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  • Mills, Gina, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Tropospheric ozone assessment report: Present-day tropospheric ozone distribution and trends relevant to vegetation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Elementa. - 2325-1026. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) on the current state of knowledge of ozone metrics of relevance to vegetation (TOAR-Vegetation) reports on present-day global distribution of ozone at over 3300 vegetated sites and the long-term trends at nearly 1200 sites. TOAR-Vegetation focusses on three metrics over vegetation-relevant time-periods across major world climatic zones: M12, the mean ozone during 08:00-19:59; AOT40, the accumulation of hourly mean ozone values over 40 ppb during daylight hours, and W126 with stronger weighting to higher hourly mean values, accumulated during 08:00-19:59. Although the density of measurement stations is highly variable across regions, in general, the highest ozone values (mean, 2010-14) are in mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere, including southern USA, the Mediterranean basin, northern India, north, north-west and east China, the Republic of Korea and Japan. The lowest metric values reported are in Australia, New Zealand, southern parts of South America and some northern parts of Europe, Canada and the USA. Regional-scale assessments showed, for example, significantly higher AOT40 and W126 values in East Asia (EAS) than Europe (EUR) in wheat growing areas (p < 0.05), but not in rice growing areas. In NAM, the dominant trend during 1995-2014 was a significant decrease in ozone, whilst in EUR it was no change and in EAS it was a significant increase. TOAR-Vegetation provides recommendations to facilitate a more complete global assessment of ozone impacts on vegetation in the future, including: an increase in monitoring of ozone and collation of field evidence of the damaging effects on vegetation; an investigation of the effects on peri-urban agriculture and in mountain/upland areas; inclusion of additional pollutant, meteorological and inlet height data in the TOAR dataset; where not already in existence, establishing new region-specific thresholds for vegetation damage and an innovative integration of observations and modelling including stomatal uptake of the pollutant.
  • Chan, Phoebe, et al. (författare)
  • Freshening of the Alaska Coastal Current recorded by coralline algal Ba/Ca ratios
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. - 0148-0227. ; 116
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Arctic Ocean freshening can exert a controlling influence on global climate, triggering strong feedbacks on ocean-atmospheric processes and affecting the global cycling of the world's oceans. Glacier-fed ocean currents such as the Alaska Coastal Current are important sources of freshwater for the Bering Sea shelf, and may also influence the Arctic Ocean freshwater budget. Instrumental data indicate a multiyear freshening episode of the Alaska Coastal Current in the early 21st century. It is uncertain whether this freshening is part of natural multidecadal climate variability or a unique feature of anthropogenically induced warming. In order to answer this, a better understanding of past variations in the Alaska Coastal Current is needed. However, continuous long-term high-resolution observations of the Alaska Coastal Current have only been available for the last 2 decades. In this study, specimens of the long-lived crustose coralline alga Clathromorphum nereostratum were collected within the pathway of the Alaska Coastal Current and utilized as archives of past temperature and salinity. Results indicate that coralline algal Mg/Ca ratios provide a 60 year record of sea surface temperatures and track changes of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, a pattern of decadal-to-multidecadal ocean-atmosphere climate variability centered over the North Pacific. Algal Ba/Ca ratios (used as indicators of coastal freshwater runoff) are inversely correlated to instrumentally measured Alaska Coastal Current salinity and record the period of freshening from 2001 to 2006. Similar multiyear freshening events are not evident in the earlier portion of the 60 year Ba/Ca record. This suggests that the 21st century freshening of the Alaska Coastal Current is a unique feature related to increasing glacial melt and precipitation on mainland Alaska.
