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1.
  • Kadefors, Roland, 1939-, et al. (författare)
  • Occupation, gender and work-life exits : : a Swedish population study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Ageing and Society. - Cambridge University Press. - 0144-686X. ; 38:7, s. 1332-1349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present study was undertaken in order to examine the differences between occupations in the Swedish labour market with respect to the risk for men and women of leaving working life prematurely. The project was carried out as a population study employing methodology used in demographics to predict life length at birth. Here, calculations of expected remaining work-life length were based on the exits from working life. The study was based on the Swedish national labour statistics, covering all employees who had an occupational definition in 2006 and who were in the age range 35–64 years during the study period 2007–2010. There was a clear socio-economic divide in exit patterns, comparing blue- and white-collar jobs. The differences between the highest and the lowest risk jobs exceeded 4.5 years among both men and women. In the blue-collar occupational groups there were 50 per cent or less ‘survivors’ still working at age 65; in many white-collar occupations there were more than 60 per cent. Men and women exited working life at the same age. Compared to a similar study carried out in 2006, the same socio-economic pattern prevails, but people now work longer in almost all occupations. Women exited working life 0.8 years earlier than men in 2006; this difference is now gone.
2.
  • Marcheschi, Elizabeth, et al. (författare)
  • Home setting after stroke, facilitators and barriers: a systematic literature review
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Health & Social Care in the Community. - 0966-0410. ; 26:4, s. E451-E459
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper seeks to improve the understanding of the interaction between patients with stroke and the physical environment in their home settings. Stroke care is increasingly performed in the patient's home. Therefore, a systematic review was conducted to identify the existing knowledge about facilitators and barriers in the physical environment of home settings for the stroke rehabilitation process. Based upon Arksey and O'Malley's framework, a Boolean search strategy was performed in the databases; CINAHL, Medline, Web of Science and Scopus. Fifteen articles were retained from the literature search conducted between August and November 2016, and two researchers independently assessed their quality based on the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment guidelines. The results suggest that despite the healthcare system's ongoing shift towards home-based rehabilitation, the role played by the physical environment of home settings is still considered a side finding. Moreover, the research appears to focus mainly on how this environment supports mobility and activities of daily living, whereas information regarding the psychosocial and emotional processes that mediate the interaction between stroke survivors and their home setting are missing. A lack of information was also found with regard to the influence of different geographic locations on the stroke rehabilitation process. Future investigations are therefore needed to advance the understanding of the role played by the physical environment of home settings in supporting stroke recovery.
3.
  • Molnar, Malin Mattson, et al. (författare)
  • Leading for Safety A Question of Leadership Focus
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: SH@W Safety and Health at Work. - 2093-7911. ; 10:2, s. 180-187
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is considerable evidence that leadership influences workplace safety, but less is known about the relative importance of different leadership styles for safety. In addition, a leadership style characterized by an emphasis and a focus on promoting safety has rarely been investigated alongside other more general leadership styles.Methods: Data were collected through a survey to which 269 employees in a paper mill company responded. A regression analysis was conducted to examine the relative roles of transformational, transactional (management-by-exception active; MBEA), and safety-specific leadership for different safety behavioral outcomes (compliance behavior and safety initiative behaviors) and for minor and major injuries.Results: A safety-specific leadership contributed the most to the enhanced safety of the three different kinds of leadership. Transformational leadership did not contribute to any safety outcome over and above that of a safety-specific leadership, whereas a transactional leadership (MBEA) was associated with negative safety outcomes (fewer safety initiatives and increased minor injuries).Conclusion: The most important thing for leaders aiming at improving workplace safety is to continuously emphasize safety, both in their communication and by acting as role models. This highlights the importance for leadership training programs aiming to improve safety to actually focus on safety-promoting communication and behaviors rather than general leadership. Furthermore, an overly monitoring and controlling leadership style can be detrimental to attempts at achieving improved workplace safety.
4.
