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  • Bobrowski, Nicole, et al. (författare)
  • Multi-component gas emission measurements of the active lava lake of Nyiragongo, DR Congo
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of African Earth Sciences. ; 134, s. 856-865
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Between 2007 and 2011 four measurement campaigns (June 2007, July 2010, June 2011, and December 2011) were carried out at the crater rim of Nyiragongo volcano, DR Congo. Nyiragongo is one of the most active volcanoes in Africa. The ground-based remote sensing technique Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS), which uses scattered sunlight, the in-situ Multi-Component Gas Analyzer System (Multi-GAS) and alkaline impregnated filter were simultaneously applied during all field trips. The bromine monoxide to sulfur dioxide (BrO/SO2) and carbon dioxide to sulfur dioxide (CO2/SO2) molar ratios were determined, among other ratios. During the different field trips variations of the level of the lava lake up to several tens of meters were observed during intervals of the order of minutes up to days and also between the years. The measured gas ratios presented covariations with the lava lake level changes. BrO/SO2 ratios and CO2/SO2 ratios showed similar behavior. Annual CO2/SO2 and BrO/SO2 average values are generally positively correlated. In June 2011 increased BrO/SO2 as well as increased CO2/SO2 ratios have been observed before a sudden decrease of the lava lake. Overall the Cl/S ratio, determined by filter-pack sampling, shows an increasing trend with time, which is accompanied by a decreasing sulfur dioxide flux, the later measured nearly continuously by automated MAX-DOAS instruments since 2004. Mean gas emission fluxes of CO2, Cl and ‘minimum-BrO’ fluxes are calculated using their ratio to SO2. The first two show an increase with time, in contrast to the SO2 fluxes. A simple conceptual model is proposed which can explain in particular the June 2011 data, but as well our entire data set. The proposed model takes up the idea of convective magma cells inside the conduit and the possible temporary interruption of part of the cycling. We propose than two alternatives to explain the observed gas emission variation: 1. It is assumed that the diffuse and fumarolic degassing could have significant influence on measured gas composition. The measured gas composition might rather represent a gas mixture of plume, diffuse and fumarolic degassing than only representing the volcanic plume. 2. It is proposed that the interruption of the convection has taken place in the upper part of the conduit and deep degassing of CO2 and bromine initially continues while mixing already with gas emissions from an ageing source, which is characterized by an already diminishing sulfur content. These complex process but as well as the gas mixing of different sources, could explain general features of our dataset, but can unfortunately neither be confirmed nor disproven by the data available today.
  • Weis, Franz A., et al. (författare)
  • Magmatic water contents determined through clinopyroxene Examples from the Western Canary Islands, Spain
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. - 1525-2027 .- 1525-2027. ; 16:7, s. 2127-2146
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Water is a key parameter in magma genesis, magma evolution, and resulting eruption styles, because it controls the density, the viscosity, as well as the melting and crystallization behavior of a melt. The parental water content of a magma is usually measured through melt inclusions in minerals such as olivine, a method which may be hampered, however, by the lack of melt inclusions suitable for analysis, or postentrapment changes in their water content. An alternative way to reconstruct the water content of a magma is to use nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs), such as pyroxene, which take up low concentrations of hydrogen as a function of the magma's water content. During magma degassing and eruption, however, NAMs may dehydrate. We therefore tested a method to reconstruct the water contents of dehydrated clinopyroxene phenocrysts from the Western Canary islands (n=28) through rehydration experiments followed by infrared and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Employing currently available crystal/melt partitioning data, the results of the experiments were used to calculate parental water contents of 0.710.07 to 1.490.15 wt % H2O for Western Canary magmas during clinopyroxene crystallization at upper mantle conditions. This H2O range is in agreement with calculated water contents using plagioclase-liquid-hygrometry, and with previously published data for mafic lavas from the Canary Islands and comparable ocean island systems elsewhere. Utilizing NAMs in combination with hydrogen treatment can therefore serve as a proxy for pre-eruptive H2O contents, which we anticipate becoming a useful method applicable to mafic rocks where pyroxene is the main phenocryst phase.