  • Gamboa, G., et al. (författare)
  • Mg/Ca ratios in coralline algae record northwest Atlantic temperature variations and North Atlantic Oscillation relationships
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. - 0148-0227. ; 115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • [1] Climate variability in the North Atlantic has been linked in part to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The NAO influences marine ecosystems in the northwestern Atlantic and transport variability of the cold Labrador Current. Understanding historic patterns of NAO variability requires long-term and high-resolution climate records that are not available from instrumental data. Here we present the first century-scale proxy record of sea surface temperature (SST) variability from the Newfoundland shelf, a region from which other annual-resolution shallow marine proxies are unavailable. The 116 year record was obtained from three sites along the eastern Newfoundland shelf using laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry-determined Mg/Ca ratios in the crustose coralline alga Clathromorphum compactum. The alga is characterized by a high Mg-calcite skeleton exhibiting annual growth increments and a century-scale lifespan. Results indicate positive correlations between interannual variations in Mg/Ca ratios and both station-based and gridded instrumental SST. In addition, the record shows high spatial correlations to SST across the Newfoundland shelf and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Before 1950 the Mg/Ca proxy record reveals significant departures from gridded temperature records. While the Newfoundland shelf is generally considered a region of negative correlations to the NAO, the algal time series as well as a recent modeling study suggest a variable negative relationship with the NAO which is strongest after similar to 1960 and before the mid-1930s.
  • Peternell, Mark, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of strain rate cycling on microstructures and crystallographic preferred orientation during high-temperature creep
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Geology. - 0091-7613 .- 1943-2682. ; 44, s. 279-282
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2016 Geological Society of America. Strain rate histories and strain magnitude are two crucial factors governing the evolution of dynamic recrystallized grain size and crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) in rocks and ice masses. To understand the effect of cyclic variations in strain rate or non-steadystate deformation, we conducted two-dimensional, coaxial plane strain experiments with time-lapse observations from a fabric analyzer. There is a continuous reequilibration of microstructure and CPO development associated with constant and oscillating strain rate cycles. These can be correlated with c-axis small circle distributions, diagnostic of dynamic recrystallization involving new grain nucleation and grain boundary migration (GBM) as observed in the high-temperature deformation of ice and quartz. Inhomogeneous stress distribution can lead to grain size reduction for relatively slower strain rates and GBM for relatively faster rates within a long-interval cycling event, a behavior that contradicts the classic view for dynamic recrystallization processes. Where there is a rapid short-term cycling of strain rate, GBM is hampered and nucleation dominates, accompanied by a marked reduction of grain size and no new CPO development. During such short-term cycling, GBM and crystallographic change is impeded not by impurities, but by an inability of newly nucleated grains to grow.
  • Wurzbacher, Christian, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Poorly known microbial taxa dominate the microbiome of permafrost thaw ponds.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The ISME journal. - 1751-7370. ; 11:8, s. 1938-1941
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the transition zone of the shifting permafrost border, thaw ponds emerge as hotspots of microbial activity, processing the ancient carbon freed from the permafrost. We analyzed the microbial succession across a gradient of recently emerged to older ponds using three molecular markers: one universal, one bacterial and one fungal. Age was a major modulator of the microbial community of the thaw ponds. Surprisingly, typical freshwater taxa comprised only a small fraction of the community. Instead, thaw ponds of all age classes were dominated by enigmatic bacterial and fungal phyla. Our results on permafrost thaw ponds lead to a revised perception of the thaw pond ecosystem and their microbes, with potential implications for carbon and nutrient cycling in this increasingly important class of freshwaters.
