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1.
  • Artemenko, A., et al. (författare)
  • Reference XPS spectra of amino acids
  • 2021
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this report we present XPS data for five amino acids (AAs) (tryptophan, methionine, glutamine, glutamic acid, and arginine) with different side chain groups measured in solid state (powder form). The theoretically and experimentally obtained chemical structure of AAs are compared. Here, we analyse and discuss C 1 s, N 1 s, O 1s and S 2p core level binding energies, FWHMs, atomic concentrations of the functional groups in AAs. The experimentally obtained and theoretically calculated ratio of atomic concentrations are compared. The zwitterionic nature of methionine and glutamine in solid state was determined from protonated amino groups in N 1s peak and deprotonated carboxylic groups in the C 1s spectrum. The obtained XPS results for AAs well correspond with previously reported data.
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2.
  • Barišić, Antun, et al. (författare)
  • Experimental Data Contributing to the Elusive Surface Charge of Inert Materials in Contact with Aqueous Media
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Colloids and interfaces. - : MDPI. - 2504-5377. ; 5:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We studied the charging of inert surfaces (polytetrafluoroethylene, i.e., PTFE; graphite; graphene; and hydrophobic silica) using classical colloid chemistry approaches. Potentiometric titrations showed that these surfaces acquired less charge from proton-related reactions than oxide minerals. The data from batch-type titrations for PTFE powder did not show an effect of ionic strength, which was also in contrast with results for classical colloids. In agreement with classical colloids, the electrokinetic results for inert surfaces showed the typical salt level dependence. In some cases, the point of zero net proton charge as determined from mass and tentatively from acid–base titration differed from isoelectric points, which has also been previously observed, for example by Chibowski and co-workers for ice electrolyte interfaces. Finally, we found no evidence for surface contaminations of our PTFE particles before and after immersion in aqueous solutions. Only in the presence of NaCl-containing solutions did cryo-XPS detect oxygen from water. We believe that our low isoelectric points for PTFE were not due to impurities. Moreover, the measured buffering at pH 3 could not be explained by sub-micromolar concentrations of contaminants. The most comprehensive explanation for the various sets of data is that hydroxide ion accumulation occurred at the interfaces between inert surfaces and aqueous solutions.
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3.
  • Halldin Stenlid, Joakim, 1987- (författare)
  • Computational Studies of Chemical Interactions: Molecules, Surfaces and Copper Corrosion
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The chemical bond – a corner stone in science and a prerequisite for life – is the focus of this thesis. Fundamental and applied aspects of chemical bonding are covered including the development of new computational methods for the characterization and rationalization of chemical interactions. The thesis also covers the study of corrosion of copper-based materials. The latter is motivated by the proposed use of copper as encapsulating material for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden.In close collaboration with experimental groups, state-of-the-art computational methods were employed for the study of chemistry at the atomic scale. First, oxidation of nanoparticulate copper was examined in anoxic aqueous media in order to better understand the copper-water thermodynamics in relation to the corrosion of copper material under oxygen free conditions. With a similar ambition, the water-cuprite interface was investigated with regards to its chemical composition and reactivity. This was compared to the behavior of methanol and hydrogen sulfide at the cuprite surface.An overall ambition during the development of computational methods for the analysis of chemical bonding was to bridge the gap between molecular and materials chemistry. Theory and results are thus presented and applied in both a molecular and a solid-state framework. A new property, the local electron attachment energy, for the characterization of a compound’s local electrophilicity was introduced. Together with the surface electrostatic potential, the new property predicts and rationalizes regioselectivity and trends of molecular reactions, and interactions on metal and oxide nanoparticles and extended surfaces.Detailed atomistic understanding of chemical processes is a prerequisite for the efficient development of chemistry. We therefore envisage that the results of this thesis will find widespread use in areas such as heterogeneous catalysis, drug discovery, and nanotechnology.
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4.
  • Mousavinejad, Atiyeh, et al. (författare)
  • Nickel-Based Metal–Organic Frameworks to Improve the CO2/CH4 Separation Capability of Thin-Film Pebax Membranes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. - : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0888-5885 .- 1520-5045. ; 59:28, s. 12834-12844
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Incorporating metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) into the thin layer of thin-film composite (TFC) membranes is an effective way of improving the CO2/CH4 separation performance. In this study, porous polyethersulfone (PES) membranes were surface-coated with a novel CO2-permeable layer consisting of CO2-philic Pebax and nickel-based MOF particles. The MOF particles were synthesized using nickel(II) acetate tetrahydrate as a metal source and 2-amino-1,4-dicarboxybenzene (NH2-BDC) as an organic linker. The properties and performance of the MOFs and synthesized membranes were assessed using analytical techniques including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). DLS analysis showed that the MOF particle size range was in a range of 350–650 nm. Moreover, cross-sectional FE-SEM images depicted that a uniform and dense Pebax layer was shaped on top of the PES substrate. Well dispersion of the particles was demonstrated by surface FE-SEM imaging. DSC analysis showed that embedding Ni-NH2-BDC MOF particles into the Pebax-1657 film increased the crystallinity degree and the glass-transition temperature (Tg) of resulted membranes. To evaluate the membrane’s separation performance, permeation experiments were performed with CO2, CH4, and CO2/CH4 mixtures at ambient temperature. Embedding 5 wt % Ni-based MOF particles improved the CO2 permeability and CO2/CH4 selectivity from 19.05 Barrer and 32.2 to 31.55 Barrer and 94, respectively, compared to MOF-free membranes. Loading MOF particles into the Pebax matrix also improved the real gas separation factor. The obtained results demonstrate the great potential of the fabricated TFC membranes for gas separation.
