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  • Hassellöv, Martin, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • REACH missar nano!
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Miljöforskning. ; 3/4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Gerlee, Philip, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Scientific Models Red Atoms, White Lies and Black Boxes in a Yellow Book
  • 2016
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A zebrafish, the hull of a miniature ship, a mathematical equation and a food chain - what do these things have in common? They are examples of models used by scientists to isolate and study particular aspects of the world around us. This book begins by introducing the concept of a scientific model from an intuitive perspective, drawing parallels to mental models and artistic representations. It then recounts the history of modelling from the 16th century up until the present day. The iterative process of model building is described and discussed in the context of complex models with high predictive accuracy versus simpler models that provide more of a conceptual understanding. To illustrate the diversity of opinions within the scientific community, we also present the results of an interview study, in which ten scientists from different disciplines describe their views on modelling and how models feature in their work. Lastly, it includes a number of worked examples that span different modelling approaches and techniques. It provides a comprehensive introduction to scientific models and shows how models are constructed and used in modern science. It also addresses the approach to, and the culture surrounding modelling in different scientific disciplines. It serves as an inspiration for model building and also facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations by showing how models are used in different scientific fields.The book is aimed primarily at students in the sciences and engineering, as well as students at teacher training colleges but will also appeal to interested readers wanting to get an overview of scientific modelling in general and different modelling approaches in particular.
  • Hallquist, Mattias, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • Photochemical smog in China: scientific challenges and implications for air-quality policies
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: National Science Review. - 2095-5138 .- 2053-714X. ; 3:4, s. 401-403
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In large areas of China severe air pollution events pose a significant threat to human health, ecosystems and climate. Current reduction of primary emissions will also affect secondary pollutants such as ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM), but the magnitude of the effects is uncertain. Major scientific challenges are related to the formation of O3 and secondary particulate matter including Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). Large uncertainties also remain regarding the interactions of soot, SOA and O3 under the influence of different SO2, NOX and VOC concentrations. To improve the understanding of these secondary atmospheric interactions in China, scientific areas of central importance for photochemically induced air pollutants have been identified. In addition to the scientific challenges, results from research need to be synthesized across several disciplines and communicated to stakeholders affected by air pollution and to policy makers responsible for developing abatement strategies. Development of these science-policy interactions can benefit from experience gained under the UN ECE Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)
  • Mamontov, Eugen, 1955- (författare)
  • Ordinary differential equation system for population of individuals and the corresponding probabilistic model
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Mathl. Computer Modelling. - 0895-7177.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The key model for particle populations in statistical mechanics is the Bogolyubov–Born– Green–Kirkwood–Yvon (BBGKY) equation chain. It is derived mainly from the Hamilton ordinary differential equation (ODE) system for the vectors of the particle states in the particle position-momentum phase space. Many problems beyond physics or chemistry, for instance, in the living-matter sciences (biology, medicine, ecology, and scoiology) make it necessary to extend the notion of a particle to an individual, or active particle. This challenge is met by the generalized kinetic theory. It implements the extension by extending the phase space from the space of the position-momentum vectors to more rich spaces formed by the state vectors with the entries which need not be limited to the entries of the position and momentum: they include other scalar variables (e.g., those associated with modelling homeorhesis or other features inherent to the individuals). One can assume that the dynamics of the state vector in the extended space, i.e. the states of the individuals (rather than common particles) is also described by an ODE system. The latter, however, need not be the Hamilton one. The question is how one can derive the analogue of the BBGKY paradigm for the new settings. The present work proposes an answer to this question. It applies a very limited number of carefully selected tools of probability theory and common statistical mechanics. It in particular uses the well-known feature that the maximum number of the individuals which can mutually interact simultaneously is bounded by a fixed value of a few units. The present approach results in the finite system of equations for the reduced many-individual distribution functions thereby eliminating the so-called closure problem inevitable in the BBGKY theory. The thermodynamic-limit assumption is not needed either. The system includes consistently derived terms of all of the basic types known in kinetic theory, in particular, both the “mean-field” and scattering-integral terms, and admits the kinetic equation of the form allowing a direct chemical-reaction reading. The present approach can deal with Hamilton’s equation systems which are nonmonogenic and not treated in statistical mechanics. The proposed modelling suggests the basis of the generalized kinetic theory and may serve as the stochastic mechanics of population of individuals.
  • Arias-Schreiber, Milena, et al. (författare)
  • Addressing social sustainability for small-scale fisheries in Sweden: Institutional barriers for implementing the small-scale fisheries guidelines.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Small-Scale Fisheries Guidelines. Global Implementation.. - Springer. - 978-3-319-55074-9 ; s. 717-736
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Swedish coastal fisheries are not sustainable in terms of the status of their main fish stocks, their economic profitability, and as source of regular employment. Social sustainability commitments in fisheries governance advocated by the SSF Guidelines have been so far mostly neglected. In this chapter, we bring attention to two institutional settings at different governance levels relevant for the implementation of the SSF Guidelines in the Swedish context. First, we look at the introduction of social goals under the perspective of the EU’s Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). Second, we consider national tensions between forces advocating or opposing a further application of market-based economic instruments, often portrayed as an effective cure for all ills, in fisheries governance. Taking into account the logic on which the SSF Guidelines rest, we evaluate in both cases current processes for stakeholder participation in the formulation of fishing policies and strategies in Sweden. We conclude that the inclusion of a social dimension and stakeholder involvement at the EU level face procedural and institutional limitations that prevent the SSF sector from exploiting opportunities for change. Further challenges to the implementation of the SSF Guidelines arise when central national authorities’ interpretation of societal benefits opposes other interpretations, and consequently economic calculations take precedence over a participatory process-based, knowledge-accumulating approach to resource management. The SSF Guidelines, therefore, provide important material and intellectual resources to make the most of new chances that can lead to an increased likelihood of change in the direction of sustainable coastal fisheries in Sweden.
