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  • Schminder, Jörg, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • An IVR Engineering Educational Laboratory AccommodatingCDIO Standards
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The 15th International CDIO Conference: Proceedings – Full Papers. - Aarhus. - 978-87-7507-459-4
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents the development of an educational immersive virtual reality (IVR) program considering both technological and pedagogical affordances of such learning environments. The CDIO Standards have been used as guidelines to ensure desirable outcomes of IVR for an engineering course. A learning model has been followed to use VR characteristics and learning affordances in teaching basic principles. Different game modes, considered as learning activities, are incorporated to benefit from experiential and spatial knowledge representation and to create a learning experience that fulfils intended learning outcomes (ILOs) (defined by CDIO Standard 2 and Bloom’s learning taxonomy) associated with the particular course moment. The evaluation of IVR laboratory highlights effectiveness of the approach in achieving ILOs provided that pedagogical models have been followed to create powerful modes of learning.
  • Peters, Greg, et al. (författare)
  • LCA on fast and slow garment prototypes
  • 2018
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This report summarises the environmental assessment work done in the Mistra Future Fashion program focussed on the potential to improve the environmental performance of garments and adapt them to a circular economy. The approaches examined in this report include reducing the environmental impacts from fast-fashion trends by making garments from paper-based materials, or by extending garment life cycles. This assessment considers two paper-based garments. One is made primarily from paper pulp but enhanced with a polylactic acid polymer. This garment is worn between two to five times before being recycled as newspaper. The other fast garment is made of paper pulp, polylactic acid and nanocellulose. It has a similar life cycle but is composted after use life. These garments are compared with a standard t-shirt. The report also considers a slow-paced scenario in which a polyester garment passes between several owners and is regularly changed to maintain its appeal. It is updated with a transfer sublimation overprint three times, making the garment darker each time. Later it is joined with an outer shell of new material using laser technology to make a cropped, box-cut jacket. The assessment was performed using environmental life cycle assessment. More particularly, the assessment was based on attributional process analysis with cutoff allocation procedures and comparison with a traditional reference garment life cycle. Key environmental effect categories considered here include climate change (greenhouse gas emissions), freshwater eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity and human toxicity (cancer and non-cancer). The results indicate that the environmental outcomes of the paper-based garments can be competitive with the reference garment, particularly when the user is assumed to throw away a fully functional reference garment after five uses. This assumption may be true for some users, but the number of uses is considerably lower than the typical or the potential lifespan of the reference garment. The main factor assisting the paper-based garments is the reduction in the impacts per mass associated with material manufacturing (fibres, spinning, knitting), and also their lighter masses. Avoided impacts in the use phase play a secondary role on account of their location in Sweden with its low-carbon energy mix. The long-life garments are also competitive compared with their reference garments. This is primarily a consequence of how extending garment life avoids the production of new garments. The environmental impacts associated with transfer sublimation dye reprinting and laser processing do not significantly impact the overall environmental performance of the extended longlife garments, though confidentiality of data prevents a full assessment of these. The garments in this report are pilot products and explorative scenarios rather than attempts to model existing business or behavioural patterns. The reader should therefore take care to keep the results in context when interpreting them. Nevertheless, the results suggest the value of pursuing the potential associated with these garment life cycles. We should also bear in mind that while the reference garments in this assessment are based on typical usage patterns, other more sustainable patterns are feasible.
  • Shahbazi, Sasha, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of Four Environmental Assessment Tools in Swedish Manufacturing: A Case Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Sustainability. - 2071-1050. ; 11:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To achieve sustainable development goals, it is essential to include the industrial system. There are sufficient numbers of tools and methods for measuring, assessing and improving the quality, productivity and efficiency of production, but the number of tools and methods for environmental initiatives on the shop floor is rather low. Incorporating environmental considerations into production and performance management systems still generally involves a top-down approach aggregated for an entire manufacturing plant. Green lean studies have been attempting to fill this gap to some extent, but the lack of detailed methodologies and practical tools for environmental manufacturing improvement on the shop floor is still evident. This paper reports on the application of four environmental assessment tools commonly used among Swedish manufacturing companies—Green Performance Map (GPM), Environmental Value Stream Mapping (EVSM), Waste Flow Mapping (WFM), and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)—to help practitioners and scholars to understand the different features of each tool, so in turn the right tool(s) can be selected according to particular questions and the industrial settings. Because there are some overlap and differences between the tools and a given tool may be more appropriate to a situation depending on the question posed, a combination of tools is suggested to embrace different types of data collection and analysis to include different environmental impacts for better prioritization and decision-making.
  • Dymitrow, Mirek, et al. (författare)
  • Crossing dichotomies and breaking mental patterns: Green business development when all else fails?