  • Aldenhoff, Wiebke, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of ice/water classification in Fram Strait from C- and L-band SAR imagery
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Annals of Glaciology. - 0260-3055. ; 59:76pt2, s. 112-123
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper an algorithm for ice/water classification of C- A nd L-band dual polarization synthetic aperture radar data is presented. A comparison of the two different frequencies is made in order to investigate the potential to improve classification results with multi-frequency data. The algorithm is based on backscatter intensities in co- A nd cross-polarization and autocorrelation as a texture feature. The mapping between image features and ice/water classification is made with a neural network. Accurate ice/water maps for both frequencies are produced by the algorithm and the results of two frequencies generally agree very well. Differences are found in the marginal ice zone, where the time difference between acquisitions causes motion of the ice pack. C-band reliably reproduces the outline of the ice edge, while L-band has its strengths for thin ice/calm water areas within the icepack. The classification shows good agreement with ice/water maps derived from met.no ice-charts and radiometer data from AMSR-2. Variations are found in the marginal ice zone where the generalization of the ice charts and lower accuracy of ice concentration from radiometer data introduce deviations. Usage of high-resolution dual frequency data could be beneficial for improving ice cover information for navigation and modelling.
  • Löfgren, Johan, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • Sea Level Monitoring Using a GNSS-Based Tide Gauge
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: 2nd International Colloquium - Scientific and Fundamental Aspects of the Galileo Programme, 14 - 16 October 2009, Padua, Italy.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Global climate change is believed to result in the melting of large masses of ice in Polar Regions, bringing freshwater into the ocean, and changing the sea level. The traditional way to measure the sea level, by tide gauges, results in measurements relative to the Earth’s crust. However, in order to fully understand the sea level changes, absolute measurements (change in sea level in relation to the Earth’s center of gravity) are necessary, in particular in regions affected by post-glacial uplift, e.g., Fennoscandia. Satellite techniques, e.g., GNSS can be used to determine the motion of the Earth’s crust in relation to the center of gravity. By measuring reflected GNSS-signals from the sea surface, information of the sea level change can be obtained. Therefore a GNSS-based tide gauge is proposed.The proposed GNSS-based tide gauge installation consists of two antennas, one zenith looking right hand circular polarized (RHCP) and one nadir looking left hand circular polarized (LHCP), mounted back-to-back on a beam over the ocean. The RHCP antenna receives the GNSS-signals directly, whereas the LHCP antenna receives the signals reflected from the sea surface. Because of the additional path delay of the reflected signal, the LHCP antenna will appear to be a virtual GNSS-antenna located below the sea surface. When the sea level changes, the path delay of the reflected signal changes, thus the LHCP antenna will appear to be in a new position. The vertical position change corresponds to twice the sea level change, and therefore monitors sea level changes.Multiple satellites with different elevation and azimuth angles are observed each epoch and will give rise to reflected signals with different incidence angles from different directions. This means that the estimated sea level change can not be considered to originate from one specific point on the surface, but rather represents the change of an average surface formed by the reflection points.An experimental setup was installed in December 2008 over the ocean at Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) at the west coast of Sweden. Data was collected during three days using two Leica GRX1200+ receivers (one for the direct and one for the reflected signal). The receivers recorded 40 hours of continuous 20Hz data. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as determined by the two receivers was used as a first data quality check. On average the SNR difference between the directly received and the reflected signals was less than 3dB.The data was analyzed using an in-house developed software in MATLAB. Solutions were made using L1 phase delays for relative positioning. Two approaches to estimate the vertical difference between the RHCP and the LHCP antenna were tested: hourly estimates of the vertical difference, and high-rate estimates of the vertical difference. For the hourly estimates 40 hours of continuous 1Hz data (reduced for faster processing using the TEQC software) were used. Each solution was made using 20 minutes of data every full hour, solving for differences in the local vertical components together with receiver clock and phase ambiguities differences for each epoch.The solution for the high-rate vertical component was made in two steps. First, the phase ambiguity differences were determined. This was done using equally distributed short intervals of ~1 second (21 epochs) from ~20 minutes of 20Hz data, solving for difference in phase ambiguities and receiver clocks every epoch together with differences in vertical coordinate for each short interval. The processing was done based on the assumptions that the sea surface does not change significantly during ~1 second and that the satellite geometry changes considerably in ~20 minutes. Second, the differences in phase ambiguities were rounded to the nearest integer and inserted as known values for a reprocessing of the 20Hz data. In this reprocessing the receiver clock parameters were estimated every epoch and the vertical coordinate difference with different time resolutions (e.g. 0.05s, 1s, 30s).The resulting time-series for the sea level change from the hourly solutions were compared to data from two traditional tide gauges operated by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute at Ringhals and Göteborg, about 18 km south of and 33 km north of OSO, respectively. The GNSS-derived sea level change resembles reasonably well the independently observed sea level change. This indicates that the GNSS-tide gauge gives valuable results for sea level monitoring. Furthermore, the use of the high-rate GNSS-receivers additionally allows a flexible time resolution for sea level monitoring.