  • von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica, et al. (författare)
  • Leadership training as an occupational health intervention : improved safety and sustained productivity
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Safety Science. - 0925-7535. ; 81, s. 35-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The safety climate in an organization is determined by how managers balance the relative importance of safety and productivity. This gives leaders a central role in safety in an organization, and from this follows that leadership training may improve safety. Transformational leadership may be one important component but may need to be combined with positive control leadership behaviors. Leadership training that combines transformational leadership and applied behavior analysis may be a way to achieve this. Purpose: The study evaluates changes in safety climate and productivity among employees whose leaders (n = 76) took part in a leadership training program combining transformational leadership and applied behavior analysis. Changes in managers' ratings of transformational leadership, contingent rewards, Management-by-Exceptions Active (MBEA) and safety self-efficacy were evaluated. Moreover, we compare whether the training has differentiated effects on safety depending on managers' specific focus on improvements in: (1) safety, (2) productivity or (3) general leadership. Result: Safety climate improved over time, while self-rated productivity remained unchanged. As hypothesized, transformational leadership, contingent rewards and safety self-efficacy as proxies for positive control behaviors increased while MBEA, a negative control behavior, decreased. Managers focusing on general leadership skills showed greater improvement in safety climate expectations. Conclusions: Training leaders in both transformational leadership and applied behavior analysis is related to improvements in leadership and safety. There is no added benefit of focusing specifically on safety or productivity.
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5.
  • Abrahamsson, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Response-guided induction therapy in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with excellent remission rate.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. - 1527-7755. ; 29:3, s. 310-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PurposeTo evaluate the early treatment response in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a response-guided induction strategy that includes idarubicin in the first course.Patients and MethodsAll Nordic children with AML younger than 15 years (n = 151) were treated on the Nordic Society for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO) AML 2004 protocol. After the first course of idarubicin, cytarabine, etoposide, and 6-thioguanin, patients with good response were allowed hematologic recovery before the second course, whereas patients with a poor (>= 15% blasts) or intermediate (5% to 14.9% blasts) were recommended to proceed immediately with therapy. Patients not in remission after the second course received fludarabine, cytarabine, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Poor responders received allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT) as consolidation.ResultsSeventy-four percent of patients had good response, 17% had intermediate response, and 7% had poor response after the first course. The overall remission frequency was 97.4%, with 92% in remission after the second course. The rate of induction death was 1.3%. Patients with an intermediate response had a lower event-free survival of 35% compared with good (61%) and poor responders (82%).ConclusionThe NOPHO-AML 2004 induction strategy gives an excellent remission rate with low toxic mortality in an unselected population. Outcome is worse in patients with intermediate response but may be improved by intensifying consolidation in this group using SCT.
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6.
  • Agahi, Neda, et al. (författare)
  • Continuity of leisure participation from middle age to old age
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences. - Gerontologial Society of America. - 1079-5014. ; 61:6, s. 340-346
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives. Continuity in habits, activities, and roles is important upon entering old age according to the continuity theory of aging. Few studies have investigated patterns of leisure participation over an extended period of time among older adults. This study examines changes in nine different leisure activities in a nationally representative sample of individuals followed over a 34-year period in Sweden. Methods. We used longitudinal data from three waves of an interview survey that followed 495 individuals from 1968 to 2002. Individuals were aged 43-65 in 1968 and 77-99 in 2002. We conducted logistic regression analyses on each of the leisure activities. Results. For the panel followed, a decline in participation rates was the most common pattern over time. Analyses at the individual level showed that late-life participation was generally preceded by participation earlier in life. Previous participation, both 10 and 34 years earlier, predicted late-life participation. The modifying effect of functional status in late life was small. Discussion. In accordance with the continuity theory of aging. leisure participation in old age is often a continuation of previous participation. However, there is considerable variation among both activities and individuals.
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7.