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: 8th International Scientific Conference “Rural Development 2017: Bioeconomy Challenges”, 23–24 November, 2017 Kaunas, Lithuania.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Obtaining sustainable and inclusive societal organization is not merely a simple matter of ‘doing it’ by subscribing to some winning formula. Given that conceptual frameworks always guide our thoughts, judgments and actions (Latour, 2013; Harvey, 1996; Dennett, 1993), the ways in which we relate to concepts chosen to serve as guiding forces for future development will eventually determine its outcome. As scholarly evidence continuously suggests the concepts ‘rural’ and ‘urban’ are increasingly recognized as artificial barriers for conducting sound and integrated development endeavors in a globalized reality of interconnectedness. In line with the Sustainable Development Goals, which aim to eradicate poverty, shield the planet and safeguard prosperity for all, commitment to universal access to healthy food year round has become an important agenda point. This, however, has been exacerbated by binary thinking and separate ways of doing policy. This paper aims to share experiences from a unique project launched in the northern parts of Gothenburg, Sweden’s second largest city. While the area offers ample resources and immense opportunities for areal economies, it at the same time remains one of Gothenburg’s most segregated, with high levels of unemployment, ill health and crime. The uniqueness of the project lies not only in its way of abridging the rural-urban divide, but also by consciously deferring from the debilitating rhetoric of previous ‘immigrant policies’, and instead focusing on agricultural productivity, small-scale food producers and sustainable food strategies. Such exhortations to bridge between philosophical and material polarities, however, have not come without conceptual and practical challenges, something this paper aims to subsume and open up to debate.
  • Diener, Derek L., et al. (författare)
  • Product-Service-Systems for Heavy-Duty Vehicles – An Accessible Solution to Material Efficiency Improvements?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Procedia CIRP. - 22128271. ; 30, s. 269-274
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • revious research has investigated transitions of individual firms to PSS business. It has identified barriers and enablers and specified organizational capabilities needed. However, the transition to PSS has seldom been approached from a product-chain perspective. In addition, previous research has indicated the need for more assessments of environmental gains related to PSSs. This study aims at contributing to these perceived knowledge gaps by means of a case study. Questions posed include: Does the study's case company and one of its suppliers have the capabilities needed to adopt a PSS business model? and Could a PSS really contribute to material efficiency in their product-chain?
  • Öhman, May-Britt, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Public participation, Human Security and Public Safety around Dams in Sweden A case study of the regulated Ume and Lule Rivers
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Safety Science Monitor. - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. - 1443-8844. ; 19:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents findings from an empirical study of the current situation with geographical focus on two rivers in the north of Sweden, encompassing parts of the indigenous territory Sápmi. The major focus in Sweden with regards to “dam safety” is on the prevention of dam failure, and emergency preparedness. The issue of “public safety around dams” is left aside to the detriment of “human security”. While a major dam failure may cause the death of hundreds up to thousands of people, the current rate of human deaths caused by dam failure in the last 40 years is one person. The number of fatalities that may be referred to as having been caused by a lack of “public safety around dams” on the Lule River only amounts to 1-2 individuals per year. The risks and dangers involved also cause stress, anxiety, and difficulties on an everyday basis for residents along the regulated rivers and water courses. From a study of literature, available statistics, interviews and newspaper reports we discuss the accidents and incidents over the last decade (2002-12), how these may be defined as “public safety around dams”, the void of work to prevent such accidents and how the surrounding societal contexts play in, such as the lack of availability to fast and efficient emergency rescue services to be able to save lives in the event of a major disaster.Finally, we discuss the current void of public participation and make recommendations to enhance public participation and thereby possibilities to an enhanced public safety around dams in Sweden.
  • Persson, Urban, 1961- (författare)
  • Realise the Potential! Cost Effective and Energy Efficient District Heating in European Urban Areas
  • 2011
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The Member States of EU27 need to accelerate the integration of energy efficient technology solutions to reach the 20% energy efficiency target set for 2020. At current pace, projections indicate that only half of expected primary energy reductions will be reached. To meet the energy demands of growing populations and a vibrant economy, while simultaneously reducing primary energy supplies, the European continent faces a new kind of challenge never previously encountered. The identification and application of feasible, competitive, and comprehensive solutions to this problem are of highest priority if the remaining gap is to be closed in time. How is this multi-dimensional and complex dilemma to be dissolved? In this work, expanded use of district heating technology is conceived as a possible solution to substantially reduce future primary energy demands in Europe. By extended recovery and utilisation of vast volumes of currently disregarded excess heat from energy and industry sector fuel transformation processes, district heating systems and combined generation of heat and power can improve the general efficiency of the European energy balance. To investigate the possible range of this solution, this thesis introduces a set of methodologies, theoretical concepts, and model tools, by which a plausible future excess heat utilisation potential, by means of district heat deliveries to residential and service sectors, is estimated. At current conditions and compared to current levels, this potential correspond to a threefold expansion possibility for directly feasible district heating systems in European urban areas and a fourfold increase of European excess heat utilisation.
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