  • Kylander, Malin E., et al. (författare)
  • Potentials and problems of building detailed dust records using peat archives: An example from Store Mosse (the “Great Bog”), Sweden
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. - 0016-7037. ; 190, s. 156-174
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mineral dust deposition is a process often overlooked in northern mid-latitudes, despite its potential effects on ecosystems. These areas are often peat-rich, providing ample material for the reconstruction of past changes in atmospheric deposition. The highly organic (up to 99% in some cases) matrix of atmospherically fed mires, however, makes studying the actual dust particles (grain size, mineralogy) challenging. Here we explore some of the potentials and problems of using geochemical data from conservative, lithogenic elements (Al, Ga, Rb, Sc, Y, Zr, Th, Ti and REE) to build detailed dust records by using an example from the 8900-yr peat sequence from Store Mosse (the “Great Bog”), which is the largest mire complex in the boreo-nemoral region of southern Sweden. The four dust events recorded at this site were elementally distinct, suggesting different dominant mineral hosts. The oldest and longest event (6385–5300 cal yr BP) sees a clear signal of clay input but with increasing contributions of mica, feldspar and middle-REE-rich phosphate minerals over time. These clays are likely transported from a long-distance source (
  • Maskenskaya, Olga M., et al. (författare)
  • Source and character of syntaxial hydrothermal calcite veins in Paleoproterozoic crystalline rocks revealed by fine-scale investigations
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Geofluids. - 1468-8115. ; 14:4, s. 495-511
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Calcite veins in Paleoproterozoic granitoids on the Baltic Shield are the focus of this study. These veins are distinguished by their monomineralic character, unusual thickness and closeness to Neoproterozoic dolerite dykes and therefore have drawn attention. The aim of this study was to define the source of these veins and to unravel their isotopic and chemical nature by carrying out fine-scale studies. Seven calcite veins covering a depth interval of 50–420 m below the ground surface and composed of breccias or crack-sealed fillings typically expressing syntaxial growth were sampled and analysed for a variety of physicochemical variables: homogenization temperature (Th) and salinity of fluid inclusions, and stable isotopes (87Sr/86Sr, 13C/12C, 18O/16O), trace-element concentrations (Fe, Mn, Mg, Sr, rare earth elements) and cathodoluminescence (CL) of the solid phase. The fluid-inclusion data show that the calcites were precipitated mainly from relatively low-temperature (Th = 73–106°C) brines (13.4–24.5 wt.% CaCl2), and the 87Sr/86Sr is more radiogenic than expected for Rb-poor minerals precipitated from Neoproterozoic fluids. These features, together with the distribution of δ13C and δ18O values, provide evidence that the calcite veins are not genetic with the nearby Neoproterozoic dolerite dykes, but are of Paleozoic age and were precipitated from warm brines expressing a rather large variability in salinity. Whereas the isotopic and chemical variables express rather constant average values among the individual veins, they vary considerably on fine-scale across individual veins. This has implications for understanding processes causing calcite-rich veins to form and capture trace metals in crystalline bedrock settings.