  • Almståhl, Annica, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • A prospective study on oral microbial flora and related variables in dentate dependent elderly residents.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Gerodontology. - 1741-2358. ; 29:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gerodontology 2011; doi: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2011.00599.x A prospective study on oral microbial flora and related variables in dentate dependent elderly residents Objective:  Oral microorganisms and related variables were followed over a 1-year period in dentate dependent elderly. Background:  For nursing personnel, oral hygiene for the dependent elderly is demanding. It requires good knowledge of how to carry out preventive oral health measures and to judge when help is needed. Previous studies indicate low levels of knowledge, which might be reflected in the oral health of dentate residents. Material and methods:  Twenty-one subjects participated at baseline and 14 one year later. Microbial samples were analysed using cultivation technique. The labial minor gland secretion rate was measured using the Periotron(®) method, and oral clinical data were registered. Results:  Low labial mucosal flow rates were seen for 95% of the participants. At baseline, visibly thick plaque was seen in 48% and 1 year later in 57%. Both frequency and number of bacteria associated with caries and frequency of microorganisms associated with oral soft tissue infections were high. One year later, a decrease in bacteria associated with good oral health and a tendency to an increase in aciduric microorganisms were seen. Conclusion:  Poor oral health, tending to further deteriorate over time, advocates regular professional supplementary support when elderly dentate dependent residents need assistance with their oral care.
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8.
  • Anclair, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Parental fears following their child's brain tumor diagnosis and treatment.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of pediatric oncology nursing : official journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses. - 1043-4542. ; 26:2, s. 68-74
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective of this study is to portray the illness-related threats experienced by parents of children after the diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumor. Parents were asked to rate the extent to which they experienced a set of specific fears related to their child's brain tumor and its treatment. Outcomes for parents of CNS tumor patients (n = 82) were compared with those of reference parents of patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 208). The fears about an illness recurrence and the late effects of treatment were most prominent among parents of CNS tumor patients. For 7 out of 11 kinds of fear, parents of CNS tumor patients expressed a stronger fear than the reference group. More than a quarter of the parents of children treated for CNS tumors feared a complete decline of the child. Parents of CNS tumor patients experience relatively heightened cancer related fears in several domains. The fear of devastating consequences felt by one fourth of parents signals the need of individualized psychological support and information at diagnosis and follow-up to facilitate parental coping with the posttreatment situation.
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9.
  • Anund, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of driving situation on sleepiness indicators after sleep loss : A driving simulator study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Industrial Health. - 0019-8366. ; 47:4, s. 393-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Almost all studies of sleepy driving are carried out in driving simulators and with monotonous road conditions (no interaction with other cars). The present study investigated indicators of sleepy driving in a more challenging scenario after a night awake. 17 participants drove a high fidelity moving base driving simulator experiment while sleepiness was monitored physiologically and behaviourally. Short periods of situations of free driving (no other vehicles) alternated with short periods of following another vehicle (car following) with and without the possibility to overtake. The result showed that a night of prior sleep loss increased sleepiness levels at the wheel (eye closure duration and lateral variability) compared to after a night of normal sleep. Blink duration while overtaking was significantly lower compared to the other situations, it was at the same level as after night sleep. Speed when passing a stopped school bus was not significantly affected by sleepiness. However the warning caused a more rapid reduction of speed. In conclusion, a moderately challenging driving contest did not affect sleepiness indicators, but a very challenging one did so (overtaking). This suggests that it is important to monitor the driving situation in field operational tests of sleepy driving.
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10.
  • Berglund, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Do men with excessive alcohol consumption and social stability have an addictive personality?
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of psychology. - 1467-9450. ; 52:3, s. 257-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The existence of an "addictive" personality has been extensively debated. The current study investigated personality in male individuals with excessive alcohol consumption (n = 100) in comparison to a population-based control group (n = 131). The individuals with excessive alcohol consumption were recruited by advertisements in a regional daily newspaper and controls from a population based Swedish Twin Registry. Personality was assessed by the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). Comparisons were made with normative data. Furthermore, by using a multivariate projection-based approach (Principal Component Analysis; PCA), hidden structures of traits and possible relationships among the individuals with excessive consumption and the controls was investigated. The individuals with excessive alcohol consumption as well as the controls had mean values within the normative range in all scales of the KSP. Moreover, the PCA analysis revealed no systematic between-group separation. Taken together, this result demonstrates that male individuals with excessive alcohol consumption do not have a personality different from that of a general population, which supports the notion of no "addictive personality".
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