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  • Roldin, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • The role of highly oxygenated organic molecules in the Boreal aerosol-cloud-climate system
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 10, s. 1-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Over Boreal regions, monoterpenes emitted from the forest are the main precursors for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and the primary driver of the growth of new aerosol particles to climatically important cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Autoxidation of monoterpenes leads to rapid formation of Highly Oxygenated organic Molecules (HOM). We have developed the first model with near-explicit representation of atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) and HOM formation. The model can reproduce the observed NPF, HOM gas-phase composition and SOA formation over the Boreal forest. During the spring, HOM SOA formation increases the CCN concentration by ~10 % and causes a direct aerosol radiative forcing of −0.10 W/m2. In contrast, NPF reduces the number of CCN at updraft velocities < 0.2 m/s, and causes a direct aerosol radiative forcing of +0.15 W/m2. Hence, while HOM SOA contributes to climate cooling, NPF can result in climate warming over the Boreal forest.
  • Podgrajsek, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of floating chamber and eddy covariance measurements of lake greenhouse gas fluxes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Biogeosciences Discussions. - : European Geosciences Union (EGU) / Copernicus Publications. - 1810-6277 .- 1810-6285. ; 11:15, s. 4225-4233
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from lakes may have a large impact on the magnitude of the terrestrial carbon sink. Traditionally lake fluxes have been measured using the floating chamber (FC) technique; however, several recent studies use the eddy covariance (EC) method. We present simultaneous flux measurements using both methods at lake Tämnaren in Sweden during field campaigns in 2011 and 2012. Only very few similar studies exist. For CO2 flux, the two methods agree relatively well during some periods, but deviate substantially at other times. The large discrepancies might be caused by heterogeneity of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2w) in the EC flux footprint. The methods agree better for CH4 fluxes. It is, however, clear that short-term discontinuous FC measurements are likely to miss important high flux events.
  • Acosta Navarro, Juan Camilo, 1983- (författare)
  • Anthropogenic influence on climate through changes in aerosol emissions from air pollution and land use change
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Particulate matter suspended in air (i.e. aerosol particles) exerts a substantial influence on the climate of our planet and is responsible for causing severe public health problems in many regions across the globe. Human activities have altered the natural and anthropogenic emissions of aerosol particles through direct emissions or indirectly by modifying natural sources. The climate effects of the latter have been largely overlooked. Humans have dramatically altered the land surface of the planet causing changes in natural aerosol emissions from vegetated areas. Regulation on anthropogenic and natural aerosol emissions have the potential to affect the climate on regional to global scales. Furthermore, the regional climate effects of aerosol particles could potentially be very different than the ones caused by other climate forcers (e.g. well mixed greenhouse gases). The main objective of this work was to investigate the climatic effects of land use and air pollution via aerosol changes.Using numerical model simulations it was found that land use changes in the past millennium have likely caused a positive radiative forcing via aerosol climate interactions. The forcing is an order of magnitude smaller and has an opposite sign than the radiative forcing caused by direct aerosol emissions changes from other human activities. The results also indicate that future reductions of fossil fuel aerosols via air quality regulations may lead to an additional warming of the planet by mid-21st century and could also cause an important Arctic amplification of the warming. In addition, the mean position of the intertropical convergence zone and the Asian monsoon appear to be sensitive to aerosol emission reductions from air quality regulations. For these reasons, climate mitigation policies should take into consideration aerosol air pollution, which has not received sufficient attention in the past.