  • Ranta, E., et al. (författare)
  • Fluid-rock reactions in the 1.3Ga siderite carbonatite of the GrOnnedal-ika alkaline complex, Southwest Greenland
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. - 0010-7999. ; 173:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Petrogenetic studies of carbonatites are challenging, because carbonatite mineral assemblages and mineral chemistry typically reflect both variable pressure-temperature conditions during crystallization and fluid-rock interaction caused by magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. However, this complexity results in recognizable alteration textures and trace-element signatures in the mineral archive that can be used to reconstruct the magmatic evolution and fluid-rock interaction history of carbonatites. We present new LA-ICP-MS trace-element data for magnetite, calcite, siderite, and ankerite-dolomite-kutnohorite from the iron-rich carbonatites of the 1.3Ga GrOnnedal-ika alkaline complex, Southwest Greenland. We use these data, in combination with detailed cathodoluminescence imaging, to identify magmatic and secondary geochemical fingerprints preserved in these minerals. The chemical and textural gradients show that a 55m-thick basaltic dike that crosscuts the carbonatite intrusion has acted as the pathway for hydrothermal fluids enriched in F and CO2, which have caused mobilization of the LREEs, Nb, Ta, Ba, Sr, Mn, and P. These fluids reacted with and altered the composition of the surrounding carbonatites up to a distance of 40m from the dike contact and caused formation of magnetite through oxidation of siderite. Our results can be used for discrimination between primary magmatic minerals and later alteration-related assemblages in carbonatites in general, which can lead to a better understanding of how these rare rocks are formed. Our data provide evidence that siderite-bearing ferrocarbonatites can form during late stages of calciocarbonatitic magma evolution.
  • Sopher, Daniel (författare)
  • Characterization of the structure, stratigraphy and CO2 storage potential of the Swedish sector of the Baltic and Hanö Bay basins using seismic reflection methods
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • An extensive multi-channel seismic dataset acquired between 1970 and 1990 by Oljeprospektering AB (OPAB) has recently been made available by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU). This thesis summarizes four papers, which utilize this largely unpublished dataset to improve our understanding of the geology and CO2 storage capacity of the Baltic and Hanö Bay basins in southern Sweden.A range of new processing workflows were developed, which typically provide an improvement in the final stacked seismic image, when compared to the result obtained with the original processing. A method was developed to convert scanned images of seismic sections into SEGY files, which allows large amounts of the OPAB dataset to be imported and interpreted using modern software. A new method for joint imaging of multiples and primaries was developed, which is shown to provide an improvement in signal to noise for some of the seismic lines within the OPAB dataset. For the first time, five interpreted regional seismic profiles detailing the entire sedimentary sequence within these basins, are presented. Depth structure maps detailing the Outer Hanö Bay area and the deeper parts of the Baltic Basin were also generated. Although the overall structure and stratigraphy of the basins inferred from the reprocessed OPAB dataset are consistent with previous studies, some new observations have been made, which improve the understanding of the tectonic history of these basins and provide insight into how the depositional environments have changed throughout time. The effective CO2 storage potential within structural and stratigraphic traps is assessed for the Cambrian Viklau, När and Faludden sandstone reservoirs. A probabilistic methodology is utilized, which allows a robust assessment of the storage capacity as well as the associated uncertainty. The most favourable storage option in the Swedish sector of the Baltic Basin is assessed to be the Faludden stratigraphic trap, which is estimated to have a mid case (P50) storage capacity of 3390 Mt in the deeper part of the basin, where CO2 can be stored in a supercritical phase.
  • Hobiger, Thomas, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Software-Defined Radio Direct Correlation GNSS Reflectometry by Means of GLONASS
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. - 1939-1404. ; 9:10, s. 4834-4842
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ground-based GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R)systems can be realized by different means. The concept ofcorrelation between direct and reflected GNSS signals is basicallypossible with all GNSS systems. However, using signals fromthe Russian GLONASS system simplifies the signal processingso that software-defined radio (SDR) components can be usedat replace expensive hardware solutions. This paper discusseshow such a solution, called GLONASS-R, can be realized usingentirely off-the-shelf components. Field tests with such a systemdemonstrate the capability to monitor sea surface heights with aprecision of 3 cm or better even with a sampling rate of 1.5 Hz.The flexibility of a SDR and the simple concept of GLONASS-Rallow build such a system with low costs and adapt it to the needsof any ground-based GNSS-R problem.
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