are many scientific contributors, mainly from the Centre of Earth Systems Science at the University of Gothenburg, the Tarfala Research Station at Stockholm University and the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat . Interviews and articles are made by professional science writers. All texts are in Swedish.
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7.
  • Aldenhoff, Wiebke, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of ice/water classification in Fram Strait from C- and L-band SAR imagery
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Annals of Glaciology. - 0260-3055. ; 59:76pt2, s. 112-123
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper an algorithm for ice/water classification of C- A nd L-band dual polarization synthetic aperture radar data is presented. A comparison of the two different frequencies is made in order to investigate the potential to improve classification results with multi-frequency data. The algorithm is based on backscatter intensities in co- A nd cross-polarization and autocorrelation as a texture feature. The mapping between image features and ice/water classification is made with a neural network. Accurate ice/water maps for both frequencies are produced by the algorithm and the results of two frequencies generally agree very well. Differences are found in the marginal ice zone, where the time difference between acquisitions causes motion of the ice pack. C-band reliably reproduces the outline of the ice edge, while L-band has its strengths for thin ice/calm water areas within the icepack. The classification shows good agreement with ice/water maps derived from met.no ice-charts and radiometer data from AMSR-2. Variations are found in the marginal ice zone where the generalization of the ice charts and lower accuracy of ice concentration from radiometer data introduce deviations. Usage of high-resolution dual frequency data could be beneficial for improving ice cover information for navigation and modelling.
8.
  • Podgrajsek, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Methane fluxes from a small boreal lake measured with the eddy covariance method
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography. - 0024-3590. ; 61:Supplement 1, s. S41-S50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fluxes of methane, CH4, were measured with the eddy covariance (EC) method at a small boreal lake in Sweden. The mean CH4 flux during the growing season of 2013 was 20.1 nmol m22 s 21 and the median flux was 16 nmol m22 s 21 (corresponding to 1.7 mmol m22 d21 and 1.4 mmol m22 d21 ). Monthly mean values of CH4 flux measured with the EC method were compared with fluxes measured with floating chambers (FC) and were in average 62% higher over the whole study period. The difference was greatest in April partly because EC, but not FC, accounted for fluxes due to ice melt and a subsequent lake mixing event. A footprint analysis revealed that the EC footprint included primarily the shallow side of the lake with a major inlet. This inlet harbors emergent macrophytes that can mediate high CH4 fluxes. The difference between measured EC and FC fluxes can hence be explained by different footprint areas, where the EC system “sees” the part of the lake presumably releasing higher amounts of CH4. EC also provides more frequent measurements than FC and hence more likely captures ebullition events. This study shows that small lakes have CH4 fluxes that are highly variable in time and space. Based on our findings we suggest to measure CH4 fluxes from lakes as continuously as possible and to aim for covering as much of the lakes surface as possible, independently of the selected measuring technique.
9.
  • Gribenski, Natacha, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • Complex patterns of glacier advances during the late glacial in the Chagan Uzun Valley, Russian Altai
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews. - 0277-3791. ; 149, s. 288-305
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Southern part of the Russian Altai Mountains is recognized for its evidence for catastrophic glacial lake outbursts. However, little is known about the late Pleistocene paleoglacial history, despite the interest in such reconstructions for constraining paleoclimate. In this study, we present a detailed paleoglaciological reconstruction of the Chagan Uzun Valley, in the Russian Altai Mountains, combining for the first time detailed geomorphological mapping, sedimentological logging, and in situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al surface exposure dating of glacially-transported boulders. The Chagan Uzun Valley exhibits the most impressive glacial landforms of this sector of the Altai, with extensive lobate moraine belts deposited in the intramontane Chuja Basin, reflecting a series of pronounced former glacial advances. Observations of “hillside-scale” folding and extensive faulting of pre-existing soft sediments within the outer moraine belts, together with the geomorphology, strongly indicate that these moraine belts were formed during surge-like events. Identification of surge-related features is essential for paleoclimate inference because these features correspond to a glacier system that is not in equilibrium with the contemporary climate, but instead largely influenced by various internal and external factors. Therefore, no strict relationship can be established between climatic variables and the pronounced distal glacial extent observed in the Chagan Uzun Valley/Chuja basin. In contrast, the inner (up-valley) glacial landforms of the Chagan Uzun valley were likely deposited during retreat of temperate valley glaciers, close to equilibrium with climate, and so most probably triggered by a general warming. Cosmogenic ages associated with the outermost, innermost, and intermediate stages all indicate deposition times clustered around 19 ka. However, the actual deposition time of the outermost moraine may slightly predate the 10Be ages due to shielding caused by subsequent lake water coverage. This chronology indicates a Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 last maximum extent of the Chagan Uzun Glacier, and an onset of the deglaciation around 19 ka. This is consistent with other regional paleoclimate proxy records and with the Northern Hemisphere glaciation chronology. Finally, this study also highlights the highly dynamic environment in this area, with complex interactions between glacial events and the formation and drainage of lakes.
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10.
  • McCarroll, Danny, et al. (författare)
  • A 1200-year multiproxy record of tree growth and summer temperature at the northern pine forest limit of Europe
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Holocene. - 0959-6836. ; 23:4, s. 471-484
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Combining nine tree growth proxies from four sites, from the west coast of Norway to the Kola Peninsula of NW Russia, provides a well replicated (&gt; 100 annual measurements per year) mean index of tree growth over the last 1200 years that represents the growth of much of the northern pine timberline forests of northern Fennoscandia. The simple mean of the nine series, z-scored over their common period, correlates strongly with mean June to August temperature averaged over this region (r = 0.81), allowing reconstructions of summer temperature based on regression and variance scaling. The reconstructions correlate significantly with gridded summer temperatures across the whole of Fennoscandia, extending north across Svalbard and south into Denmark. Uncertainty in the reconstructions is estimated by combining the uncertainty in mean tree growth with the uncertainty in the regression models. Over the last seven centuries the uncertainty is &lt; 4.5% higher than in the 20th century, and reaches a maximum of 12% above recent levels during the 10th century. The results suggest that the 20th century was the warmest of the last 1200 years, but that it was not significantly different from the 11th century. The coldest century was the 17th. The impact of volcanic eruptions is clear, and a delayed recovery from pairs or multiple eruptions suggests the presence of some positive feedback mechanism. There is no clear and consistent link between northern Fennoscandian summer temperatures and solar forcing.
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