  • Bidleman, Terry, et al. (författare)
  • Chapter 2: Properties, sources, global fate and transport
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report III 2013. - Ottawa : Northern Contaminants Program, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. - 9781100546520 ; , s. 19-146
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Part II of the second Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report (CACAR-II) began with a section on “Physicochemical Properties of Persistent Organic Pollutants”, which identified key physicochemical (pchem) properties, provided the rationale for their measurement or prediction and tabulated literature citations for chemicals that are of concern to the NCP (Bidleman et al. 2003). The section also discussed temperature dependence of pchem properties and their applications to describing partitioning in the physical environment.There is, and will continue to be, emphasis on predictive approaches to screening chemicals for persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic (PB&T)properties, as well as long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) potential (Brown and Wania 2008, Czub et al. 2008, Fenner et al. 2005, Gouin andWania 2007, Howard and Muir 2010, Klasmeier et al. 2006, Matthies et al. 2009, Muir and Howard 2006). This has created the need for determining pchem properties of new and emerging chemicals of concern.Predicting gas exchange cycles of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and new and emerging chemicals of concern places a high demand on the accuracy of pchem properties, particularly the air/water partition coefficient, KAW. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in Arctic Ocean surface waters are close to air-water equilibrium, with excursions toward net volatilization or deposition that vary with location and season (Hargrave et al. 1993, Jantunen et al. 2008a, Lohmann et al. 2009, Su et al. 2006, Wong et al. 2011) while hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (Lohmann et al. 2009, Su et al. 2006, Wong et al. 2011) and some current use pesticides (CUPs) (Wong et al. 2011) are undergoing net deposition. The predicted Arctic Contamination Potential (ACP) for persistent organic chemicals is strongly influenced by ice cover due to its effect on air-water gas exchange (Meyer and Wania 2007).Many advances have taken place and numerous papers have been published since CACAR-II, which present new measurements and predictions of pchem properties. This section does not attempt to provide a comprehensive review of the field, or to compile pchem properties from the many studies. The approach taken is to highlight the reports which are most relevant to polar science, particularly in areas of improving reliability of pchem properties for POPs, improving experimental techniques and comparing predictive methods. The section ends with a discussion of polyparameter linear free energy relationships (pp-LFERs), which goes beyond partitioning descriptions based on single pchem properties by taking into account specific chemical interactions that can take place in airsurface and water-surface exchange processes. A detailed list of chemical names and nomenclature are provided in the Glossary.
  • Tong, Yan, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of the Representativeness of MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Products at Different Temporal Scales Using Global AERONET Measurements
  • Ingår i: Remote Sensing. - : MDPI AG. - 2072-4292. ; 12:14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Assessments of long-term changes of air quality and global radiative forcing at a large scale heavily rely on satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) datasets, particularly their temporal binning products. Although some attempts focusing on the validation of long-term satellite AOD have been conducted, there is still a lack of comprehensive quantification and understanding of the representativeness of satellite AOD at different temporal binning scales. Here, we evaluated the performances of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD products at various temporal scales by comparing the MODIS AOD datasets from both the Terra and Aqua satellites with the entire global AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) observation archive between 2000 and 2017. The uncertainty levels of the MODIS hourly and daily AOD products were similarly high, indicating that MODIS AOD retrievals could be used to represent daily aerosol conditions. The MODIS data showed the reduced quality when integrated from the daily to monthly scale, where the relative mean bias (RMB) changed from 1.09 to 1.21 for MODIS Terra and from 1.04 to 1.17 for MODIS Aqua, respectively. The limitation of valid data availability within a month appeared to be the primary reason for the increased uncertainties in the monthly binning products, and the monthly data associated uncertainties could be reduced when the number of valid AOD retrievals reached 15 times in one month. At all three temporal scales, the uncertainty levels of satellite AOD products decreased with increasing AOD values. The results of this study could provide crucial information for satellite AOD users to better understand the reliability of different temporal AOD binning products and associated uncertainties in their derived long-term trends.
  • Agustí-Panareda, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Modelling CO2 weather-why horizontal resolution matters
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 1680-7316. ; 19:11, s. 7347-7376