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5.
  • Shukla, Shashi Kant, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • Melting point of ionic liquids
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Encyclopedia of ionic liquids. - Singapore : Springer. - 9789811067396 ; , s. 1-9
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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6.
  • Yun, Jingwei, et al. (författare)
  • Surface Composition Dependence on the Ice Nucleating Ability of Potassium-Rich Feldspar
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ACS Earth and Space Chemistry. - : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 2472-3452. ; 4:6, s. 873-881
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mineral dust particles are one of the most abundant types of ice nucleating particles in the atmosphere. During atmospheric transport, these particles can be coated with water-soluble solutes, which can modify their ice nucleating ability. Although previous studies have shown that even low concentrations of water-soluble solutes can modify the ice nucleating properties of mineral dust particles, our understanding of this topic is far from complete. We examined the effects of a series of alkali metal nitrates at low concentrations (5 × 10–5 M to 5 × 10–3 M) on the surface composition and immersion freezing of potassium-rich feldspar (K-rich feldspar). Immersion freezing was investigated with the droplet freezing technique, and the surface composition was investigated with cryogenic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. K+ increased the median freezing temperature of the droplets, while the other alkali metal cations either had no effect or decreased the median freezing temperature. The changes in the median freezing temperature of the droplets due to the presence of nitrates followed the order K+ ≥ Li+ ≥ Na+ ≥ Rb+ ≥ Cs+ and, except for Cs+, were correlated to the K/Al ratio at the surface of K-rich feldspar. The K/Al ratio is possibly an indicator of the abundance of certain types of K-bearing microcline surfaces that drive the immersion freezing of K-rich feldspar, while Cs+ likely influences the immersion freezing of K-rich feldspar by an additional mechanism, possibly blocking ice nucleation sites by adsorption. Our work also shows that the cation charge density (charge density over the surface area of a single cation) is not a good predictor of the effects of cations on the immersion freezing of K-rich feldspar in our experiments.
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7.
  • Adam, Rania E., et al. (författare)
  • Graphene-based plasmonic nanocomposites for highly enhanced solar-driven photocatalytic activities
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: RSC Advances. - : Royal Society of Chemistry. - 2046-2069. ; 9:52, s. 30585-30598
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-efficiency photocatalysts are crucial for the removal of organic pollutants and environmental sustainability. In the present work, we report on a new low-temperature hydrothermal chemical method, assisted by ultrasonication, to synthesize disruptive plasmonic ZnO/graphene/Ag/AgI nanocomposites for solar-driven photocatalysis. The plasmonic nanocomposites were investigated by a wide range of characterization techniques, confirming successful formation of photocatalysts with excellent degradation efficiency. Using Congo red as a model dye molecule, our experimental results demonstrated a photocatalytic reactivity exceeding 90% efficiency after one hour simulated solar irradiation. The significantly enhanced degradation efficiency is attributed to improved electronic properties of the nanocomposites by hybridization of the graphene and to the addition of Ag/AgI which generates a strong surface plasmon resonance effect in the metallic silver further improving the photocatalytic activity and stability under solar irradiation. Scavenger experiments suggest that superoxide and hydroxyl radicals are responsible for the photodegradation of Congo red. Our findings are important for the fundamental understanding of the photocatalytic mechanism of ZnO/graphene/Ag/AgI nanocomposites and can lead to further development of novel efficient photocatalyst materials.
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8.
  • Banerjee, Amitava, et al. (författare)
  • Identifying the tuning key of disproportionation redox reaction in terephthalate : A Li-based anode for sustainable organic batteries
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nano Energy. - : Elsevier. - 2211-2855 .- 2211-3282. ; 47, s. 301-308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ever-increasing consumption of energy storage devices has pushed the scientific community to realize strategies toward organic electrodes with superior properties. This is owed to advantages such as economic viability and eco-friendliness. In this context, the family of conjugated dicarboxylates has emerged as an interesting candidate for the application as negative electrodes in advanced Li-ion batteries due to the revealed thermal stability, rate capability, high capacity and high cyclability. This work aims to rationalize the effects of small molecular modifications on the electrochemical properties of the terephthalate anode by means of first principles calculations. The crystal structure prediction of the investigated host compounds dilithium terephthalate (Li2TP) and diethyl terephthalate (Et2Li0TP) together with their crystal modification upon battery cycling enable us to calculate the potential profile of these materials. Distinct underlying mechanisms of the redox reactions were obtained where Li2TP comes with a disproportionation reaction while Et2Li0TP displays sequential redox reactions. This effect proved to be strongly correlated to the Li coordination number evolution upon the Li insertion into the host structures. Finally, the calculations of sublimation enthalpy inferred that polymerization techniques could easily be employed in Et2Li0TP as compared to Li2TP. Similar results are observed with methyl, propyl, and vinyl capped groups. That could be a strategy to enhance the properties of this compound placing it into the gallery of the new anode materials for state of art Li-batteries.