  • Johansson, Erika, 1969- (författare)
  • HOUSE MASTER SCHOOL: Career Model for Education and Training in Integrated and Sustainable Conservation of Built Environments
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Based on a participatory action research methodology and approach (AR), this dissertation explores the core theoretical problems and opportunities of education and learning for sustainable development (ESD) within the cross-disciplinary area of integrated and sustainable conservation of built environments. The main purpose has been to develop an epistemological framework for integrated lifelong learning, ethics and advanced research (R&D) and to provide a new sustainable education and career model for the field to be applied in the Dalecarlia region and on a national level within the Swedish construction industry at large; i.e. the House Master School (HMS). This includes the development of a new professional “House Master”; a new conservation and sustainable building „process manager‟ or engineer at the interface between various disciplines and with an emphasis on high quality and traditional crafts and design, refurbishment and reuse, preventive conservation and long-term maintenance of the built environment. The HMS is developed according to the principles of integrated lifelong learning, ESD and the Bologna Model for higher education in Europe and will be implemented as part of a well-coordinated training strategy, nationally as well as internationally, including initiation of specific training and exchange programs and R&D. The Swedish approach to transdisciplinary case study research (TCSR) and educational system development has been used as placed in an international context. An outline and assessment of the contribution of action research, critical systems thinking and complexity theory is provided as part of the overall research methodology and design.The main aim of this R&D project has been to promote a sound understanding and conceptualization of meta-theoretical foundations, functions, structures, drivers, needs and dynamic applicability of methods to support integrated lifelong learning and ESD, research and development within the Swedish building sector and to provide a new innovative education and career model, which if implemented successfully, would have a direct impact on the environment, the economy, community and sustainable development processes at large. By using the HMS Model as a case study, this research entails a commitment to socially transformative research - i.e. the methodology is grounded in a vision of educational and organizational change based on an integration of ecological and conservation values. This includes an identification of deficiencies and needs in existing education and training systems, including an assessment of anticipated qualification and emerging learning needs with anemphasis on integrated architectural conservation, construction maintenance and crafts education and training. The aim is to provide new and enhanced career opportunities for young construction students, particularly engineers, skilled trades and craftspeople, as well as for other professionals in need for continuing professional development (CPD) and training in this field.This dissertation demonstrates the epistemological basis, an appropriate conceptual framework and an organizational and methodological design for educational change and development, integrated lifelong learning and ESD for the construction and architectural heritage field at large. If proved successful, the HMS Model may be used as a demonstrative and be adapted and transferred to other relevant sectors, regions and/or countries. It argues that an appropriate education and conservation policy and an integrated life cycle approach are important factors for obtaining sustainability and lifelong learning and for launching new sustainable education and training programs, new products and processes, enterprises, R&D, standards and principles for the future. The central argument is that sustainability/ESD is an ongoing multi-dimensional learning process that seeks and requires cultural change through (a) transdisciplinary education, learning and research, (b) multidisciplinary team- and networked approaches to educational development and change and (d) participatory and communicative action between various disciplines, institutions, NGOs, companies/SMEs and stakeholders. A key lesson derived from this research is the need for preventative systemic thinking and increased stakeholder participation in architectural conservation and construction projects and in inter- and cross-disciplinary research (R&D), in urban and rural development planning and especially the planning for such education and training.
  • Farewell, Anne, 1961- (författare)
  • Rising to the Top: Promoting Deeper Learning in the Laboratory
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science.
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inquiry-based labs differ from cookbook labs in that inquiry-based labs contain an element of experimentation. A cookbook lab can be performed by a student without understanding any of the theory connected with the exercise whereas inquiry-based labs require a degree of conceptual knowledge for a student to perform the lab. Inquiry-based labs also strengthen and deepen students understanding of topics discussed in lectures or reading assignments. There are many variations and degrees of inquiry in these labs ranging from a lab that is entirely designed by the students to those that include small questions requiring that the students predict the outcomes of a lab or fill in missing information (guided inquiry). A simple specific example of a cookbook lab would be instructing students to measure volume changes between ice and liquid water. The students would be given step by step instructions to follow and would not need to apply any conceptual knowledge. An inquiry based lab on the same topic would allow the students to design their own experiment to discover how the volume of liquid water differs from that of ice. One goal of this activity is to introduce inquiry-based lab design. Beyond lab design, lab supervision is crucial to encouraging students to use their conceptual knowledge when doing a practical lab. Lab assistants or teachers who are involved in the lab can use student questions to encourage deeper understanding. This case study includes a role-play exercise for this skill. This case study has been designed to be used in science education courses for both graduate student laboratory assistants and lecturers or professors in natural sciences at the university or college level. It includes discussion and role-play of a hypothetical laboratory. No specific knowledge of biology or chemistry is needed beyond high school level to complete this task, though knowledge of the existence of microorganisms (yeast) and proteins is assumed. In addition, this activity is suitable for participants with little or no pedagogics training.
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