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate change mitigation efforts require information on the current greenhouse gas atmospheric concentrations and their sources and sinks. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most abundant anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Its variability in the atmosphere is modulated by the synergy between weather and CO2 surface fluxes, often referred to as CO2 weather. It is interpreted with the help of global or regional numerical transport models, with horizontal resolutions ranging from a few hundreds of kilometres to a few kilometres. Changes in the model horizontal resolution affect not only atmospheric transport but also the representation of topography and surface CO2 fluxes. This paper assesses the impact of horizontal resolution on the simulated atmospheric CO2 variability with a numerical weather prediction model. The simulations are performed using the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) CO2 forecasting system at different resolutions from 9 to 80 km and are evaluated using in situ atmospheric surface measurements and atmospheric column-mean observations of CO2, as well as radiosonde and SYNOP observations of the winds. The results indicate that both diurnal and day-to-day variability of atmospheric CO2 are generally better represented at high resolution, as shown by a reduction in the errors in simulated wind and CO2. Mountain stations display the largest improvements at high resolution as they directly benefit from the more realistic orography. In addition, the CO2 spatial gradients are generally improved with increasing resolution for both stations near the surface and those observing the total column, as the overall inter-station error is also reduced in magnitude. However, close to emission hotspots, the high resolution can also lead to a deterioration of the simulation skill, highlighting uncertainties in the high-resolution fluxes that are more diffuse at lower resolutions. We conclude that increasing horizontal resolution matters for modelling CO2 weather because it has the potential to bring together improvements in the surface representation of both winds and CO2 fluxes, as well as an expected reduction in numerical errors of transport. Modelling applications like atmospheric inversion systems to estimate surface fluxes will only be able to benefit fully from upgrades in horizontal resolution if the topography, winds and prior flux distribution are also upgraded accordingly. It is clear from the results that an additional increase in resolution might reduce errors even further. However, the horizontal resolution sensitivity tests indicate that the change in the CO2 and wind modelling error with resolution is not linear, making it difficult to quantify the improvement beyond the tested resolutions. Finally, we show that the high-resolution simulations are useful for the assessment of the small-scale variability of CO2 which cannot be represented in coarser-resolution models. These representativeness errors need to be considered when assimilating in situ data and high-resolution satellite data such as Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), the Chinese Carbon Dioxide Observation Satellite Mission (TanSat) and future missions such as the Geostationary Carbon Observatory (GeoCarb) and the Sentinel satellite constellation for CO2. For these reasons, the high-resolution CO2 simulations provided by the CAMS in real time can be useful to estimate such small-scale variability in real time, as well as providing boundary conditions for regional modelling studies and supporting field experiments.
  • Ahlberg, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • "Vi klimatforskare stödjer Greta och skolungdomarna"
  • Ingår i: Dagens nyheter (DN debatt). - 1101-2447.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • DN DEBATT 15/3. Sedan industrialiseringens början har vi använt omkring fyra femtedelar av den mängd fossilt kol som får förbrännas för att vi ska klara Parisavtalet. Vi har bara en femtedel kvar och det är bråttom att kraftigt reducera utsläppen. Det har Greta Thunberg och de strejkande ungdomarna förstått. Därför stödjer vi deras krav, skriver 270 klimatforskare.
  • Andrady, Anthony, et al. (författare)
  • Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015
  • Ingår i: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences. - : Royal Society of Chemistry. - 1474-9092 .- 1474-905X. ; 15:1, s. 141-174
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality, and materials. The Panels provide a detailed assessment report every four years. The most recent 2014Quadrennial Assessment by the EEAP was published as a special issue of seven papers in 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2015, 14, 1–184). The next Quadrennial Assessment will be published in 2018/2019. In the interim, the EEAP generally produces an annual update or progress report of the relevant scientificfindings. The present progress report for 2015 assesses some of the highlights and new insights with regard to the interactive nature of the effects of UV radiation, atmospheric processes, and climate change.
  • Charpentier Ljungqvist, Fredrik, 1982- (författare)
  • A new reconstruction of temperature variability in the extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere during the last two millennia
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography. - Oxford : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0435-3676 .- 1468-0459. ; 92A:3, s. 339-351
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A new temperature reconstruction with decadal resolution, covering the last two millennia, is presented for the extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere (90–30°N), utilizing many palaeotemperature proxy records never previously included in any large-scale temperature reconstruction. The amplitude of the reconstructed temperature variability on centennial time-scales exceeds 0.6°C. This reconstruction is the first to show a distinct Roman Warm Period c. AD 1–300, reaching up to the 1961–1990 mean temperature level, followed by the Dark Age Cold Period c. AD 300–800. The Medieval Warm Period is seen c. AD 800–1300 and the Little Ice Age is clearly visible c. AD 1300–1900, followed by a rapid temperature increase in the twentieth century. The highest average temperatures in the reconstruction are encountered in the mid to late tenth century and the lowest in the late seventeenth century. Decadal mean temperatures seem to have reached or exceeded the 1961–1990 mean temperature level during substantial parts of the Roman Warm Period and the Medieval Warm Period. The temperature of the last two decades, however, is possibly higher than during any previous time in the past two millennia, although this is only seen in the instrumental temperature data and not in the multi-proxy reconstruction itself. Our temperature reconstruction agrees well with the reconstructions by Moberg et al. (2005) and Mann et al. (2008) with regard to the amplitude of the variability as well as the timing of warm and cold periods, except for the period c. AD 300–800, despite significant differences in both data coverage and methodology.
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