  • Hetzinger, S., et al. (författare)
  • High-resolution analysis of trace elements in crustose coralline algae from the North Atlantic and North Pacific by laser ablation ICP-MS
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. - 0031-0182. ; 302:1-2, s. 81-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have investigated the trace elemental composition in the skeleta of two specimens of attached-living coralline algae of the species Clathromorphum compactum from the North Atlantic (Newfoundland) and Clathromorphum nereostratum from the North Pacific/Bering Sea region (Amchitka Island, Aleutians). Samples were analyzed using Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (IA-ICP-MS) yielding for the first time continuous individual trace elemental records of up to 69 years in length. The resulting algal Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios are reproducible within individual sample specimens. Algal Mg/Ca ratios were additionally validated by electron microprobe analyses (Amchitka sample). Algal Sr/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios were compared to algal Mg/Ca ratios, which previously have been shown to reliably record sea surface temperature (SST). Ratios of Sr/Ca from both Clathromorphum species show a strong positive correlation to temperature-dependent Mg/Ca ratios, implying that seawater temperature plays an important role in the incorporation of Sr into algal calcite. Linear Sr/Ca-SST regressions have provided positive, but weaker relationships as compared to Mg/Ca-SST relationships. Both, algal Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca display clear seasonal cycles. Inverse correlations were found between algal Mg/Ca and U/Ca, Ba/Ca, and correlations to SST are weaker than between Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and SST. This suggests that the incorporation of U and Ba is influenced by other factors aside from temperature. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Sopher, Daniel (författare)
  • Characterization of the structure, stratigraphy and CO<sub>2</sub> storage potential of the Swedish sector of the Baltic and Hanö Bay basins using seismic reflection methods
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>An extensive multi-channel seismic dataset acquired between 1970 and 1990 by Oljeprospektering AB (OPAB) has recently been made available by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU). This thesis summarizes four papers, which utilize this largely unpublished dataset to improve our understanding of the geology and CO<sub>2</sub> storage capacity of the Baltic and Hanö Bay basins in southern Sweden.</p><p>A range of new processing workflows were developed, which typically provide an improvement in the final stacked seismic image, when compared to the result obtained with the original processing. A method was developed to convert scanned images of seismic sections into SEGY files, which allows large amounts of the OPAB dataset to be imported and interpreted using modern software. A new method for joint imaging of multiples and primaries was developed, which is shown to provide an improvement in signal to noise for some of the seismic lines within the OPAB dataset. For the first time, five interpreted regional seismic profiles detailing the entire sedimentary sequence within these basins, are presented. Depth structure maps detailing the Outer Hanö Bay area and the deeper parts of the Baltic Basin were also generated. Although the overall structure and stratigraphy of the basins inferred from the reprocessed OPAB dataset are consistent with previous studies, some new observations have been made, which improve the understanding of the tectonic history of these basins and provide insight into how the depositional environments have changed throughout time. The effective CO<sub>2</sub> storage potential within structural and stratigraphic traps is assessed for the Cambrian Viklau, När and Faludden sandstone reservoirs. A probabilistic methodology is utilized, which allows a robust assessment of the storage capacity as well as the associated uncertainty. The most favourable storage option in the Swedish sector of the Baltic Basin is assessed to be the Faludden stratigraphic trap, which is estimated to have a mid case (P50) storage capacity of 3390 Mt in the deeper part of the basin, where CO<sub>2</sub> can be stored in a supercritical phase.</p>
  • Wilson, Christopher J.L., et al. (författare)
  • The influence of strain rate and presence of dispersed second phases on the deformation behaviour of polycrystalline D2O ice
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Glaciology. - 0022-1430. ; 65:249, s. 101-122
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This contribution discusses results obtained from 3-D neutron diffraction and 2-D fabric analyser in situ deformation experiments on laboratory-prepared polycrystalline deuterated ice and ice containing a second phase. The two-phase samples used in the experiments are composed of an ice matrix with (1) air bubbles, (2) rigid, rhombohedral-shaped calcite and (3) rheologically soft, platy graphite. Samples were tested at 10°C below the melting point of deuterated ice at ambient pressures, and two strain rates of 1 × 10 −5 s −1 (fast) and 2.5 × 10 −6 s −1 (medium). Nature and distribution of the second phase controlled the rheological behaviour of the ice by pinning grain boundary migration. Peak stresses increased with the presence of second-phase particles and during fast strain rate cycles. Ice-only samples exhibit well-developed crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) and dynamically recrystallized microstructures, typifying deformation via dislocation creep, where the CPO intensity is influenced in part by the strain rate. CPOs are accompanied by a concentration of [ c ]-axes in cones about the compression axis, coinciding with increasing activity of prismatic- slip activity. Ice with second phases, deformed in a relatively slower strain rate regime, exhibit greater grain boundary migration and stronger CPO intensities than samples deformed at higher strain rates or strain rate cycles.
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