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9.
  • Bengtsson, Katarina (författare)
  • Electrokinetic devices from polymeric materials
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • There are multiple applications for polymers: our bodies are built of them, plastic bags and boxes used for storage are composed of them, as are the shells for electronics, TVs, computers, clothes etc. Many polymers are cheap, and easy to manufacture and process which make them suitable for disposable systems. The choice of polymer to construct an object will therefore highly influence the properties of the object itself. The focus of this thesis is the application of commonly used polymers to solve some challenges regarding integration of electrodes in electrokinetic devices and 3D printing.The first part of this thesis regards electrokinetic systems and the electrodes’ impact on the system. Electrokinetic systems require Faradaic (electrochemical) reactions at the electrodes to maintain an electric field in an electrolyte. The electrochemical reactions at the electrodes allow electron-to-ion transduction at the electrode-electrolyte interface, necessary to drive a current at the applied potential through the system, which thereby either cause flow (electroosmosis) or separation (electrophoresis). These electrochemical reactions at the electrodes, such as water electrolysis, are usually problematic in analytical systems and systems applied in biology. One solution to reduce the impact of water electrolysis is by replacing metal electrodes with electrochemically active polymers, e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Paper 1 demonstrates that PEDOT electrodes can replace platinum electrodes in a gel electrophoretic setup. Paper 2 reports an all-plastic, planar, flexible electroosmotic pump which continuously transports water from one side to the other using potentials as low as 0.3 V. This electroosmotic pump was further developed in paper 3, where it was made into a compact and modular setup, compatible with commercial microfluidic devices. We demonstrated that the pump could maintain an alternating flow for at least 96 h, with a sufficient flow of cell medium to keep cells alive for the same period of time.The second part of the thesis describes the use of 3D printers for manufacturing prototypes and the material requirements for 3D printing. Protruding and over-hanging structures are more challenging to print using a 3D printer and usually require supporting material during the printing process. In paper 4, we showed that polyethylene glycol (PEG), in combination with a carbonate-based plasticizer, functions well as a 3D printable sacrificial template material. PEG2000 with between 20 and 30 wt% dimethyl carbonate or propylene carbonate have good shear-thinning rheology, mechanical and chemical stability, and water solubility, which are advantageous for a supporting material used in 3D printing.The advances presented in this thesis have solved some of the challenges regarding electrokinetic systems and prototype manufacturing. Hopefully this will contribute to the development of robust, disposable, low-cost, and autonomous electrokinetic devices.
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10.
  • Bui, Thai Q., et al. (författare)
  • Mesoporous Melamine-Formaldehyde Resins as Efficient Heterogeneous Catalyst for Continuous Synthesis of Cyclic Carbonates from Epoxides and gaseous CO2
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. - : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 2168-0485. ; 8:34, s. 12852-12869
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Herein we report the application of inexpensive mesoporous melamine-formaldehyde resins (MMFR and MMFR250) obtained by a novel template-free and organosolvent-free hydrothermal method as efficient heterogeneous catalysts for direct synthesis of cyclic carbonates from CO2 and epoxides (epichlorohydrin, butylene oxide and styrene oxide). The catalytic activity of the melamine resins was attributed to the abundant Lewis basic N-sites capable of activating CO2 molecules. Based on CO2-Temperature programmed desorption, the concentration of surface basic sites for MMFR and MMFR250 were estimated to be 172 and 56 µmol/g, while the activation energy of CO2 desorption (strength of basic sites) were calculated to be 92.1 and 64.5 kJ/mol. We also observed considerable differences in the catalytic activity and stability of polymeric catalysts in batch and in continuous-flow mode; due to the existence of a synergism between adsorption of CO2 and cyclic carbonates (poison). Our experiments also revealed important role of catalyst surface chemistry and CO2 partial pressure upon catalyst poisoning. Nevertheless, owing to their unique properties (large specific surface area, large mesoporous and CO2 basicity) melamine resins presented excellent activity (turnover frequency 207-2147 h-1), selectivity (>99%) for carbonation of epoxides with CO2 (20 bar initial CO2 or CO2:epoxide mole ratio ~1.5) under solvent-free and co-catalyst-free conditions at 100-120 oC. Most importantly, these low-cost polymeric catalysts were reusable and demonstrated exceptional stability in a flow reactor (tested upto 13 days time on stream, weight hourly space velocity 0.26-1.91 h-1) for continuous cyclic carbonate production from gaseous CO2 with different epoxides (conversion 76-100% and selectivity >99%) under industrially relevant conditions (120 oC, 13 bar, solvent-free/co-catalyst-free) confirming their superiority over the previously reported catalytic materials.
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